Presentation on theme: "Waves 1.3 The Interaction of Waves Reflection Reflection occurs when a wave strikes an object and bounces off of it. All types of waves including sound,"— Presentation transcript:
Waves 1.3 The Interaction of Waves
Reflection Reflection occurs when a wave strikes an object and bounces off of it. All types of waves including sound, water, and light waves can be reflected The Behavior of Waves Reflection
How does the reflection of light allow you to see yourself in the mirror? It happens in two steps. First, light strikes your face and bounces off. Then, the light reflected off your face strikes the mirror and is reflected into your eyes The Behavior of Waves
The Law of Reflection The beam striking the mirror is called the beam of incident The Behavior of Waves The beam that bounces off the mirror is called the reflected beam.
The Law of Reflection 10.3 The Behavior of Waves The line drawn perpendicular to the surface of the mirror is called the normal.
The Law of Reflection The angle formed by the incident beam and the normal is the angle of incidence The Behavior of Waves The angle formed by the reflected beam and the normal is the angle of refection.
The Law of Reflection According to the law of reflection, the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of refection. All reflected waves obey this law The Behavior of Waves
Refraction Refraction is the bending of a wave caused by a change in its speed as it moves from one medium to another The Behavior of Waves If the wave is traveling at an angle when it passes from one medium to another, it changes direction, or bends, as it changes speed. When a wave passes from one medium to another such as when a light wave passes from air to water it changes speed.
Light waves travel slower in water than in air. This causes light waves to change direction when they move from water to air or air to water The Behavior of Waves When light waves travel from air to water, they slow down and bend toward the normal. Refraction of Light in Water
When light waves travel from water to air, they speed up and bend away from the normal The Behavior of Waves Refraction of Light in Water
Diffraction Diffraction occurs when an object causes a wave to change direction and bend around it The Behavior of Waves Diffraction and refraction both cause waves to bend. The difference is that refraction occurs when waves pass through an object, while diffraction occurs when waves pass around an object.
Diffraction When waves strike an object, several things can happen The Behavior of Waves The waves can bounce off, or be reflected. If the object is transparent, light waves can be refracted as they pass through it. Waves also can behave another way when they strike an object. The waves can bend around the object.
Diffraction Waves also can be diffracted when they pass through a narrow opening The Behavior of Waves After they pass through the opening, the waves spread out.
Diffraction of Radio Waves AM radio waves have longer wavelengths than FM radio waves do. Because of their longer wavelengths, AM radio waves diffract around obstacles like buildings and mountains The Behavior of Waves As a result, AM radio reception is often better than FM reception around tall buildings and natural barriers such as hills.
Interference When two or more waves overlap and combine to form a new wave, the process is called interference. Interference occurs while two waves are overlapping The Behavior of Waves
Constructive Interference In constructive interference, the waves add together The Behavior of Waves The diagram labeled A shows two identical waves (same amplitude, same wavelength) traveling in the same direction at the same time. If the two waves travel along the same path at the same time, they will behave as one.
Constructive Interference In constructive interference, the waves add together The Behavior of Waves What will the combined wave look like? The crests of the first wave will occur at the same place as the crests of the second wave. The energy from the two waves will combine. Thus the amplitude of the new wave will be twice the amplitude of either of the original waves.
Constructive Interference 10.3 The Behavior of Waves The amplitude of the new wave that forms is equal to the sum of the amplitudes of the original waves.
Constructive Interference 10.3 The Behavior of Waves B. When the crests of one wave align with the troughs of another, they cancel each other out. C. If one wave travels a little behind the other, they combine both constructively and destructively at different places.
Destructive Interference In destructive interference, the waves subtract from each other as they overlap The Behavior of Waves This happens when the crests of one transverse wave meet the troughs of another transverse wave.
Standing Waves 10.3 The Behavior of Waves If you tie a rope to a doorknob and continuously shake the free end, waves will travel down the rope, reflect at the end, and come back. The reflected waves will collide with the incoming waves. When the waves meet, interference occurs.
Standing Waves 10.3 The Behavior of Waves If the incoming wave and the reflected wave combine at the right places, the combined wave appears to be standing still. A standing wave is a wave that appears to stand in one place, even though it is really two waves interfering as they pass through each other. If you make a standing wave on a rope, the wave looks as though it is standing still.
Standing Waves 10.3 The Behavior of Waves At certain points, destructive interference causes the two waves to combine to produce an amplitude of zero, as in the diagram below. These points are called nodes. The nodes always occur at the same place on the rope. The crests and troughs of the standing wave are called antinodes. These are the points of maximum energy.
Resonance 10.3 The Behavior of Waves Have you ever pushed a child on a swing? At first, it is difficult to push the swing. But once you get it going, you need only push gently to keep it going. When an object is vibrating at a certain frequency, it takes very little energy to maintain or increase the amplitude of the wave.
Resonance 10.3 The Behavior of Waves Most objects have a natural frequency of vibration. Their particles vibrate naturally at a certain frequency. Resonance occurs when vibrations traveling through an object match the object’s natural frequency. If vibrations of the same frequency are added, the amplitude of the object’s vibrations increases.
Resonance 10.3 The Behavior of Waves If an object is not very flexible, resonance can cause it to shatter. For this reason, marching troops are told to break step as they cross a bridge. If they all march across the bridge in perfect step, it is possible that the pounding could match the natural frequency of the bridge. The increased vibration could cause the bridge to collapse. bridge to collapse.