7.6 Summarize reflection and interference of both sound and light waves and the refraction and diffraction of light waves.
Key Concepts Wave behaviors: reflection, refraction, diffraction, Interference: constructive and destructive Concave and convex lenses Plain mirrors Law of reflection
Interference Waves interfere with each other. Interference may be constructive A crest will interfere with another crest constructively to produce a larger crest and a trough will interfere to produce a larger trough. Compressions interfere constructively with each other as do rarefactions. Interference may be destructive A crest will interfere with a trough to lessen or cancel the displacement of each. Compressions interfere with rarefactions to lessen or cancel the displacement of each.
Sound is a longitudinal mechanical wave, requires a medium, and can be produced by vibrating objects. Sound like other waves reflects. Sound produces echoes when it bounces off hard surfaces.
Sound Waves Sound waves interfere with each other changing what you hear. Destructive interference makes sounds quieter; constructive interference makes sounds louder. Sound waves reflect in tubes or some musical instruments to produce standing waves which reinforce sound through constructive interference to make the sound louder.
Light Waves Light waves reflect When light rays reflect they obey the “Law of Reflection”. The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. The angle of incidence is the angle between the incident ray and a line normal (perpendicular) to the surface at the point where the light strikes. The angle of reflection is the angle between the reflected ray and the normal line.
Reflection Reflection from a mirror: Incident ray Normal Reflected ray Angle of incidence Angle of reflection Mirror
Reflection Light waves reflect in plain mirrors to produce images. The image appears as far behind the mirror as the object is in front of it. The image and the object appear to be same size. The image is upright.
Diffraction Diffraction is the bending of a wave around a barrier or around the edges of an opening. Waves with a longer wavelength diffract more readily so in order to observe light diffraction the barriers or openings must be small When light waves diffract interference patterns can often be observed.
Interference Light can interfere to produce interference patterns. Light can interfere constructively and destructively. When light interferes a pattern is often seen with light and dark areas created by constructive and destructive interference. At other times interferes to produce a color pattern. When a color interferes destructively we will see the colors that are not interfered with destructively.
Interference Light can reflect off the bottom and top surfaces of thin film such as oil on water or bubbles and produce a color pattern due to interference. Light can diffract through small slits or around lines to produce light and dark patterns or color patterns due to the interference of light
Refraction Light like other waves can refract. Waves refract when they change direction upon entering another medium in which the waves travel at different speeds. The waves must strike the new medium at an angle other than straight on in order to change direction. Light refracts when it enters a different medium at an angle other than perpendicular and changes speed.
How Light Rays Bend Light slows down when it enters the prism and bends down when it strikes at this angle. When light exits the prism it speeds back up and bends down again. When white light enters another medium such as a prism the colors may spread out. This is because the violet end of the spectrum slows down more than the red end and therefore bends more.
7.7 Explain the Doppler effect conceptually in terms of the frequency of the waves and the pitch of the sound.
SOUND WAVES Remember, they are mechanical…must have a medium. They are longitudinal so air molecules move parallel to the direction of the wave.
Direction of Wave Energy travels out in all directions from vibrating object.
Intensity of Sound The amount of energy in a wave. Intensity determines the amplitude of a wave. Intensity relates to the loudness of a sound - the greater the intensity, the louder the sound.
Intensity Decibels (dB) - the units of intensity. Sounds over 120 dB will cause pain in the ears. Ear damage can begin with exposure to sounds as low as 85 dB.
Decibels of other Sounds 40—quiet conversation 60—busy street 75—vacuum cleaner 85—heavy truck traffic 110—power tools 140—singer screaming into microphone 155—jet engine—up close
Pitch This is how high or low a sound seems. A bird makes a high pitch. A lion makes a low pitch. Pitch has to do with frequency and amplitude.
More on Pitch The amount of frequency depends on the amplitude of the wave. High pitch: high frequency, shorter amplitude Low pitch: low frequency, larger amplitude
Hearing Frequencies Humans hear between 20 Hz and 20,000 Hz. Ultrasonic—frequencies above 20,000 Hz; dogs and bats can hear ultrasonic Infrasonic—frequencies below 20 Hz; wind, earthquakes, heavy machinery
DOPPLER EFFECT An apparent frequency shift due to the relative motion of an observer and a wave source. The pitch will seem to change due to the wave moving.
As wave approaches you, you perceive a higher pitch. As wave moves away from you, you perceive a lower pitch. http://www.cpo.com/Weblabs/cha p2/doppler4.htm http://www.cpo.com/Weblabs/cha p2/doppler4.htm
Doppler Shift A Doppler shift occurs when a wave source is moving towards an observer or away from the observer A Doppler shift also occurs when the observer is moving toward the wave source There is no shift when the source and observer are not moving toward or away from each other.
As a wave source approaches an observer, the observer perceives a higher frequency than the source is producing. Wavelengths are shorter and the frequency is higher in front of a moving source. When the wave source is moving away from the observer he/she will perceive a lower frequency than the source in producing. Wavelengths are longer and the frequency is lower behind a moving source.