Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Published byIsis Boice Modified about 1 year ago

1

2

3
Assessment Statements AHL Topic and SL Option A-4 Diffraction: Sketch the variation with angle of diffraction of the relative intensity of light diffracted at a single slit Derive the formula for the position of the first minimum of the diffraction pattern produced at a single slit Solve problems involving single-slit diffraction.

4
Objectives Understand diffraction and draw the different diffraction patterns from a rectangular slit, a sharp edge, a thin tube, and a circular aperture Appreciate that the first minimum in single- slit diffraction past a slit of width b is approximately at an angle θ = λ/b

5
Objectives Draw the intensity patterns for a single slit of finite width and for two slits of negligible width Show the effect of slit width on the intensity pattern of two slits

6
Reading Activity Questions?

7
Introductory Video: Diffraction of Light Diffraction of Light

8
Diffraction The spreading of a wave as it goes past an obstacle or through an aperture Value of the wavelength in comparison to the obstacle or aperture defines the diffraction pattern

9
Case 1: Wavelength Much Smaller Than Aperture Virtually no diffraction takes place

10
Case 2: Wavelength Comparable to or Bigger than Aperture Diffraction takes place ‘Comparable’ means a few times smaller to slightly larger than

11
Diffraction Around an Obstacle Sound, with a much larger wavelength, will diffract around the corner of a building but light will not

12
Case 1: Wavelength Much Smaller Than Obstacle Virtually no diffraction takes place

13
Case 2: Wavelength Comparable to or Bigger than Obstacle Diffraction takes place ‘Comparable’ means a few times smaller to slightly larger than

14
Diffraction Patterns When light is diffracted, both constructive and destructive interference occurs

15
Diffraction Patterns Diffraction is appreciable if wavelength, λ, is of the same order of magnitude as the opening, b, or bigger

16
Diffraction Patterns Diffraction is negligible if wavelength, λ, is much smaller than the opening, b

17
Huygen’s Principle and Diffraction Every point on a wavefront acts as a secondary source of coherent radiation Each point forms its own wavelet These wavelets will interfere with each other at some distant point

18
Huygen’s Principle and Diffraction Because of the diffraction angle, wavelet B 1 has a greater distance to travel to get to point P than wavelet A 1 This results in the wavelets arriving at point P out of phase with each other

19
Huygen’s Principle and Diffraction If the difference is equal to half a wavelength, the wavelets are 180° out of phase and they completely cancel each other through superposition

20
Huygen’s Principle and Diffraction If the difference is equal to one entire wavelength, the wavelets are in phase and they form a wavelet of double the original amplitude

21
Huygen’s Principle and Diffraction Everything in between will show varying levels of constructive and destructive interference

22
Huygen’s Principle and Diffraction Since the two triangles in the diagram are similar triangles, the same interference pattern will result at point P from all pairs of wavelets

23
Huygen’s Principle and Diffraction If we approximate AP and BP to be parallel since P is distant and ACB to be a right angle, then

24
Huygen’s Principle and Diffraction Destructive interference occurs when BC is equal to one half wavelength, then

25
Huygen’s Principle and Diffraction If we divide the slit into 4 segments instead of two, then

26
Huygen’s Principle and Diffraction In general, destructive interference occurs when, This equation gives the angle at which minima will be observed on a screen (P) behind an aperture of width b through which light of wavelength λ passes

27
Huygen’s Principle and Diffraction Since the angle θ is typically small, we can approximate sin θ ≈ θ (if the angle is in radians), so the first minima would fall at And for circular slits the formula becomes

28
Diffraction Patterns Minima (blank spaces) appear in pairs Maxima (bright spaces) appear about halfway between minima Smaller slit means larger central maximum b = 2λ b = 3λ

29
Diffraction Patterns If λ > b, then sin > 1 which is impossible, i.e., does not exist The central maximum is so wide that the first minima does not exist If λ ≈ b, then several minima and maxima exist If λ « b, then sin o which means 0 which means the light passes straight through without bending

30
Single-Slit Diffraction Video

31
Diffraction Patterns – Two Slits Supplemental Material With two slits, interference based on Interference pattern from one slit alone Interference coming from waves from different slit d = 16λ b = 3λ

32
Diffraction Patterns – Two Slits Supplemental Material d = 4b 4 th maximum missing

33
Summary Video

34
Σary Review Do you understand diffraction and draw the different diffraction patterns from a rectangular slit, a sharp edge, a thin tube, and a circular aperture? Do you appreciate that the first minimum in single-slit diffraction past a slit of width b is approximately at an angle θ = λ/b?

35
Σary Review Can you draw the intensity patterns for a single slit of finite width and for two slits of negligible width? Can you show the effect of slit width on the intensity pattern of two slits?

36
Assessment Statements AHL Topic and SL Option A-4 Diffraction: Sketch the variation with angle of diffraction of the relative intensity of light diffracted at a single slit Derive the formula for the position of the first minimum of the diffraction pattern produced at a single slit Solve problems involving single-slit diffraction.

37

38
#1-4 Homework

Similar presentations

© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

Ads by Google