Presentation on theme: "Sound and Light CHAPTER 15. All sound waves Are caused by vibrations."— Presentation transcript:
Sound and Light CHAPTER 15
All sound waves Are caused by vibrations
All sound waves: Are longitudinal waves
All sound waves: Require a medium -- solid, liquid, or gas.
The speed of sound Depends on the medium and temperature Fastest in most solids (except ones like rubber that DAMPEN or weaken the sound waves -- these make good soundproofing materials)
The speed of sound is Slowest in gases The colder the gas, the slower the speed Speed of sound in room temperature air: 346 m/s (760 mi/hour)
Why does sound travel fastest in solids? The molecules are closer together than in a liquid or gas so they pass on the vibrations more quickly
Loudness of sound depends on wave intensity Intensity in turn is determined by the amplitude and distance from the source of the sound.
Intensity Increases when amplitude increases Decreases when amplitude decreases
Intensity increases as distance from source decreases Louder when closer because waves have spread out less
Loudness is measured in decibels Logarithmic scale -- 70 decibels is twice as loud as 60
Frequency determines pitch. Higher frequency = higher pitch Lower frequency = lower pitch
Beat Frequencies Interference of two or more frequencies to form a new wave Frequencies must be close to one another but not the same
Doppler effect Frequency (and pitch) go up when source of sound is approaching because wavelength is shortened Go down when source is retreating
Resonance Tendency of an object to vibrate with larger and larger amplitudes Examples Opera singer breaking a glass Pushing a kid on a swing Running fingers on rim of a glass
Sonar Measures distance by measuring time for sound wave to reflect off a surface, calculated distance using d = v x t
Range of human hearing 20Hz to 20,000 Hz
Ultrasound = Frequency too high for us to hear Can be used in sonar systems Above 20,000 Hz
Infrasound Frequencies that are too low to be heard by humans Below 20 Hz Examples: Earthquakes Tornadoes Storms at sea
Light Sometimes acts like a wave Sometimes acts like a particle
Light acts like a wave when it: Reflects Refracts Produces interference
Light acts like a particle when it: Travels without a medium Delivers packets of energy (photons) to solar collectors or chlorophyll
The energy of light Is proportional to its frequency Gamma rays have the most energy because they have the highest frequency.
The speed of light Depends on the medium In a vacuum, the speed = 3 X 10 8 m/s. This speed is known as c (as in E=mc 2 ).
Light’s brightness depends on wave intensity. Wave intensity decreases when amplitude decreases Increases when amplitude increases
Intensity increases as distance from source decreases brighter when closer because waves have spread out less
Electromagnetic spectrum Light at all possible energies, frequencies, and wavelengths Entire spectrum given off by sun and other stars
Radio waves Longest wavelength, least energy Used in communication and radar
microwaves Next longest waves Used in cooking, communication
Infrared waves Thermal energy -- heat
Visible light Red is longest wavelength of visible light Violet is shortest
Ultraviolet (UV) light 9% of sun’s energy Can cause sunburn, cancer More dangerous than visible light because it has a shorter wavelength
X-rays Shorter wavelength than UV light, so more dangerous Used in medicine, but can disrupt DNA so must limit exposure
Gamma rays Shortest wavelengths, so most energy (and most dangerous) Rays can be focused to kill cancer Given off by radioactive materials
Reflection Light bouncing off a surface
Rough surfaces scatter the light they reflect so they look dull, not shiny.
Smooth surfaces reflect the light in the same direction so they are shiny and can reflect an image.
Polarization Filtering of light
Curved mirrors distort images, because different parts of the mirror reflect the light in different directions.
Objects have the color of the wavelength they reflect.
Fiber optics use internal reflection to transmit light along the length of the fibers. This is more efficient than transmission through metal wires.
Refraction of Light Light waves can bend (refract) when they pass from one medium into another. The waves bend because the new medium changes the waves’ speed.
Refraction of light The bending of light waves changes the apparent position of objects.
Because lenses diffract light, they can: magnify images (microscope, magnifying glass) focus images (eye, telescope). Correct the poor focus of a near- or far- sighted eye (glasses).
Prisms separate light into its component colors. This happens because the different colors travel at different speeds and therefore bend different amounts. (Red is fastest and bends the least, so it appears at the top of a rainbow.)