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1 Advanced Communications User Training (ACUT) New Hampshire Wing, CAP Version 1.0 February 10, 2010 1Lt Tony Immorlica Communications Training Officer.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Advanced Communications User Training (ACUT) New Hampshire Wing, CAP Version 1.0 February 10, 2010 1Lt Tony Immorlica Communications Training Officer."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Advanced Communications User Training (ACUT) New Hampshire Wing, CAP Version 1.0 February 10, Lt Tony Immorlica Communications Training Officer New Hampshire Wing

2 Advanced Communications User Training (ACUT)  CAP communication systems: standards and rationale  Radio Basics:  Familiarity with different radio modes (e.g. AM, FM, SSB)  Narrowband operation  Radio Propagation and Frequency Bands (i.e. HF, VHF)  Repeater Basics:  Operation, use and restrictions  Radio Operation – model specific info  Formal message preparation and handling  Network operating procedures 2 It is assumed the student has read and is familiar with CAPR and 100-3

3 ACUT Completion and Credit  Prerequisite for this course: BCUT  Successful completion of the ACUT requires passing an open book test:  Working knowledge of CAPR and is assumed  A passing score is 80%, corrected to 100%.  No documentation is issued  Trainee records accomplishment in personnel record [CAPF 45 or CAPF 66] 3

4 CAP Radio Operator Authorization 1. Basic Communications User Training - BCUT  3-4 Hour Class on:  Standard Operating Procedures  Local Operating Procedures  Entitles CAP member to operate a CAP Radio  Issued a CAPF 76, Radio Operator Authorization by Wing or higher headquarters 2. Advanced Communications User Training - ACUT  4-5 Hour Class  Pass the Advanced Communications User Test  Entitles CAP member to be assigned a call sign  Required as part of the Communications Specialty Track Authorization is currently done in two phases: 4 NOTE: BCUT and ACUT will soon be replaced by a new Introductory Communications Users Training [ICUT] course; release date is pending

5 Operation of CAP Radio Stations by Unauthorized Personnel  The operation of all CAP Radio Stations must be under the direct supervision of a properly authorized Civil Air Patrol radio operator.  Pilots/co-Pilots must have taken BCUT training as a minimum to operate CAP VHF radios 5

6 CAP Radio Station Licensing  CAP is a considered a federal agency, thus its Radio Stations are licensed by the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA)  Public stations are licensed by the FCC  Federal agencies are not allowed to use services allocated exclusively to the public sector for their business.  This excludes the use of Amateur Radio and Citizens Band for CAP business. 6 The regulation for all CAP Communications is CAPR 100-1

7 Assigned Call Signs  Calls assigned to Individuals  Call signs associated with Resources  Aircraft  Ground Vehicles  Headquarters  Tactical Call Signs 7

8 Aircraft Call Signs  CAP corporate aircraft will use “CAP xxxx” (ex. CAP 2869 pronounced “CAP twenty-eight sixty- nine”) at all times.  Member-owned aircraft may also use the CAP call sign when on reimbursable missions.  Flight Plans.  The three-letter identifier “CPF” is used within the FAA computer system in place of the spoken word “CAP.”  For this reason, “CPF_______” will be used in place of the aircraft tail number on flight plans.  In the remarks section, the voice identifier “CAP________” must be included as well as the tail number of the aircraft. 8

9 CAP Radio Tactical Call Signs  At Certain Special Activities functional call signs may be approved by the commander of the activity. These would include  SAR/DRA missions  Encampments  Incident Command System (ICS) operations 9

10 ES Mission Communications  Communicators are needed for nearly all ES missions in CAP, both SAR and DR.  Scheduled radio check-in procedures  Sending a position report  Reporting a clue or a find  Additional training is required to achieve a Radio Operator emergency services rating. 10

11 Out of Wing Operation  Operation of mobile stations outside of the wing in which they are licensed is permitted.  Operation on CAP frequencies in Canada and Mexico is prohibited.  Special limitations apply within 75 miles of the Canadian border  Check with the Director of Communications before operating radios in those areas 11

12 Communicating with Other Agencies  CAP stations operating on non-CAP frequencies must have written authorization from the licensed agency.  The radio must meet all requirements for use in that band under FCC or NTIA  Some agencies are requiring that we use encryption  A copy of the FCC license or the federal authorization must also be obtained. 12

13 13 Interagency Operations CAP has Memorandums of Understanding (MOU) with a number of agenciesCAP has Memorandums of Understanding (MOU) with a number of agencies On file at National Headquarters –AF MARS, –American Red Cross, –Salvation Army, –US Coast Guard Auxiliary On file at NH Wing Headquarters –NH Office of Emergency Management –NH National Guard

14 Concept of Operations  CAP communications relies heavily on VHF-FM (very high frequency-frequency modulation) because VHF provides excellent, dependable, short-range communications. VHF is readily adaptable to ground and air mobile operations. We are developing digital voice and encription options that may be used in this mode.  CAP is also licensed to operate on specific HF (high frequency) bands, and utilizes Single sideband modulation (SSB). This affords long distance, even world-wide contacts – but is highly dependent on frequency and atmospheric conditions  Aircraft radios operate on 118 to 137 MHz using Amplitude Modulation (AM). Radio certificates are issued through the FAA

15 Standardized National Channelization and Programming Plan  VHF-FM operations by CAP is governed by the Standardized National Channelization and Programming Plan that has been mandated in the CAPR  Compliance with this plan is mandatory for all corporate radios.  All CAP assigned radio frequencies are designated “For Official Use Only”

16 CAP Assigned Frequencies: FOUO For Official Use Only  What is FOUO  A designation that there is sensitive information  Used when frequency documentation is needed in the document  What FOUO isn’t  Classification  For use on every single document UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Frequency information contained in this document is designated by the Department of Defense (DoD) as For Official Use Only (FOUO) and may not be released to anyone without the prior permission of NHQ and CAP-USAF. 16

17 Encryption  Encrypted P25 transmissions of any kind are permitted ONLY if advance authorization is granted in writing by the NTC.  Only approved keys provided by the NTC will be used when we encrypt.  When working with other agencies, CAP must conform to that agency’s rules and procedures for using encryption.

18 Radio Basics 18

19 19 Basics of Radio: Modulation  To send a signal via radio, the radio modulates or superimposes voice on a radio frequency. AM, FM and SSB are just ways of sending voice information.  CAP uses  AM – amplitude modulation  FM - frequency modulation, and  SSB – single sideband along with some “P25” digital modes. along with some “P25” digital modes.  Normally, we use:  AM on Aircraft Bands  SSB on HF  FM on VHF and UHF 19

20 20  FM is used by CAP for VHF radios in vehicles, aircraft, walkie-talkies and base stations, for short range comms.  The advantage is less static from ignition systems in vehicles, and excellent audio quality.  FM also has a “capture effect” where the strongest station comes in over a weaker station. That is good and bad.  CAP also uses FM in the ISR UHF radios. Frequency Modulation FM 20

21 21  CAP uses SSB on HF  SSB uses a very small bandwidth, compared to AM and FM modes  Used for L O N G Distance Comms  HF Operation is specialized, but very useful because it is very efficient  Seek Special Training in HF, not included in this course. Ask your Comm. Officer Single Sideband SSB 21

22 Amplitude Modulation AM 22 Used in aircraft radios to communicate with ATC, tower, other aircraft, airport operations, etc.Used in aircraft radios to communicate with ATC, tower, other aircraft, airport operations, etc. Worldwide standard for aircraft communication Worldwide standard for aircraft communication Very old type of modulation first used in early development of radioVery old type of modulation first used in early development of radio Tends to be noisy, easily interfered with. Allows lots of static and ignition noise. Bad feature.Tends to be noisy, easily interfered with. Allows lots of static and ignition noise. Bad feature. Allows two stations to be heard over one another – i.e. no capture effect as with FM. Good feature.Allows two stations to be heard over one another – i.e. no capture effect as with FM. Good feature.

23 Basics of Radio -Propagation  Radio propagation is a term used to explain how radio waves behave when they are transmitted, or are propagated from one point on the earth to another radio wavestransmittedpropagated radio wavestransmittedpropagated  There are many way that waves propagate in the atmosphere, including  Ground Waves  Sky Waves  Tropospheric Scattering  Line of Sight  Propagation changes with frequency, time of day, atmospheric conditions and sun spot activity 23

24 Ground Wave Propagation  Surface or Ground waves follow the curvature of the earth. Since the ground is not a perfect electrical conductor, ground waves are attenuated as they follow the earth’s surface.  As frequency decreases, ground losses become lower at lower  VLF (very low frequency) and LF (low frequency) are mostly used for military communications, especially with ships and submarines. VLFLF VLFLF 24

25 Skywave Propagation  Skywave propagation, or “skip”, results from refraction of radio waves in the ionosphere Skywave“skip refractionionosphere Skywave“skip refractionionosphere  These layers are directly affected by the sun, and its varying activity (sunspot cycle) determines the utility of these modes. sunspot cyclesunspot cycle  Forecasting of skywave modes is of considerable interest to amateur radio operators and commercial marine and aircraft communications, and also to shortwave broadcasters. amateur radiomarineaircraftamateur radiomarineaircraft  A sudden ionospheric disturbance is often the result of large solar flares directed at earth. These solar flares can disrupt HF radio propagation. 25

26 Line-of-Sight Propagation  Above HF (30 MHz) most propagation is line of sight – “if you can see it, you can hear it”  In some cases, VHF signals can be received from reflections off of structures, terrain, etc. increasing range  Ground plane reflection effects are an important factor in VHF line of sight propagation. Ground planereflection Ground planereflection 26

27 Tropospheric Scattering  At VHF and higher, the atmosphere at a height of around 6 miles (10 kilometers) can scatter some of the normally line- of-sight beam of radio frequency energy back toward the ground, allowing over-the-horizon communication between stations as far as 500 miles (800 km) apart. VHF  A related mode, referred to as ducting, can occur when signals are confined between two ionized layers resulting in propagation for some thousands of miles. This is rare. ducting  A special form of tropo scattering relies on reflecting radio waves off the intensely ionized regions generated by meteors. This mode is very short-duration (a couple of seconds per event) and can also result in receiving signals some thousands of miles away. meteors 27

28 Diffraction  Diffraction phenomena by small obstacles are also important at high frequencies.  Signals for urban cellular telephony tend to be dominated by ground-plane effects as they travel over the rooftops of the urban environment. They then diffract over roof edges into the street, where multipath propagation, absorption and diffraction phenomena dominate. cellular telephony multipath propagationcellular telephony multipath propagation 28

29 Absorption  Low frequency radio waves travel easily through brick and stone. As the frequency rises, absorption effects become more important.  At microwave or higher frequencies, absorption by molecular resonance in the atmosphere is a major factor limiting radio propagation. microwave  For example, around 60 GHz there is a major absorption peak which makes this band useless for long-distance use but good for local, covert use . Beyond around 400 GHz, the Earth's atmosphere is effectively opaque to radio waves.  Heavy rain and snow also present major challenges to microwave reception. 29

30 Effect of Antenna on Propagation  Two important factors for antennas:  1. Directivity – function of antenna design  2. Placement – height above ground and attitude [horizontal or vertical]  Antennas can be “omni-directional” [whips, vertical antennas] or “directional” [beams, requiring a rotator to point in a desired direction]  Height above ground and attitude determines the “take-off” angle and thus impacts skip distance 30

31 Propagation - Summary  Generally, you need not be overly concerned about propagation but should be aware of the limitations and advantages  Hints… if you have trouble making contact:  When operating VHF  Move to higher ground or move your location  Your handheld antenna should be held vertically  When operating HF  Change frequency  Wire antennas close to the ground favor more local [e.g. NER] reception 31

32 Basics of Radio: Spectrum Wideband and Narrowband  Radio spectrum is a national, albeit limited resource.  Spectrum is governed by national policy as well as international agreements  Most countries institute tight radio regulations for application of radio spectrum. The amount of spectrum a particular signal occupies is a function of how the RF carrier frequency is modulated to transfer meaningful information

33 Wideband 25khz This view of a wideband 25khz radio signal represents our older frequencies.

34 Narrowband 12.5khz This view of a narrowband 12.5khz radio signal represents our new equipment. You will notice the signal or “Bandwidth” is much more narrow than the older, wideband frequencies.

35 NTIA Mandate for Narrowband  As of 1 October 2009, all of our NER VHF-FM repeaters were changed to narrow-band. We are the First region to be essentially 100% completed with transition.  As a result of this change, transmitting using equipment designed for most other services can not be used in the CAP Network.  We are required to use equipment that has been approved by the NTIA for our channel assignments in the federal spectrum. The NTIA Standards are far more restrictive than FCC Type Acceptance standards for commercial users.

36 Wideband on a Narrowband System  Attempting to utilize a narrowband system with a wideband only radio is a potentially dangerous act. The Narrowband system will have extremely degraded performance.  Doing this cause harmful interference and presents a serious safety situation to aircrews and other ground teams.  Attempting to access this system will cause dangerous interference to not only the system you are attempting to access but the adjacent channel users. This should not be an issue if you use only CAP assigned radios

37 CAP Radio Equipment and Operation 37

38 Frequency Bands used by CAP  VHF – Very High Frequency - is only capable of line-of-site communications  Buildings, mountains, leaves may interfere  Higher an aircraft, the wider coverage  2500’ AGL has an effective radius of 50 Miles  HF - High Frequency - is capable of world wide communication  Strongly dependent on frequency, antenna, time of day 38

39 Types of radios  EJ Johnson  Base Radio  Mobile Radio  Portable  Motorola  HF  ALE  ICOM  ISR  Aircraft Radios  Aircraft use two types:  AM – used mostly by pilots to communicate with Air Traffic Control  FM – used primarily by Mission Observer to communicate with Mission Base 39

40 Model Specific Information  These next few overview slides go into basic radio functions and operations for the:  E.F. Johnson Series Mobiles  E.F. Johnson Handhelds  Tait - T-2020 Mobiles (Analog Only 100 Channels Maximum, Mission Support Radio)  NAT - NPX-136 Aircraft Radio (Analog Only 100 Channels Maximum, to be replaced with Technisonic TDFM-136)  Technisonic - TDFM-136 Aircraft Radio

41 EF Johnson 5300 Series Mobile 1 - Power Switch / Volume The On /Off and Volume control knob is located on the left under display screen; push the knob for on/off, rotate for volume control. 2, 6 & 8 – non functional 3 - The light above the Hi / Low power switch shows RED when you transmit, GREEN when the frequency is in use. 4 - Zone / Channel Selector Knob Push in to alternate between Zones and channel selection. Rotate knob to scroll up or down within the channel / zone bank – Scan 7 – Squelch On/Off 9 – Key Select

42 EF Johnson 5100 Series Handheld 1 1 – Power On / Off and Volume 2 – Channel Selector 3 – Antenna Connection Port 4 – Keypad LOCK Button 5 – Not Programmed 6 – Transmit / Receive Light 7 – Speaker Mic. Connection 8 – PTT Button 9 - Speaker – Microphone 11 – Not Programmed 12 – Not Programmed 13 – Not Programmed 14 – Not Programmed 15 – Not Programmed 16 – Not Programmed 17 – Light 18 – Up / Down Zones

43 TAIT T-2020 Mobile 1 - POWER SWITCH and Volume Control 2 -Channel Selection, use keypad to the right of the display screen. Channels 1-16 are the common simplex channels and mobile repeaters ( to be assigned by CUL). For Channel 1 thru 16 selection (refer to channel chart) can be obtained by pushing a number button on the key pad AND the “enter” key Channel Up 4 – Channel Down 5 – ENTER Button Example I want channel 10, press (1) and (zero) then (ENTER). For Ch 2, Press ( 2) and (enter)

44 National Airborne Technologies - NPX On / Off 2 – Channel Up / Down – (Toggle Left or Right) 3 – Squelch (Press In) 4 – Screen Brightness 5 - Always Leave on (ID)

45 Technisonic Model TDFM-136 Aircraft VHF FM Radio To select and view CAP channel designators, push tone pad Button “1/CHAN” NOT “ 7/FREQ.” 1 – On / Off – Volume 2 – Channel Display 3 - Display Brighter 4 – Display Dimmer 5 – Channel Memory Scroll Down 6 – Channel Memory Scroll Up 7 – Enter 8 – Guard Select Switch

46 Repeaters 46

47 Voice Operating Modes Simplex vs. Duplex  Repeaters – Duplex mode  Used to extend coverage and get over obstacles 47 RT Single Frequency - One Station at a Time Two Frequencies - One Station at a Time Repeater increases the range of mobile stations due to its high profile location  Simplex  Transmit and receive on the same frequency  Buildings, terrain, altitude  Duplex  Transmit on one frequency and receive on another

48 Inside the Repeater Tone Repeater will turn on its transmitter only if the Tone Decoder hears a repeater specific tone Transmit Frequency Repeater Receiver Tone Decoder Repeater Transmitter “Mike Button” Voice Receive Frequency PTT The Tone Decoder “listens” for tones on the incoming signal The Tone Decoder “presses” the Push To Talk (PTT) button to turn on the transmitter. 48

49 Inside the Repeater Tone Repeater will turn on its transmitter only if the Tone Decoder hears a repeater specific tone Transmit Frequency Repeater Receiver Tone Decoder Repeater Transmitter “Mike Button” Voice Receive Frequency PTT The Tone Decoder “listens” for tones on the incoming signal The Tone Decoder “presses” the Push To Talk (PTT) button to turn on the transmitter. 49

50 NER REPEATER LOCATIONS There are 64 NBFM Compliant Repeaters In the CAP North East Region

51 Geographically Defined Restrictions  Because of the international agreements between Canada and the U.S., CAP must restrict its operations on certain frequencies when within 75 nm miles of the international border.  Operators entering those areas should make themselves aware of any restrictions in effect.  Aircraft Operations are restricted to channels Air 1 or CAPGUARD ONLY and are limited to 3,000 ft AGL.  We are permitted to operate up to 12.5KFT ONLY WITH USAF MISSION AUTHORIZATION

52 Aircraft use of Repeaters  Primary mode of operation should be simplex  Only use the repeater if simplex is not possible.  Within 75 miles of the Canadian border use of CAP VHF assigned frequencies prohibited above 3000 ft. AGL 52

53 NH Wing Communications 53

54 NHWG VHF Communications  NH Wing maintains 7 VHF repeaters  Locations were chosen such that all squadrons have access to at least one  Derry, Laconia, Ascutney, Lebanon, Littleton, Keene, and Portsmouth [location of the Portable repeater]  In addition we have:  “Portable” repeater based in Portsmouth  Highbird repeater * – utilized by aircrafts assigned by the IC  VHF Frequencies [Channels] are programmed to show the repeater location [Tag], not the frequency * Requires an ACUT qualification 54

55 CAP VHF Radio Frequencies  CAP Frequencies are FOUO  Thus, CAP radios are programmed to display the specific designator for each programmed channel, for example Designator:Function/Usage:  CC-1 Command/Control 1  CC-2 Command/Control 2  AIR-1 Air/Ground 1  AIR-2 Air Ops 2  CAPGUARDCalling Channel  TAC-1 Tactical 1  When communicating, use designators, not a channel number – ex. This is Abenaki 45 on TAC-1 55

56 NHWG VHF Channels / Zones   EF Johnson RS5300 Radios operates on 16 Zones, each having a 16 Channel capability   NHWG uses Zones 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7   Remaining zones are used nationally   Use of Zones:   Zone 2 – primary analog channels   Zone 6 – duplicate of Zone 2 in a digital mode [more secure]   Zone 3 – Northeast Region repeaters   Zone 4 – NH Forestry   Zone 7 - Coast Guard and Weather Channels   Zones/Channels to be used for a specific mission will be assigned by the Incident Commander 56

57 NHWG VHF Channel Plan example: EF Johnson RS5300  Note: Aircraft Radios do not use Zones Channel 1CC1Command and Control 2CC2Command and Control 3AIR 1Aircraft Channel 4AIR 2Aircraft Channel 5CAP GUARDUniversal Calling Channel 6TAC 1Ground Channel 7DERRYNHWG Repeater 8LACONIANHWG Repeater 9ASCUTNEYNHWG Repeater 10LEBANONNHWG Repeater 11LITTONNHWG Repeater 12KEENENHWG Repeater 13HIGH BIRDAirborne Relay Station 14PORTABLENHWG Repeater 15Fish and GameUsed for Liaison only 16SANFORDUsed for Fire Patrol Zone 2 57

58 CAP HF Channel Plan  All operations are simplex  Frequencies are designated by two alpha characters  First letter denotes primary usage  A = National  N = Northeast Region  NE Region frequencies  NA, NB and NC  Frequencies can be found on-line  Password protected, FOUO 58

59 Search and Rescue Aircraft Communications  Air-Ground Communications on aircraft frequencies  Aeronautical Search And Rescue Stations (SAR) Operate on two Aircraft Frequencies  MHz - TRAINING Only  MHz - ACTUAL Missions Only  MHZ – ELT and Emergency  MHZ – Training 59

60 CAPGUARD  A Guard channel is a common channel monitored by all units to allow short-term contact, regardless of what other operational channels the station may be using.  The channel designated “CAPGUARD” [FORMER LABEL WAS GUARD 1] is restricted to use ONLY for calling and then immediately moving to another channel.  All CAP stations should maintain a constant listening watch on this channel, to the maximum extent possible.

61 Operating Procedures 61

62 PROWORDS  THIS ISPreface to your call sign  ROGERLast transmission received OK  OVERI’m done, go ahead  OUTI’m done, bye  WAITI will be back in a few seconds  SAY AGAINSay that again  CORRECTIONOops! I really meant to say  WILCOROGER and I will comply  AFFIRMATIVEYes 62 Prowords are a special set of words used for clarity and brevity in communications. Some of the most commonly used prowords are:

63 Phonetic Alphabet & Numbers 63 AAlpha BBravo CCharlie DDelta EEcho FFoxtrot GGolf HHotel IIndia JJuliet KKilo LLima MMike NNovember OOscar PPapa QQuebec RRomeo SSierra TTango UUniform VVictor WWhiskey XX-Ray YYankee ZZulu Pronunciation of Numbers 1WUN 2TOO 3TREE 4FO-WER 5FIFE 6SIX 7SEVEN 8ATE 9NINER 0ZERO

64 I SPELL / FIGURES / INITIALS  Use “I SPELL” for pronounceable words  Example: LODI  “I SPELL LODI LIMA OSCAR DELTA INDIA LODI”  Use “FIGURE(S)” AND “INITIAL(S)” for non-words  Example: N516F  “INITIAL NOVEMBER FIGURES FIVE ONE SIX INTIAL FOXTROT” CORRECTIONS Use proword “CORRECTION” Use proword “CORRECTION” Example: Example: “… Turn right at next corner … CORRECTION Turn left at next corner…” 64


66 Calling Another Station  To Establish Contact  “Abenaki 11 THIS IS Abenaki 85 OVER”  Response  “Abenaki 85 THIS IS Abenaki 11 OVER”  If the station does not answer after a second call:  STATION NOT HEARD, THIS IS HILL Abenaki 85 OUT.  This lets other stations know the frequency is available.  No need to use call signs until communications are complete  On Closing the Contact  Abenaki 85 OUT” Always end a transmission with OVER or OUT NOT BOTH! 66

67 Nobody Hears Me! Choose a Good Communications Site.  High ground (the higher the antenna, the better).  VHF is line of site.  Stay away from interference generators  High power lines  Power Transformers  Underground Cables  Computers (even in the field)  Other radios on different frequencies 67

68 Nobody Hears Me, STILL! Common Problems & Solutions  Operator Failure! (This is the most common cause!)  Make sure you are following normal procedures and briefings.  Check the radio  Is the radio turned on, correct channel, and volume up?  Is the battery good? (Replace with a charged battery)  Switch to a repeater, if available  Ask for a relay (from aircraft if available)  Move to higher ground or another location 68

69 Message Handling

70 Message Traffic  Categories of Traffic  Formal Traffic  Administrative Traffic  Informal Traffic 70

71 Sending A Formal Message  Originator writes message of CAPF 4 (Message Form)  Operator sends the form over the appropriate net (local, wing, region, etc. - Which ever assures fastest delivery)  When transmitting the message the operator speaks slowly and clearly so that the receiving station has time to write the message completely.  When finished, ask if fills are needed and provide them. 71

72 CAP Radio Message Form  Elements of CAP Form 4  Precedence  Routine  Priority  DTG "TIME" or "DATE-TIME GROUP"  FROM  TO  INFO  TEXT OF MESSAGE 72

73 Message Body & Record Time Body or text of message Originator states the message as clearly and briefly Radio Station Operator Information Fill in time of:  receipt or or  transmission 73

74 Header Information  Originator of Message (From) Name of the headquarters of the originator, a slant Bar (/). And the originator Office symbol, name and / or duty. Example: From: HQ NHWG /CC From: Amitrano Squadron /Capt. Dolittle, Safety Officer  Addressee (TO) The unit and name and/or office symbol of the addressee. Example: To: HQ Northeast Region / CC To: All Units NHWG  Copies To (Information) All additional units and/or personnel who the originator desires to receive a copy of the message. 74

75 Date-Time Group Z APR 98 DateTimeMonthYear Date and Time in ZULU ZULU - Designates that time is UTC (Universal Coordinated Time) Z = EST + 5 hours Z = EDT + 4 hours

76 Draft Message Draft this message on some scrap paper first, then when you have stated it in a short, clear and concise fashion, transcribe it onto a CAP message form. It is Thursday, 2 June 1998 at 10:00 AM, Eastern Standard Time. You operate the Condor Composite Squadron Radio Station, Abenaki 141, in the New Hampshire Wing. A few minutes ago your squadron commander, Captain Smith, asked you to send a routine message to the Wing Director of Operations requesting he schedule orientation flights for 10 cadets of your squadron for one day on the weekend of 12/13 July if possible. 76

77 Passing the Message Later that same day (2 JUN) you participate in your Wing's VHF/FM Net at 7:00 PM (EDT).  You check into the net and “with traffic” with the net control station, Abenaki 15, your Routine message for Abenaki 4.  Abenaki 4 has also joined the net.  Soon the Net Control Station (NCS) directs you to send your routine message to Abenaki 4. You do, and he accepts it at  The NCS closes the net at 2329 Z (Log the net closed time.) After receiving the message completely and getting any required fills, the receiving operator acknowledges with "I acknowledge receipt of your Z APR 04 (or whatever the DTG is), OVER". 77

78 Repetitions Before an operator can give a receipt for a message. he must have correctly received the complete message. When any portion is missed, the operator must ask for a “fill”. When words are missed or doubtful, repetitions will be requested by the receiving station(s) before receipting for the message as follows: the prowords SAY AGAIN in conjunction with "ALL BEFORE ______", "ALL AFTER ______", "ALL AFTER ______ and ALL BEFORE", "WORD BEFORE ______" or "WORD AFTER_" In complying with requests for repetition the transmitting station will identify the portion being repeated as follows: "I SAY AGAIN ALL BEFORE ______", "I SAY AGAIN ALL AFTER ______", "I SAY AGAIN ALL AFTER and ALL BEFORE ______", etc. 78

79 Communication Nets

80 80 Communication Nets Purpose of NetsPurpose of Nets –Pass Traffic (information) from Wing or Higher Headquarters to subordinate units –Pass Traffic (information) from subordinate units to Wing or Higher Headquarters Categories of TrafficCategories of Traffic –Formal –Informal –Administrative A Formal Net is established to control the flow of traffic on a single radio channel. There are two primary net types in CAPA Formal Net is established to control the flow of traffic on a single radio channel. There are two primary net types in CAP –Directed Nets –Free Net

81 Net Control Station (NCS)  Controls and directs the flow of radio traffic within their Net  Is primarily responsible for net discipline. 81

82 NCS script  Each wing has its own Net script  Roll call  a list of call signs  by Group, in some wings 82

83 83 Radio Net Operation A Formal Net is established to control the flow of traffic on a single radio channelA Formal Net is established to control the flow of traffic on a single radio channel The Net Control Station (NCS) maintains net discipline by controlling who is talkingThe Net Control Station (NCS) maintains net discipline by controlling who is talking The NCS must be contacted first for permission to contact another stationThe NCS must be contacted first for permission to contact another station Sample Net Check-in (Abenaki 14 is the NCS):Sample Net Check-in (Abenaki 14 is the NCS): –“Abenaki 14, THIS IS Abenaki 404 with no traffic, over”

84 84 Formal Nets Directed Nets  In this net, stations obtain permission from the net control station (NCS) prior to communicating with other stations.  The net is often started with a roll call. The purpose of the roll call is to determine which members are monitoring the Net.  Each station identifies itself, as called, with its CAP assigned tactical call sign  Following roll call, transmission of traffic occurs. Free Net Net Control Station (NCS) authorizes member stations to transmit traffic to other stations in the net without obtaining prior permission from the net control station. Free net operation does not relieve the control station of the responsibility for maintaining circuit discipline

85 85 All transmissions must receive permission from the Net Control Station (NCS) Radio Nets - Contacting Another Station Abenaki 401 Abenaki 14 NCS Abenaki “Abenaki 14, THIS IS Abenaki 401 with traffic for Abenaki 404 OVER” 2 - “Abenaki 401, Contact Abenaki 404 with your traffic, OUT” 3 - “Abenaki 404, THIS IS Abenaki 401, OVER”

86 Break-in Procedures  Only emergency or urgent traffic justifies break-in procedures.  A station wishing to break in will transmit at the pause with his/her station call sign.  The word "Break" is not used as a break- in proword. This proword is used solely to separate message text from other portions of the message. 86

87 Distress and Emergency Signals 87 MAYDAYDistress PANUrgency SECURITESafety Operator Responsibility #1LISTEN #2Be Prepared to Assist #3Do NOT Transmit Unless Your Services are Needed } Supersedes all Priority or Routine Traffic

88 PROHIBITED Operating Practices  Violation of Radio Silence  Personal Conversation  Transmitting in a Net without permission of NCS  Lack of identifying call sign  Excessive tuning and testing  Use of Amateur Radio or Citizens Band frequencies for CAP business 88

89 Safety Concerns  Lightning precautions  Route wires and cables out of traffic areas  Locate antenna away from electrical wires and people.  Properly ground all equipment - Make sure IT is the path of least resistance. 89

90 Mission Skills  Sending a Position Report  Steps to regain communications  Reporting a find  Reporting a Clue  Employing Appropriate Frequencies  Conducting Scheduled Check-ins  Choosing a good Communications Site  Knowledge of Plans and Procedures  Message Handling Procedures  Communications Safety Procedures 90

91 Communications Awards, Activities and Programs The Communicator Badge The Communicator Badge The Senior Communicator Badge The Senior Communicator Badge The Master Communicator Badge The Master Communicator Badge See CAPR for more details

92 Cadet Eligibility for Communicator Badge  Cadets are encouraged to pursue each level of the communicator badges. To do so, cadets must meet all of the training requirements listed in the appropriate section of CAPP 214 with the exception of the portions specifically intended for the senior member training program. 92

93 93 Questions

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