Presentation on theme: "Advanced Communications User Training"— Presentation transcript:
1 Advanced Communications User Training (ACUT)New Hampshire Wing, CAPThe communications mission of CAP is to organize and maintain a reliable, nationwide, point-to-point, air-to-ground, and ground mobile radio capability for use in emergencies and for training communications personnel.The primary purpose of any CAP communications facility is to provide the commander with the means for controlling his/her units and their activities.Provides the commander at each echelon the ability to communicate with superior and subordinate commanders.1Lt Tony ImmorlicaCommunications Training OfficerNew Hampshire WingVersion 1.0February 10, 2010
2 Advanced Communications User Training (ACUT) 4/13/2017Advanced Communications User Training (ACUT)CAP communication systems: standards and rationaleRadio Basics:Familiarity with different radio modes (e.g. AM, FM, SSB)Narrowband operationRadio Propagation and Frequency Bands (i.e. HF, VHF)Repeater Basics:Operation, use and restrictionsRadio Operation – model specific infoFormal message preparation and handlingNetwork operating proceduresIt is assumed the student has read and is familiar with CAPR and 100-3
3 ACUT Completion and Credit Prerequisite for this course: BCUTSuccessful completion of the ACUT requires passing an open book test:Working knowledge of CAPR and is assumedA passing score is 80%, corrected to 100%.No documentation is issuedTrainee records accomplishment in personnel record [CAPF 45 or CAPF 66]
4 CAP Radio Operator Authorization Authorization is currently done in two phases:Basic Communications User Training - BCUT3-4 Hour Class on:Standard Operating ProceduresLocal Operating ProceduresEntitles CAP member to operate a CAP RadioIssued a CAPF 76, Radio Operator Authorization by Wing or higher headquartersAdvanced Communications User Training - ACUT4-5 Hour ClassPass the Advanced Communications User TestEntitles CAP member to be assigned a call signRequired as part of the Communications Specialty TrackNOTE: BCUT and ACUT will soon be replaced by a new Introductory Communications Users Training [ICUT] course; release date is pending
5 Operation of CAP Radio Stations by Unauthorized Personnel 4/13/2017Operation of CAP Radio Stations by Unauthorized PersonnelThe operation of all CAP Radio Stations must be under the direct supervision of a properly authorized Civil Air Patrol radio operator.Pilots/co-Pilots must have taken BCUT training as a minimum to operate CAP VHF radios
6 CAP Radio Station Licensing CAP is a considered a federal agency, thus its Radio Stations are licensed by the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA)Public stations are licensed by the FCCFederal agencies are not allowed to use services allocated exclusively to the public sector for their business.This excludes the use of Amateur Radio and Citizens Band for CAP business.CAP radio stations are authorized by the Federal Government through the National Telecommunications and Information Administration for emergency, training, and operational activities.The regulation for all CAP Communications is CAPR 100-1
7 Assigned Call Signs Calls assigned to Individuals Call signs associated with ResourcesAircraftGround VehiclesHeadquartersTactical Call Signs
8 Aircraft Call SignsCAP corporate aircraft will use “CAP xxxx” (ex. CAP 2869 pronounced “CAP twenty-eight sixty- nine”) at all times.Member-owned aircraft may also use the CAP call sign when on reimbursable missions.Flight Plans.The three-letter identifier “CPF” is used within the FAA computer system in place of the spoken word “CAP.”For this reason, “CPF_______” will be used in place of the aircraft tail number on flight plans.In the remarks section, the voice identifier “CAP________” must be included as well as the tail number of the aircraft.
9 CAP Radio Tactical Call Signs At Certain Special Activities functional call signs may be approved by the commander of the activity. These would includeSAR/DRA missionsEncampmentsIncident Command System (ICS) operationsWithin CAP, each region and wing is assigned a unit tactical call sign. The tactical call sign plus a serially assigned number comprise the complete CAP tactical call sign. Serially assigned numbers will not exceed four digits.Tactical call signs one through five in each region/wing will change with changes in staffing.(1) Region/wing commander(2) Region/wing vice commander(3) Region/wing chief of staff(4) Region/wing director of communications(5) Region/wing chaplainDuring actual/practice search and rescue missions and special events, temporary functional call signs may be assigned. the authority to use this option: The wing DC, the mission commander, or the special events commander have
10 ES Mission Communications 4/13/2017ES Mission CommunicationsCommunicators are needed for nearly all ES missions in CAP, both SAR and DR.Scheduled radio check-in proceduresSending a position reportReporting a clue or a findAdditional training is required to achieve a Radio Operator emergency services rating.
11 4/13/2017Out of Wing OperationOperation of mobile stations outside of the wing in which they are licensed is permitted.Operation on CAP frequencies in Canada and Mexico is prohibited.Special limitations apply within 75 miles of the Canadian borderCheck with the Director of Communications before operating radios in those areas
12 Communicating with Other Agencies 4/13/2017Communicating with Other AgenciesCAP stations operating on non-CAP frequencies must have written authorization from the licensed agency.The radio must meet all requirements for use in that band under FCC or NTIASome agencies are requiring that we use encryptionA copy of the FCC license or the federal authorization must also be obtained.
13 Interagency Operations CAP has Memorandums of Understanding (MOU) with a number of agenciesOn file at National HeadquartersAF MARS,American Red Cross,Salvation Army,US Coast Guard AuxiliaryOn file at NH Wing HeadquartersNH Office of Emergency ManagementNH National Guard
14 Concept of OperationsCAP communications relies heavily on VHF-FM (very high frequency-frequency modulation) because VHF provides excellent, dependable, short-range communications.VHF is readily adaptable to ground and air mobile operations. We are developing digital voice and encription options that may be used in this mode.CAP is also licensed to operate on specific HF (high frequency) bands, and utilizes Single sideband modulation (SSB). This affords long distance, even world-wide contacts – but is highly dependent on frequency and atmospheric conditionsAircraft radios operate on 118 to 137 MHz using Amplitude Modulation (AM). Radio certificates are issued through the FAA
15 Standardized National Channelization and Programming Plan VHF-FM operations by CAP is governed by the Standardized National Channelization and Programming Plan that has been mandated in the CAPRCompliance with this plan is mandatory for all corporate radios.All CAP assigned radio frequencies are designated “For Official Use Only”
16 CAP Assigned Frequencies: FOUO For Official Use Only What is FOUOA designation that there is sensitive informationUsed when frequency documentation is needed in the documentWhat FOUO isn’tClassificationFor use on every single documentUNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLYFrequency information contained in this document is designated by the Department of Defense (DoD) as For Official Use Only (FOUO) and maynot be released to anyone without the prior permission of NHQ and CAP-USAF.
17 EncryptionEncrypted P25 transmissions of any kind are permitted ONLY if advance authorization is granted in writing by the NTC.Only approved keys provided by the NTC will be used when we encrypt.When working with other agencies, CAP must conform to that agency’s rules and procedures for using encryption.
19 Basics of Radio: Modulation To send a signal via radio, the radio modulates or superimposes voice on a radio frequency. AM, FM and SSB are just ways of sending voice information.CAP usesAM – amplitude modulationFM - frequency modulation, andSSB – single sidebandalong with some “P25” digital modes.Normally, we use:AM on Aircraft BandsSSB on HFFM on VHF and UHF19
20 Frequency Modulation FM FM is used by CAP for VHF radios in vehicles, aircraft, walkie-talkies and base stations, for short range comms.The advantage is less static from ignition systems in vehicles, and excellent audio quality.FM also has a “capture effect” where the strongest station comes in over a weaker station. That is good and bad.CAP also uses FM in the ISR UHF radios.20
21 Single Sideband SSB CAP uses SSB on HF SSB uses a very small bandwidth, compared to AM and FM modesUsed for L O N G Distance CommsHF Operation is specialized, but very useful because it is very efficientSeek Special Training in HF, not included in this course. Ask your Comm. Officer21
22 Amplitude Modulation AM Used in aircraft radios to communicate with ATC, tower, other aircraft, airport operations, etc.Worldwide standard for aircraft communicationVery old type of modulation first used in early development of radioTends to be noisy, easily interfered with. Allows lots of static and ignition noise. Bad feature.Allows two stations to be heard over one another – i.e. no capture effect as with FM. Good feature.
23 Basics of Radio -Propagation Radio propagation is a term used to explain how radio waves behave when they are transmitted, or are propagated from one point on the earth to anotherThere are many way that waves propagate in the atmosphere, includingGround WavesSky WavesTropospheric ScatteringLine of SightPropagation changes with frequency, time of day, atmospheric conditions and sun spot activity
24 Ground Wave Propagation Surface or Ground waves follow the curvature of the earth. Since the ground is not a perfect electrical conductor, ground waves are attenuated as they follow the earth’s surface.As frequency decreases, ground losses become lower at lowerVLF (very low frequency) and LF (low frequency) are mostly used for military communications, especially with ships and submarines.Surface or Ground waves are radio waves that follow the curvature of the earth. These can be vertically polarized to alleviate short circuiting the electric field through the conductivity of the ground. Since the ground is not a perfect electrical conductor, ground waves are attenuated as they follow the earth’s surface. At low frequencies, ground losses are low and become lower at lower frequencies. VLF (very low frequency) and LF (low frequency) are mostly used for military communications, especially with ships and submarines.A sudden ionospheric disturbance is often the result of large solar flares directed at earth. These solar flares can disrupt HF radio propagation.Early commercial and professional radio services relied exclusively on long wave, low frequencies and ground-wave propagation. To prevent interference with these services, amateur and experimental transmitters were restricted to the higher (HF) frequencies, felt to be useless since their ground-wave range was limited. Upon discovery of the other propagation modes possible at medium wave and short wave frequencies, the advantages of HF for commercial and military purposes became apparent.
25 Skywave PropagationSkywave propagation, or “skip”, results from refraction of radio waves in the ionosphereThese layers are directly affected by the sun, and its varying activity (sunspot cycle) determines the utility of these modes.Forecasting of skywave modes is of considerable interest to amateur radio operators and commercial marine and aircraft communications, and also to shortwave broadcasters.A sudden ionospheric disturbance is often the result of large solar flares directed at earth. These solar flares can disrupt HF radio propagation.Skywave propagation, also referred to as skip, is any of the modes that rely on refraction of radio waves in the ionosphere, which is made up of one or more ionized layers in the upper atmosphere. These layers are directly affected by the sun, and its varying activity (sunspot cycle) determines the utility of these modes.Forecasting of skywave modes is of considerable interest to amateur radio operators and commercial marine and aircraft communications, and also to shortwave broadcasters.
26 Line-of-Sight Propagation Above HF (30 MHz) most propagation is line of sight – “if you can see it, you can hear it”In some cases, VHF signals can be received from reflections off of structures, terrain, etc. increasing rangeGround plane reflection effects are an important factor in VHF line of sight propagation.Ground plane reflection effects are an important factor in VHF line of sight propagation. The interference between the direct beam line-of-sight and the ground reflected beam often leads to an effective inverse-fourth-power law for ground-plane limited radiation.a ground plane structure or relationships exists between the antenna and another object, where the only structure of the object is a structure which permits the antenna to function as such (e.g., forms a reflector or director for an antenna).
27 Tropospheric Scattering At VHF and higher, the atmosphere at a height of around 6 miles (10 kilometers) can scatter some of the normally line-of-sight beam of radio frequency energy back toward the ground, allowing over-the-horizon communication between stations as far as 500 miles (800 km) apart.A related mode, referred to as ducting, can occur when signals are confined between two ionized layers resulting in propagation for some thousands of miles. This is rare.A special form of tropo scattering relies on reflecting radio waves off the intensely ionized regions generated by meteors. This mode is very short-duration (a couple of seconds per event) and can also result in receiving signals some thousands of miles away.At VHF and higher frequencies, the atmosphere at a height of around 6 miles (10 kilometers) can scatter some of the normally line-of-sight beam of radio frequency energy back toward the ground, allowing over-the-horizon communication between stations as far as 500 miles (800 km) apart.A special form of tropo scattering relies on reflecting radio waves off the intensely ionized regions generated by meteors. This mode is very short-duration, often only a couple of seconds per event,
28 DiffractionDiffraction phenomena by small obstacles are also important at high frequencies.Signals for urban cellular telephony tend to be dominated by ground-plane effects as they travel over the rooftops of the urban environment. They then diffract over roof edges into the street, where multipath propagation, absorption and diffraction phenomena dominate.Diffraction phenomena by small obstacles are also important at high frequencies.Signals for urban cellular telephony tend to be dominated by ground-plane effects as they travel over the rooftops of the urban environment. They then diffract over roof edges into the street, where multipath propagation, absorption and diffraction phenomena dominate.
29 AbsorptionLow frequency radio waves travel easily through brick and stone. As the frequency rises, absorption effects become more important.At microwave or higher frequencies, absorption by molecular resonance in the atmosphere is a major factor limiting radio propagation.For example, around 60 GHz there is a major absorption peak which makes this band useless for long-distance use but good for local, covert use. Beyond around 400 GHz, the Earth's atmosphere is effectively opaque to radio waves.Heavy rain and snow also present major challenges to microwave reception.Low frequency radio waves travel easily through brick and stone. As the frequency rises, absorption effects become more important.In addition, at microwave or higher frequencies, absorption by molecular resonance in the atmosphere is a major factor in radio propagation. For example, in the GHz band, there is a major absorption peak which makes this band useless for long-distance use. Beyond around 400 GHz, the Earth's atmosphere is effectively opaque to radio waves.Heavy rain and snow also present major challenges to microwave reception.
30 Effect of Antenna on Propagation Two important factors for antennas:1. Directivity – function of antenna design2. Placement – height above ground and attitude [horizontal or vertical]Antennas can be “omni-directional” [whips, vertical antennas] or “directional” [beams, requiring a rotator to point in a desired direction]Height above ground and attitude determines the “take-off” angle and thus impacts skip distance
31 Propagation - SummaryGenerally, you need not be overly concerned about propagation but should be aware of the limitations and advantagesHints… if you have trouble making contact:When operating VHFMove to higher ground or move your locationYour handheld antenna should be held verticallyWhen operating HFChange frequencyWire antennas close to the ground favor more local [e.g. NER] reception
32 Basics of Radio: Spectrum Wideband and Narrowband Radio spectrum is a national, albeit limited resource.Spectrum is governed by national policy as well as international agreementsMost countries institute tight radio regulations for application of radio spectrum.The amount of spectrum a particular signal occupies is a function of how the RF carrier frequency is modulated to transfer meaningful information
33 Wideband 25khzThis view of a wideband 25khz radio signal represents our older frequencies.
34 Narrowband 12.5khzThis view of a narrowband 12.5khz radio signal represents our new equipment.You will notice the signal or “Bandwidth” is much more narrow than the older, wideband frequencies.
35 NTIA Mandate for Narrowband As of 1 October 2009, all of our NER VHF-FM repeaters were changed to narrow-band. We are the First region to be essentially 100% completed with transition.As a result of this change, transmitting using equipment designed for most other services can not be used in the CAP Network.We are required to use equipment that has been approved by the NTIA for our channel assignments in the federal spectrum. The NTIA Standards are far more restrictive than FCC Type Acceptance standards for commercial users.
36 Wideband on a Narrowband System Attempting to utilize a narrowband system with a wideband only radio is a potentially dangerous act. The Narrowband system will have extremely degraded performance.Doing this cause harmful interference and presents a serious safety situation to aircrews and other ground teams.Attempting to access this system will cause dangerous interference to not only the system you are attempting to access but the adjacent channel users.This should not be an issue if you use only CAP assigned radios
38 Frequency Bands used by CAP VHF – Very High Frequency - is only capable of line-of-site communicationsBuildings, mountains, leaves may interfereHigher an aircraft, the wider coverage2500’ AGL has an effective radius of 50 MilesHF - High Frequency - is capable of world wide communicationStrongly dependent on frequency, antenna, time of day38
39 Types of radios EJ Johnson Motorola ICOM Aircraft Radios Base Radio Mobile RadioPortableMotorolaHFALEICOMISRAircraft RadiosAircraft use two types:AM – used mostly by pilots to communicate with Air Traffic ControlFM – used primarily by Mission Observer to communicate with Mission Base
40 Model Specific Information These next few overview slides go into basic radio functions and operations for the:E.F. Johnson Series MobilesE.F. Johnson HandheldsTait - T-2020 Mobiles (Analog Only 100 Channels Maximum, Mission Support Radio)NAT - NPX-136 Aircraft Radio (Analog Only 100 Channels Maximum, to be replaced with Technisonic TDFM-136)Technisonic - TDFM-136 Aircraft Radio
41 EF Johnson 5300 Series Mobile 1 - Power Switch / VolumeThe On /Off and Volume control knob is located on the left under display screen; push the knob for on/off, rotate for volume control.2, 6 & 8 – non functional4 - Zone / Channel Selector KnobPush in to alternate between Zones and channel selection. Rotate knob to scroll up or down within the channel / zone bank.9 – Key Select1234567895 – Scan7 – Squelch On/Off3 - The light above the Hi / Low power switch shows RED when you transmit, GREEN when the frequency is in use.
42 EF Johnson 5100 Series Handheld 622154151611181271710131413824561 – Power On / Off and Volume2 – Channel Selector3 – Antenna Connection Port4 – Keypad LOCK Button5 – Not Programmed6 – Transmit / Receive Light7 – Speaker Mic. Connection 8 – PTT Button9 - Speaker10 – Microphone11 – Not Programmed12 – Not Programmed13 – Not Programmed14 – Not Programmed15 – Not Programmed16 – Not Programmed17 – Light18 – Up / Down Zones9
43 TAIT T-2020 Mobile 1 - POWER SWITCH and Volume Control 2 -Channel Selection, use keypad to the right of the display screen. Channels are the common simplex channels and mobile repeaters ( to be assigned by CUL).For Channel 1 thru 16 selection (refer to channel chart) can be obtained by pushing a number button on the key pad AND the “enter” key.ExampleI want channel 10, press (1) and (zero) then (ENTER). For Ch 2, Press ( 2) and (enter)13 - Channel Up4 – Channel Down5 – ENTER Button2534
44 National Airborne Technologies - NPX-138 23451 - On / Off 2 – Channel Up / Down – (Toggle Left or Right) 3 – Squelch (Press In) 4 – Screen Brightness 5 - Always Leave on (ID)
45 Technisonic Model TDFM-136 Aircraft VHF FM Radio 1 – On / Off – Volume2 – Channel Display3 - Display Brighter4 – Display Dimmer5 – Channel Memory Scroll Down6 – Channel Memory Scroll Up7 – Enter8 – Guard Select SwitchTo select and view CAP channel designators, push tone pad Button “1/CHAN” NOT “ 7/FREQ.”12346578
47 Voice Operating Modes Simplex vs. Duplex Transmit and receive on the same frequencyBuildings, terrain, altitudeSingle Frequency - One Station at a TimeDuplexTransmit on one frequency and receive on anotherRTTwo Frequencies - One Station at a TimeRepeaters – Duplex modeUsed to extend coverage and get over obstaclesRepeater increases the range of mobilestations due to its high profile location
48 Inside the RepeaterRepeater will turn on its transmitter only if the Tone Decoder hears a repeater specific toneTransmit FrequencyVoiceRepeaterReceiverRepeaterTransmitterReceiveFrequencyPTTTone Decoder“Mike Button”ToneThe Repeater will only turn on its transmitter if it hears a site specific sub audible tone. This tone is already programmed into your CAP radio. This is why so many channels are required within CAP. We have three pairs of repeater frequencies and many tones, used to make sure one radio only brings up only one repeater at a time.The Tone Decoder “presses” the Push To Talk (PTT) button to turn on the transmitter.The Tone Decoder “listens” for tones on the incoming signal
49 Inside the RepeaterRepeater will turn on its transmitter only if the Tone Decoder hears a repeater specific toneTransmit FrequencyVoiceRepeaterReceiverRepeaterTransmitterReceiveFrequencyPTTTone Decoder“Mike Button”ToneThe Repeater will only turn on its transmitter if it hears a site specific sub audible tone. This tone is already programmed into your CAP radio. This is why so many channels are required within CAP. We have three pairs of repeater frequencies and many tones, used to make sure one radio only brings up only one repeater at a time.The Tone Decoder “presses” the Push To Talk (PTT) button to turn on the transmitter.The Tone Decoder “listens” for tones on the incoming signal
50 NER REPEATER LOCATIONS There are 64 NBFM Compliant Repeaters In the CAP North East RegionThere are 64 NBFM Compliant Repeaters In the CAP North East Region
51 Geographically Defined Restrictions Because of the international agreements between Canada and the U.S., CAP must restrict its operations on certain frequencies when within 75 nm miles of the international border.Operators entering those areas should make themselves aware of any restrictions in effect.Aircraft Operations are restricted to channels Air 1 or CAPGUARD ONLY and are limited to 3,000 ft AGL.We are permitted to operate up to 12.5KFT ONLY WITH USAF MISSION AUTHORIZATION
52 Aircraft use of Repeaters Primary mode of operation should be simplexOnly use the repeater if simplex is not possible.Within 75 miles of the Canadian border use of CAP VHF assigned frequencies prohibited above 3000 ft. AGL
54 NHWG VHF Communications NH Wing maintains 7 VHF repeatersLocations were chosen such that all squadrons have access to at least oneDerry, Laconia, Ascutney, Lebanon, Littleton, Keene, and Portsmouth [location of the Portable repeater]In addition we have:“Portable” repeater based in PortsmouthHighbird repeater * – utilized by aircrafts assigned by the ICVHF Frequencies [Channels] are programmed to show the repeater location [Tag], not the frequency* Requires an ACUT qualification
55 CAP VHF Radio Frequencies CAP Frequencies are FOUOThus, CAP radios are programmed to display the specific designator for each programmed channel, for exampleDesignator: Function/Usage:CC-1 Command/Control 1CC Command/Control 2AIR Air/Ground 1AIR Air Ops 2CAPGUARD Calling ChannelTAC Tactical 1When communicating, use designators, not a channel number – ex. This is Abenaki 45 on TAC-1
56 NHWG VHF Channels / Zones EF Johnson RS5300 Radios operates on 16 Zones, each having a 16 Channel capabilityNHWG uses Zones 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7Remaining zones are used nationallyUse of Zones:Zone 2 – primary analog channelsZone 6 – duplicate of Zone 2 in a digital mode [more secure]Zone 3 – Northeast Region repeatersZone 4 – NH ForestryZone 7 - Coast Guard and Weather ChannelsZones/Channels to be used for a specific mission will be assigned by the Incident Commander
57 NHWG VHF Channel Plan example: EF Johnson RS5300 1 CC1 Command and Control2 CC2 Command and Control3 AIR 1 Aircraft Channel4 AIR 2 Aircraft Channel5 CAP GUARD Universal Calling Channel6 TAC 1 Ground Channel7 DERRY NHWG Repeater8 LACONIA NHWG Repeater9 ASCUTNEY NHWG Repeater10 LEBANON NHWG Repeater11 LITTON NHWG Repeater12 KEENE NHWG Repeater13 HIGH BIRD Airborne Relay Station14 PORTABLE NHWG Repeater15 Fish and Game Used for Liaison only16 SANFORD Used for Fire PatrolZone 2Note: Aircraft Radios do not use Zones
58 CAP HF Channel Plan All operations are simplex Frequencies are designated by two alpha charactersFirst letter denotes primary usageA = NationalN = Northeast RegionNE Region frequenciesNA, NB and NCFrequencies can be found on-linePassword protected, FOUO
59 Search and Rescue Aircraft Communications Air-Ground Communications on aircraft frequenciesAeronautical Search And Rescue Stations (SAR) Operate on two Aircraft Frequencies122.9 MHz - TRAINING Only123.1 MHz - ACTUAL Missions Only121.5 MHZ – ELT and EmergencyMHZ – Training
60 CAPGUARDA Guard channel is a common channel monitored by all units to allow short-term contact, regardless of what other operational channels the station may be using.The channel designated “CAPGUARD” [FORMER LABEL WAS GUARD 1] is restricted to use ONLY for calling and then immediately moving to another channel.All CAP stations should maintain a constant listening watch on this channel, to the maximum extent possible.
62 PROWORDSProwords are a special set of words used for clarity and brevity in communications.Some of the most commonly used prowords are:THIS IS Preface to your call signROGER Last transmission received OKOVER I’m done, go aheadOUT I’m done, byeWAIT I will be back in a few secondsSAY AGAIN Say that againCORRECTION Oops! I really meant to sayWILCO ROGER and I will complyAFFIRMATIVE YesIn order to create a standard terminology for CAP communicators, a set or prowords has been defined which are to be used whenever they are appropriate.
63 Phonetic Alphabet & Numbers A AlphaB BravoC CharlieD DeltaE EchoF FoxtrotG GolfH HotelI IndiaJ JulietK KiloL LimaM MikeN NovemberO OscarP PapaQ QuebecR RomeoS SierraT TangoU UniformV VictorW WhiskeyX X-RayY YankeeZ ZuluPronunciationof Numbers1 WUN2 TOO3 TREE4 FO-WER5 FIFE6 SIX7 SEVEN8 ATE9 NINER0 ZEROSpelling of Words and Initials When it becomes necessary to spell difficult words or groups, or to identify any letter of the alphabet, the standard phonetic alphabet will be used.The word or group to be spelled will be preceded by the proword “ISPELL.”If the operator can pronounce the word to be spelled, he/she will doso before and after spelling to identify the word. Single letters will be identified phonetically by the proword “INITIAL (S).”Pronunciation of Numbers In order to distinguish between numerals and words which are pronounced similarly, the proword “FIGURE(S)” must proceed such numbers.Numbers will be transmitted digit by digit except that exact multiples of hundreds and thousands may be spoken as such. The proword “FIGURE(S)” shall be used whenever numerals are to be transmitted except in conjunction with the words “NUMBER” or “TIME.”
64 I SPELL / FIGURES / INITIALS Use “I SPELL” for pronounceable wordsExample: LODI“I SPELL LODI LIMA OSCAR DELTA INDIA LODI”Use “FIGURE(S)” AND “INITIAL(S)” for non-wordsExample: N516F“INITIAL NOVEMBER FIGURES FIVE ONE SIX INTIAL FOXTROT”CORRECTIONSUse proword “CORRECTION”Example:“… Turn right at next corner … CORRECTION Turn left at next corner…”
65 SENDING NUMBERS Use Prowords “FIGURES”, “DECIMAL”, “TIME”, “INITIALS” Digit-by-Digit Not“Seven Fifty”750 “FIGURES SEVEN FIVE ZERO”NinerNot Nine849 “FIGURES EIGHT FOUR NINER”DecimalPoint14.5 “FIGURES ONE FOUR DECIMAL FIVE”Z Time1635Z “TIME ONE SIX THREE FIVE ZULU”Initial AndFiguresE21 “INITIAL ECHO FIGURES TWO ONE”One Figureand Initial3-A “FIGURE THREE DASH INITIAL ALPHA”
66 Calling Another Station To Establish Contact“Abenaki 11 THIS IS Abenaki 85 OVER”Response“Abenaki 85 THIS IS Abenaki 11 OVER”If the station does not answer after a second call:STATION NOT HEARD, THIS IS HILL Abenaki 85 OUT.This lets other stations know the frequency is available.No need to use call signs until communications are completeOn Closing the ContactAbenaki 85 OUT”Always end a transmission with OVER or OUT NOT BOTH!Classroom Hands On TrainingTo establish communications, identify the station you wish tocommunicate with, followed by “this is” and your tactical call sign.The CAP assigned tactical call must be used to identify the station.Example: Abenaki 85, this is Abenaki 15, over.The response is normally: This is Abenaki 85, over.The alternate response : Abenaki 85, over. May also be usedHands On Use: (Supervised by the instructor)Each person in the class should use the radio and speak to either the instructor or another student. This should include use of spelling with phonetics and figures.Use handheld or mobile radios on low power.Use simplex frequencies only.
67 Nobody Hears Me! Choose a Good Communications Site. High ground (the higher the antenna, the better).VHF is line of site.Stay away from interference generatorsHigh power linesPower TransformersUnderground CablesComputers (even in the field)Other radios on different frequencies
68 Nobody Hears Me, STILL! Common Problems & Solutions Operator Failure! (This is the most common cause!)Make sure you are following normal procedures and briefings.Check the radioIs the radio turned on, correct channel, and volume up?Is the battery good? (Replace with a charged battery)Switch to a repeater, if availableAsk for a relay (from aircraft if available)Move to higher ground or another location
70 Message Traffic Categories of Traffic Formal Traffic Administrative TrafficInformal TrafficCategories of TrafficFormal TrafficOfficial traffic transmitted for, by, or in the name of the commander.Administrative TrafficThe transmission of direct questions and answers between staff officers, relating to the official business of the organization(s) to which the participating officers are assigned.Traffic that is personal in nature is prohibited.Informal TrafficTraffic other than formal or administrative types, or traffic which does not lend itself to the preparation of formal messages.Usually is a direct exchange of information between various participants of a mission or exercise.ExampleDuring an actual mission or training period, instructions to air and ground mobile stations, rapid exchange of target information, preliminary status reports, etc.
71 Sending A Formal Message Originator writes message of CAPF 4 (Message Form)Operator sends the form over the appropriate net (local, wing, region, etc. - Which ever assures fastest delivery)When transmitting the message the operator speaks slowly and clearly so that the receiving station has time to write the message completely.When finished, ask if fills are needed and provide them.
72 CAP Radio Message Form Elements of CAP Form 4 Precedence Routine PriorityDTG "TIME" or "DATE-TIME GROUP"FROMTOINFOTEXT OF MESSAGEElements of Formal Message Traffic (PRECEDENCE)IndicatesTo the originatorThe required speed of delivery to the addressee.To communications personnelThe relative order of handling and delivery.To the addresseeThe relative order in which he/she would note and respond.Precedence DesignationsROUTINETo be used when the message must reach the addressee within several hours.Examples: Operational plans on projected operationssupply matters, personnel mattersPRIORITYTo be used when the message requires expeditious action by the addressee and/or will furnish information essential to conduction of operations in progress.REDCAP (no longer a Precedence)REDCAP was formerly a Precedence Designation. Now, REDCAP messages are designated as such inside the body of the message, with a line such as THIS IS REDCAP TRAFFIC.
73 Message Body & Record Time Body or text of messageOriginator states the message as clearly and brieflyRadio Station Operator InformationFill in time of:receiptortransmission
74 Header Information Originator of Message (From) Addressee (TO) Name of the headquarters of the originator, a slant Bar (/). And the originator Office symbol, name and / or duty.Example:From: HQ NHWG /CCFrom: Amitrano Squadron /Capt. Dolittle, Safety OfficerAddressee (TO)The unit and name and/or office symbol of the addressee.To: HQ Northeast Region / CCTo: All Units NHWGCopies To (Information)All additional units and/or personnel who the originator desires to receive a copy of the message.
75 Date-Time Group 16 0218Z APR 98 Date Time Month Year Date and Time in ZULUGreenwich, a city near London, England, was accepted by international agreement as the reference point for the Earth's rotation. This time zone is referred to as the "ZULU" time zone. Each time zone in the world has been assigned a letter of the alphabet, and they are always referred to phonetically.Traveling west from England for five time zones, you arrive at the East coast of the United States. The central United States is one more time zone west. California an additional two time zones west, and Hawaii an additional two time zones west.We Americans normally tell time from a 12 hour clock We therefore have two ten o'clock, two eight o'clock, two four o'clock, etc. during each 24 hour period. You can see how confusing this can be when it is happening all over the world. Whose time would you use on radio messages and radio logs? This is the reason for ZULU time and a 24 hour system instead of local time and a 12 hour system.We in CAP, and all military organizations, employ a time system that indicates zero through twenty-three hours and fifty-nine minutes. There is no "twenty four hundred" since the twenty-fourth hour of one day is identical to the zero hour of the next. Therefore, time designator 2400 is not used.Only times 0000 ZULU through 2359 ZULU are used by CAP and military organizations. The first two digits represent the hour and the last two represent the minute. In a Date-Time Group, the first two digits represent the day of the month. the next two indicate the hour. and the last two indicate the minute. All single digits are preceded by a zero to maintain the six digit format. This six digit block is followed by the word "ZULU", the abbreviated name of the month. and finally by the last two digits of the year.ZULU - Designates that time is UTC(Universal Coordinated Time)Z = EST + 5 hours Z = EDT + 4 hours
76 Draft MessageDraft this message on some scrap paper first, then when you have stated it in a short, clear and concise fashion, transcribe it onto a CAP message form.It is Thursday, 2 June 1998 at 10:00 AM, Eastern Standard Time. You operate the Condor Composite Squadron Radio Station, Abenaki 141, in the New Hampshire Wing. A few minutes ago your squadron commander, Captain Smith, asked you to send a routine message to the Wing Director of Operations requesting he schedule orientation flights for 10 cadets of your squadron for one day on the weekend of 12/13 July if possible.
77 Passing the MessageLater that same day (2 JUN) you participate in your Wing's VHF/FM Net at 7:00 PM (EDT).You check into the net and “with traffic” with the net control station, Abenaki 15, your Routine message for Abenaki 4.Abenaki 4 has also joined the net.Soon the Net Control Station (NCS) directs you to send your routine message to Abenaki 4. You do, and he accepts it atThe NCS closes the net at 2329 Z (Log the net closed time.)After receiving the message completely and getting any required fills, the receiving operator acknowledges with "I acknowledge receipt of your Z APR 04 (or whatever the DTG is), OVER".
78 RepetitionsBefore an operator can give a receipt for a message. he must have correctly received the complete message.When any portion is missed, the operator must ask for a “fill”.When words are missed or doubtful, repetitions will be requested by the receiving station(s) before receipting for the message as follows: the prowords SAY AGAIN in conjunction with"ALL BEFORE ______", "ALL AFTER ______","ALL AFTER ______ and ALL BEFORE","WORD BEFORE ______" or "WORD AFTER_"In complying with requests for repetition the transmitting station will identify the portion being repeated as follows:"I SAY AGAIN ALL BEFORE ______","I SAY AGAIN ALL AFTER ______","I SAY AGAIN ALL AFTER and ALL BEFORE ______", etc.
80 Communication Nets Purpose of Nets Pass Traffic (information) from Wing or Higher Headquarters to subordinate unitsPass Traffic (information) from subordinate units to Wing or Higher HeadquartersCategories of TrafficFormalInformalAdministrativeA Formal Net is established to control the flow of traffic on a single radio channel. There are two primary net types in CAPDirected NetsFree Net
81 Net Control Station (NCS) 4/13/2017Net Control Station (NCS)Controls and directs the flow of radio traffic within their NetIs primarily responsible for net discipline.NCS is charged with the responsibility for the efficient movement of traffic within the net or network, for the relay of inter-net traffic, and for implementing the necessary measures to promote and insure circuit discipline.The decisions and instructions of the NCS in conducting the Net are final and will not be contested on the air.
82 NCS script Each wing has its own Net script Roll call 4/13/2017NCS scriptEach wing has its own Net scriptRoll calla list of call signsby Group, in some wingsATTENTION ALL PATRIOT STATIONS, THIS IS (your call) NET CONTROL STATION OPENING THE REGULAR PATRIOT NET AT (xxxx) ZULU. THIS STATION WILL PAUSE TEN SECONDS FOR ANY EMERGENCY OR OUT OF WING TRAFFIC, OVER (pause)ROLLCALL FOLLOWS. STATIONS PLEASE LIST ANY TRAFFIC ON INITIAL CHECKIN. WING STAFF STATIONS, OVER (pause)100 SERIES STATIONS, OVER (pause)200 SERIES STATIONS, OVER (continue through 900)ARE THERE ANY ADDITIONAL STATIONS, VISITORS, OR CHANGES IN TRAFFIC FOR THIS EVENING'S NET? THIS IS (your call), OVER. (pause)(pass traffic in precedence order, highest to lowest)(ask again for late stations or changes in traffic)closing the net: THIS IS (your call) NET CONTROL STATION CLOSING THE PATRIOT NET AT (xxxx) ZULU AND THANKING ALL STATIONS FOR THEIR PARTICIPATION, OUT.
83 Radio Net OperationA Formal Net is established to control the flow of traffic on a single radio channelThe Net Control Station (NCS) maintains net discipline by controlling who is talkingThe NCS must be contacted first for permission to contact another stationSample Net Check-in (Abenaki 14 is the NCS):“Abenaki 14, THIS IS Abenaki 404 with no traffic, over”
84 Formal Nets Directed Nets In this net, stations obtain permission from the net control station (NCS) prior to communicating with other stations.The net is often started with a roll call. The purpose of the roll call is to determine which members are monitoring the Net.Each station identifies itself, as called, with its CAP assigned tactical call signFollowing roll call, transmission of traffic occurs.Free NetNet Control Station (NCS) authorizes member stations to transmit traffic to other stations in the net without obtaining prior permission from the net control station.Free net operation does not relieve the control station of the responsibility for maintaining circuit discipline
85 Radio Nets - Contacting Another Station Abenaki 14NCS1Abenaki 4012Abenaki 4043All transmissions must receive permission from the Net Control Station (NCS)1 - “Abenaki 14, THIS IS Abenaki 401 with traffic for Abenaki 404 OVER”2 - “Abenaki 401, Contact Abenaki 404 with your traffic, OUT”3 - “Abenaki 404, THIS IS Abenaki 401, OVER”
86 4/13/2017Break-in ProceduresOnly emergency or urgent traffic justifies break-in procedures.A station wishing to break in will transmit at the pause with his/her station call sign.The word "Break" is not used as a break-in proword. This proword is used solely to separate message text from other portions of the message.
87 Distress and Emergency Signals MAYDAY DistressPAN UrgencySECURITE Safety}Supersedes allPriority orRoutine TrafficOperator Responsibility#1 LISTEN#2 Be Prepared to Assist#3 Do NOT Transmit Unless Your Services are NeededIt is imperative that CAP Communications personnel be familiar withthe international distress and emergency signals:MAYDAY Distress! When this signal is heard, it means that someone is in serious danger and in the need of immediate help. If this signal is heard, the operator must cease transmission immediately and monitor carefully to be able to provide assistance. Stations must not transmit if there is any possibility of interfering with the distress traffic. Any station in a position to render assistance will do so and all other stations will continue to monitor until the situation is rectified and the frequency is released for normal use.PAN Urgent Condition! This is the international urgency signal. If this signal is heard, all communications then occurring on the calling frequency are silenced. This signal’s priority is second only to MAYDAY.SECURITE Pronounced as “SEH-KUR-EEH-TAY”, this is the international radiotelephone safety signal. Takes priority over all other traffic except the distress and urgency signals.
88 PROHIBITED Operating Practices Violation of Radio SilencePersonal ConversationTransmitting in a Net without permission of NCSLack of identifying call signExcessive tuning and testingUse of Amateur Radio or Citizens Band frequencies for CAP businessOperational Violations.Unauthorized communications, poor radiotelephone procedure of a grievous nature, or unauthorized subject matter.False or Fraudulent SignalsNo person within the jurisdiction of the United States shall knowingly utter or transmit, or cause to be transmitted, any false or fraudulent signals of distress.Poor Operating PracticesPersonal conversation of any typeUse of given names or nicknames in place of authorized call signsTransmitting in a directed net without permission of the Net Control StationExcessive tuning and testingProfane, indecent, or obscene languageTechnical Violations.Off frequency operations, improper modulation, unauthorized emissionUse Of Amateur RadioThe use of frequencies in the amateur radio service to conduct CAP business including SAR/DR operations is prohibited. Members with amateur radio licenses may only use CAP frequencies for CAP operations.CAP radios may be used on the amateur frequencies only for recreational use, by a licensed amateur radio operator acting as control operator as governed by appropriate FCC Regulations
89 Safety Concerns Lightning precautions Route wires and cables out of traffic areasLocate antenna away from electrical wires and people.Properly ground all equipment - Make sure IT is the path of least resistance.
90 Mission Skills Sending a Position Report Steps to regain communicationsReporting a findReporting a ClueEmploying Appropriate FrequenciesConducting Scheduled Check-insChoosing a good Communications SiteKnowledge of Plans and ProceduresMessage Handling ProceduresCommunications Safety Procedures
91 Communications Awards, Activities and Programs 4/13/2017Communications Awards, Activities and ProgramsThe Communicator BadgeThe Senior Communicator BadgeThe Master Communicator BadgeSee CAPR for more detailsThe Communicator Badge:The basic Communicator Badge is designed to recognize those individuals involved in communications.Eligibility Criteria:Obtain the Radio Operator Permit card.Participate in one mission in any communications capacity.Participate in one communications exercise sanctioned by the Wing Director of CommunicationsActively participate in communications, checking into 25% of the local nets over a minimum of one year.Attend at least one communications meeting.The Senior Communicator Badge:The Senior Communicator Badge is designed to recognize the continuing participation of active communicators.See CAPR for eligibility criteria.Senior does not refer to Senior Members; it refers to a more advanced rating.The Master Communicator Badge:The Master Communicator Badge is designed to recognize those communicators who have graduated to the communications management function and are actively promoting communications at all echelons by their actions.
92 Cadet Eligibility for Communicator Badge 4/13/2017Cadet Eligibility for Communicator BadgeCadets are encouraged to pursue each level of the communicator badges. To do so, cadets must meet all of the training requirements listed in the appropriate section of CAPP 214 with the exception of the portions specifically intended for the senior member training program.