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P. 1Mario Deile – Machine Background Mario Deile 24.06.2008 Status of the Studies.

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Presentation on theme: "P. 1Mario Deile – Machine Background Mario Deile 24.06.2008 Status of the Studies."— Presentation transcript:

1 p. 1Mario Deile – Machine Background Mario Deile Status of the Studies

2 p. 2Mario Deile – Types of Machine Background Characteristics: 1.Beam halo from distant beam-gas interactions, betatron and momentum cleaning inefficiency: protons parallel to the beam; look like signal protons; reducible only by left-arm / right-arm coincidence scales with beam current; optics play a role. 2.Local beam-gas interaction products: reducible by cuts on: track angle, hit multiplicity scales with beam current (but also the rest-gas density changes). 3.Beam-Beam background from interactions in the IP: - diffractive proton component directly reaching detectors or showering on beam pipe - inelastic component randomised and softened by secondary interactions with machine: reducible by cuts on: track angle, hit multiplicity scales with luminosity.

3 p. 3Mario Deile – Running Conditions Luminosity [cm -2 s -1 ]  k bunches 43  2808 N protons per bunch (1  11.5) x    [m]0.5  1535 (different physics) min. det.-beam approach ~ 10  15  Beam current ~ k N Luminosity ~ k N 2 /  

4 p. 4Mario Deile – Beam Halo from Distant Beam-Gas From Igor Bayshev (IHEP): Distant beam-gas collisions (arcs beyond opposite TAS) (scaled from k = 2808, N = 1.15 x 10 11, L = cm -2 s -1 ) Detector edge No data available for the   =1540 m scenario yet  for now only estimate by scaling. Background reduction by two-arm coincidence For selecting elastic events: collinearity cut Horizontal detector

5 p. 5Mario Deile – Beam Halo from Betatron Cleaning Inefficiency From collimation group: Betatron cleaning inefficiency seen at RP 220 for  * = 0.5 m Probability of hit in RP detector per lost proton: Halo rate: f halo = f loss P halo hit Loss rate: f loss = k N /  beam lifetime  = 34 h (includes  vacuum and  IBS ) k = 2808 bunches N = 0.4 x p / bunch  f loss = 0.9 GHz f coinc = f 2 halo  t horizontal 10  + 0.5mm detector distance from beam centre vertical 10  + 0.5mm horizontal RP detector P = 1.4 x f halo = 1.3 kHz = 4.2 x / b f coinc = 0.04 Hz = 2 x / bx

6 p. 6Mario Deile – After collinearity and vertex cuts: still contamination by irreducible background (two collinear beam-halo protons) Remaining background is all at small angles  fakes small |t| [Plots from ATLAS ALFA; quantitative study still to be made by us] Beam Halo Rejection 1.Two-arm coincidence 2.Collinearity cut: exploit back-to-back signature of elastic events

7 p. 7Mario Deile – RP IP signal & background in asymmetric configuration 240m RP 240m pure background Reconstruction of Irreducible Beam Halo Background Signal and irreducible background have both an (up/down) or (down/up) signature Statistical subtraction: - (Up/up) background has the same probability as (up/down) background - Take pure background (up/up or down/down); randomly invert the sign of the y-coordinate in the left or right arm - Try to reconstruct “t” for the constructed background; if it succeeds: fake entry in t-distribution [ATLAS ALFA]

8 p. 8Mario Deile – Simulation by V. Talanov: Simulate flux of particles in the RP station at 220 m generated by beam-gas interactions and subsequent collisions with machine elements content: particle ID, x, y,  x,  y, E, stat. weight, no time or correlation info  * = 1540 m, 156 bunches, 1.15 x p/b (  L = 2.4 x s -1 cm -2 ) done: beam 1 from left TAS to right RP220 station LHC optics version 6.4 Particles included: p, n,  +,  –, e +, e –,  with E kin > 100 keV distant interactions (before left TAS) not included. TAS RP220 IP5 216m 220m scoring planeextrapolated hit Local Beam-Gas Background

9 p. 9Mario Deile – Get hits at s = 220 m Extrapolate to s = 216 m using track angle information Calculate single-pot and 2-pot coincidence rates using detector geometry For  and n GEANT4 simulation to assess interaction and detection probability Refine 2-pot angular cut with coincidence road: 216 m 220 m Include 2 neighbours into coincidence condition (determined by angular spread of signal p) Divide detector in groups of 32 strips à 66  m (~ 2 mm) Local Beam-Gas Analysis Strategy

10 p. 10Mario Deile – all traversing the scoring planesimple coincidence 216 m x 220 m Local Beam-Gas Reduction by Two-Unit Coincidence E kin : Protons and Pions

11 p. 11Mario Deile – all traversing the scoring planesimple coincidence 216 m x 220 m Local Beam-Gas Reduction by Two-Unit Coincidence E < 20 keV: photons stopped by 200  m Inconel window 20 keV < E < 100 keV: photons create isolated hits; fake tracks suppressed by majority coincidence in 5 planes per projection (u, v) within road width E > 100 keV: photons create Compton e  ; above 1 MeV: e + e  pairs  Tracks Interaction probability taken into account for background trigger rate estimate. (before inclusion of interaction prob.) E kin : Photons

12 p. 12Mario Deile – Total Single Arm Rate: 0.9 – 1.3 kHz = (5 – 7) x / b No multiplicity cuts applied. No simulation for  * = 0.5 m scenario (k = 2808, N = 0.4 x p / bunch)  Results scaled with current, correcting also for higher gas density pn ++ –– e+e+ e–e–  220 m pot344 Hz174 Hz616 Hz406 Hz4630 Hz3361 Hz94.72 kHz simple coinc. 216 x Hz131 Hz479 Hz289 Hz 75 Hz 122 Hz10.17 kHz coinc. within roads 303 Hz129 Hz385 Hz220 Hz 21 Hz 14 Hz 3.90 kHz with det. efficiency 303 Hz 13 Hz (all showers) 385 Hz220 Hz 21 Hz 14 Hz < 330 Hz (95% CL) Local Beam-Gas Rate Evolution with Cuts  * = 1540 m, k = 156 bunches, N = 1.15 x p / bunch, 2 vert. + 1 hori. detectors:

13 p. 13Mario Deile – Monitoring of Beam Halo and Beam-Gas Background Beam halo and beam-gas collision products are single-beam backgrounds.  can be measured: 1.in single-beam operation at early running 2.with empty bunch positions: e.g. bunch in beam 1 meets empty bunch position in beam 2

14 p. 14Mario Deile – Background from pp-Interactions in the IP This is based on an old simulation from 2003 with limited information: N. Mokhov et al.: FERMILAB-Conf-03/086 and LHC Project Report 633 Simulation of background at L = cm -2 s -1 from: pp in IP5 (minimum bias with DPMJET) beam-gas scattering: contributes 0.1% – 1% Information available: fluxes of charged hadrons, neutrons, electrons, photons averaged over Si detectors at RP positions; but no angle or energy distributions at these positions; no multiplicity information. angular distributions at TAN to study efficiency of angular cuts New data are available  summer student project for Jiri Prochazka: detailed particle information at IP, TAN, RP147, RP220

15 p. 15Mario Deile – Beam-Beam Background: TOTEM Subtract peak of diffractive protons (|y| < 2 mm) (signal for TOTEM) to obtain pure background. Inversely: accepting only diffractive region cuts background rate by factor ch. hadronsne+-  total before cuts after angular cuts and effic – – – – – 3.0 Selecting diffract. region 0.06 – 0.3 Beam-beam background rate [MHz] for 1 horizontal detector at L = cm -2 s -1 : charged hadrons in horizontal detector at RP220

16 p. 16Mario Deile – Selection of Diffractive Region (   = 0.5 m) DPE signal peaked in narrow band Background almost flat  Reduce background rate by selecting diffractive region: yy No cut  y = 12 mm  y = 8 mm  y = 4 mm Signal: 0.06 mb Backg.: 100 % x 0.95 ~ 30 % x 0.69 ~ 10 % x 0.88 ~ 20 %

17 p. 17Mario Deile – L = s -1 cm -2 (k = 156, N = 7.4 x p / b)  * = 1540 m 2 vertical + 1 horizontal detector L = s -1 cm -2 (k = 2808, N = 4 x p / b)  * = 0.5 m 1 horizontal detector only Local Beam-Gas (single arm) before cuts: 246 x / b (b=bunch) (hadrons: 3.6 x / b) after cuts: 3.0 x / b 2 nd background before cuts: 248 x / b after cuts: 1.9 x / b 2 nd leading background Beam-Beam (single arm) before cuts: 177 x / b (?) after cuts: (0.4 ÷ 2) x / b (?) 3 rd background before cuts: 6 / b (?) after cuts: (0.02 ÷ 0.1) / b (?) 1 st leading background Beam Halo (single arm) Betatron cleaning: 1 x / b distant beam-gas: 11 x / b 1 st background Betatron cleaning: 0.4 x / b distant beam-gas: 22 x / b 3 rd background 2-arm coincidence(237 ÷ 289) x / bx( ÷ 0.01) / bx Signal (example)17 x / bx (elastic events)0.003 / bx (DPE events) S/B(0.6 ÷ 0.7) x 10 3 improvable with collinearity cut 7.5 ÷ 0.3 selecting diffract. det. regions: factor 10 2 TOTEM Summary: Background Estimates Rates for RP 220:

18 p. 18Mario Deile – Summary At L s -1 cm -2 p-p induced background takes over p-p induced background to be studied further (data available) Comparisons between forward experiments show that scaling with luminosity or current does not give very consistent results. Measurement of single-beam background (beam-gas, halo): single-beam runs non-colliding bunches in two-beam operation Possible identification of p-p background: Look at the whole event (RPs, T1, T2, ZDC!) Effectiveness unclear; to be studied.

19 p. 19Mario Deile – Reserve

20 p. 20Mario Deile – Beam Halo Simulation from Collimation Group Beam halo distributions at specific locations in the ring for  * = 0.5 m. Examples at 220 m: For horizontal losses: For vertical losses: x[mm] y[mm] x[mm] y[mm]

21 p. 21Mario Deile – Beam Halo at  * = 0.5 m k = 2808 bunches N = 0.4 x p / bunch  = 34 h f loss = 0.9 GHz (assume f loss,hori = f loss vert ) f halo for correctly-shaped detectors at 10  mm: 1 horizontal RP detector P = 2 x f halo = 1.8 kHz = 4.5 x / b f coinc = 0.08 Hz = 2 x / bx 2 vertical RP detectors P = 1 x f halo = 0.9 kHz = 2.3 x / b f coinc = 0.02 Hz = 0.5 x / bx 1 hori. + 2 vert. det. – overlap P = 2.5 x f halo = 2.3 kHz = 5.6 x / b f coinc = 0.12 Hz = 3.1 x / bx single arm double arm

22 p. 22Mario Deile – all traversing the scoring planesimple coincidence 216 m x 220 m E kin : Protons and Neutrons estimated neutron – detector interaction probability: 0.5 %

23 p. 23Mario Deile – all traversing the scoring planesimple coincidence 216 m x 220 m E kin : Pions

24 p. 24Mario Deile – all traversing the scoring planesimple coincidence 216 m x 220 m E kin : Electrons and Positrons

25 p. 25Mario Deile – 100 keV E < 20 keV: photons stopped by 200  m Inconel window 20 keV < E < 100 keV: photons create isolated hits; fake tracks suppressed by majority coincidence in 5 planes per projection (u, v) within road width: E > 100 keV: photons create Compton e  ; above 1 MeV: e + e  pairs  Tracks Photons in Silicon

26 p. 26Mario Deile – Total Single Arm Rate: 340 – 440 Hz for k = 156 bunches, N = 1.15 x p / bunch (= 2 x / b) No multiplicity cuts applied. pn ++ –– e+e+ e–e–  220 m pot131 Hz 68 Hz 223 Hz 196 Hz2054 Hz1392 Hz38.86 kHz simple coinc. 216 x Hz49 Hz143 Hz135 Hz 26 Hz 21 Hz3.2 kHz coinc. within roads 113 Hz48 Hz115 Hz103 Hz 7 Hz 2 Hz 1.2 kHz with det. efficiency 113 Hz 5 Hz (all showers) 115 Hz103 Hz 7 Hz 2 Hz < 100 Hz (95% CL) Beam-Gas Rate Evolution with Cuts k = 156 bunches, N = 1.15 x p / bunch (1 horizontal detector only):

27 p. 27Mario Deile – available: simple beam-gas simulation: Pythia p(7TeV)-p(rest) interaction position distribution flat from -20 m to +15 m beam-gas rate from rest-gas densities (A. Rossi): for 156 bunches à 1.15 x p/b: Interaction rate: kNc/l LHC   i  i = 0.4 Hz/m per beam from left TAS (aperture limit) to right T2: (20 m + 14 m) x 0.4 Hz/m = 13.6 Hz per beam missing: impact of more distant interactions full simulation with full geometry (shieldings etc.), 2 scoring planes: entrances of T1, T2; details: particle energies, angles, bunch crossing information muon halo in CMS Backgrounds in T1/T2 Gas X  (p - X) [mb]  [molec./m 3 ] H2H x CH x CO x 10 8 CO x 10 8


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