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Energy is the ability to do work. Which of these is not a form of energy? electrical light heat friction.

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Presentation on theme: "Energy is the ability to do work. Which of these is not a form of energy? electrical light heat friction."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Energy is the ability to do work.

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4 Which of these is not a form of energy? electrical light heat friction

5 Copper wire Electro magnetism e -1 e -1 Magnetic Field 90˚

6 e -1 e -1 Magnetic Field e -1 e -1 Electro magnetism

7 Electro magnetism e -1 e -1

8 Electromagnet permanent magnet

9 The Speaker Coil paper cone

10 Splitting a magnet.

11 The Earth is a magnet.

12 The Law of Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed. E= m x C 2

13 Matter can be converted into energy.

14 Energy given off when there is a change in the nucleus of atoms.

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16 Electrical Energy the force of moving electrons.

17 Electrical EnergyElectrical Energy (electricity) energy resulting from the force between two objects having different voltages.

18 Voltage The potential energy of the electrons in a circuit. Voltage The potential energy of the electrons in a circuit.

19 Current The amount of electrons flowing in a circuit.

20 Resistance How much the circuit impedes the flow of electrons. Resistance How much the circuit impedes the flow of electrons.

21 Electricity filament

22 Electricity - electrons moving through a metal wire.

23 D.C. Direct Current A.C. Alternating Current

24 Atomic Absorption

25 Atomic Emission Magic is technology that is not understood.

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28 Flame test

29 A television is an Electron Gun

30 9V +- with dc voltage Generating an Electric Field -+

31 9V +- dc voltage Generating an Electric Field e -1 e -1 -+

32 Static electricity

33 Static Electricity when a material has an excess or a lack of electrons.

34 A Capacitor holds a charge on its plates.

35 Electrical Energy Induction Thermocouple (copper & nickel or copper & iron)

36 Circuits Series Parallel Circuits Series Parallel

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38 Lamp 1Lamp 2 Switch 1Switch 2

39 Short circuit

40 Foil (glued onto bottom half of stick) Wire coil (covered with glue) Wire ends (stripped) Coil tube Wood shtick El Motor ‘

41 Foil (through bottom of holes) Magnets Motor Box

42 Circuit Board

43 Integrated circuits

44 On a hot day, Jenny walked home with a bag of chocolate chips. When she arrived the chocolate chips had melted in the bag. Why did they melt? Heat transferred from the chocolate chips to the bag. Heat evaporated from the bag to the chocolate chips. Heat transferred from the environment to the chocolate chips. Heat condensed from her hand to the chocolate chips.

45 Energy appears in many forms. What form of energy is lightning? electrical energy mechanical energy magnetic energy sound energy

46 A glass of water kept at room temperature long enough will become empty because water molecules slowly leak through the walls of the glass. water molecules move into the air as gas molecules. water left in a glass starts to boil and becomes a gas. water slowly combines with oxygen to become carbon dioxide.

47 Water that flows from behind a large dam can cause machines to produce electricity. What change takes place? Heat energy changes into mechanical energy. Sound energy changes into electrical energy. Chemical energy is used to produce electrical energy. Mechanical energy is used to produce electrical energy

48 When ice cream is left out of the freezer on a table for a long time, it melts. This change in state is caused by the ice cream absorbing heat. ice cream giving up heat. air absorbing heat. table absorbing heat

49 People in many places in California produce their electricity from wind energy. Which must be true about the winds in these places in California? The winds are cold. The winds blow very little. The winds blow most of the time. The winds blow mostly in the morning.

50 A block of ice on a glass plate is put on a metal shelf in a freezer. Which could cause the ice to change to liquid water? putting a fan that blows on the ice inside the closed freezer raising the temperature inside the freezer wrapping a blanket around the ice inside the freezer putting the ice directly on the metal shelf inside the freezer

51 When water boils in a pan on a hot burner, heat gets to the water mainly by… conduction of heat through the pan. radiation of heat through the pan. reflection of heat from the burner. absorption of heat from the air in the room When water boils in a pan on a hot burner, heat gets to the water mainly by… conduction of heat through the pan. radiation of heat through the pan. reflection of heat from the burner. absorption of heat from the air in the room

52 When a hair dryer is being used, one of the energy transformations that takes place is electrical to chemical. electrical to mechanical. mechanical to electrical. chemical to electrical

53 When electrical energy is "used" by an electric light, what really happens to the energy? It is given off as other forms of energy. It changes to matter. It stops at the electric light. It disappears

54 To pull up a bucket of water from a well, George pulled hard on a handle to wind up a rope. Which kind of energy was George applying to the handle? chemical energy frictional energy potential energy mechanical energy

55 Josie sees lightning off in the distance. A few seconds later she hears thunder. What can Josie conclude? Sound waves do not travel long distances. Light waves travel faster than sound waves. Sound waves are weaker than light waves. Light waves last longer than sound waves

56 Mariam's mother had an ultrasound to see the baby growing inside of her. Which statement explains how ultrasound works? A special cream is heated and placed on her mother's stomach area, which produces an image on a computer. A fluorescent light is used to transmit light waves into her mother's body, which produce an image on a computer. Sound waves are sent into her mother's body, which reflect off of the baby and produce an image on a computer. A type of medicine is injected into her mother, which causes an image of the baby to be produced on a computer Mariam's mother had an ultrasound to see the baby growing inside of her. Which statement explains how ultrasound works? A special cream is heated and placed on her mother's stomach area, which produces an image on a computer. A fluorescent light is used to transmit light waves into her mother's body, which produce an image on a computer. Sound waves are sent into her mother's body, which reflect off of the baby and produce an image on a computer. A type of medicine is injected into her mother, which causes an image of the baby to be produced on a computer How do microwaves cook food? by using electromagnetic waves and the process of radiation by using forced hot air currents through the process of convection by using the movement of charged particles through the process of induction by using direct contact of moving particles through the process of conduction Energy and Its Transformation S8P2. Students will be familiar with the forms and transformations of energy. d. Describe how heat can be transferred through matter by the collisions of atoms (conduction) or through space (radiation). In a liquid or gas, currents will facilitate the transfer of heat (convection). d. Describe how heat can be transferred through matter by the collisions of atoms (conduction) or through space (radiation). In a liquid or gas, currents will facilitate the transfer of heat (convection). 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3003 Level: 2 Bill and Mary wanted to have a snack after school. They heated some milk in a pot on the stove to make hot chocolate. They also popped some popcorn in the microwave oven. How did Bill and Mary transfer heat energy to make these snacks? heating milk by radiation; popping popcorn by radiation heating milk by radiation; popping popcorn by convection heating milk by conduction; popping popcorn by radiation heating milk by convection; popping popcorn by conduction Energy and Its Transformation S8P2. Students will be familiar with the forms and transformations of energy. d. Describe how heat can be transferred through matter by the collisions of atoms (conduction) or through space (radiation). In a liquid or gas, currents will facilitate the transfer of heat (convection). d. Describe how heat can be transferred through matter by the collisions of atoms (conduction) or through space (radiation). In a liquid or gas, currents will facilitate the transfer of heat (convection). 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3009 Level: 2 Bill pulls a rubber band tight to shoot a piece of paper. At the point when the rubber band is stretched to its maximum, compare and contrast the amounts of potential and kinetic energy. there is no potential or kinetic energy all potential energy and no kinetic energy all kinetic energy and no potential energy equal amounts of potential and kinetic energy Energy and Its Transformation S8P2. Students will be familiar with the forms and transformations of energy. b. Explain the relationship between potential and kinetic energy. b. Explain the relationship between potential and kinetic energy. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3010 Level: 2 In the simple act of lighting a match, chemical energy stored in the match head is transformed into heat and light. What is true about this energy transformation? Most of the energy is lost when the match is struck. New energy in the form of light and heat is created when the match is struck. All of the potential chemical energy is transformed into heat and light energy. Some of the chemical energy is transformed into heat and light and the rest is converted into matter. Energy and Its Transformation S8P2. Students will be familiar with the forms and transformations of energy. a. Explain energy transformation in terms of the Law of Conservation of Energy. a. Explain energy transformation in terms of the Law of Conservation of Energy. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3011 Level: 2 Sound, mechanical, heat, and electrical energy all involve the movement of particles in some way but only one involves the movement of charged particles. Which type of energy involves the movement of charged particles? heat sound electrical mechanical Energy and Its Transformation S8P2. Students will be familiar with the forms and transformations of energy. c. Compare and contrast the different forms of energy (heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, sound) and their characteristics. c. Compare and contrast the different forms of energy (heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, sound) and their characteristics. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3012 Level: 2 Predict the energy transformation that occurs when Carson sands a piece of wood with sandpaper. chemical energy to heat energy heat energy to mechanical energy mechanical energy to heat energy mechanical energy to chemical energy Energy and Its Transformation S8P2. Students will be familiar with the forms and transformations of energy. a. Explain energy transformation in terms of the Law of Conservation of Energy. a. Explain energy transformation in terms of the Law of Conservation of Energy. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3014 Level: 2 Gasoline, wood, water behind a dam, and a boulder on the edge of a cliff all represent some form of potential energy. What form of potential energy do gasoline and wood have in common? heat light chemical mechanical Energy and Its Transformation S8P2. Students will be familiar with the forms and transformations of energy. c. Compare and contrast the different forms of energy (heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, sound) and their characteristics. c. Compare and contrast the different forms of energy (heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, sound) and their characteristics. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3018 Level: 2 On a cold, winter day, Sheena rubs her hands together. Stored chemical energy is transformed into mechanical energy. Due to the Law of Conservation of Energy some of the energy is also transformed into heat energy. light energy. solar energy. kinetic energy. Energy and Its Transformation S8P2. Students will be familiar with the forms and transformations of energy. a. Explain energy transformation in terms of the Law of Conservation of Energy. a. Explain energy transformation in terms of the Law of Conservation of Energy. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3019 Level: 2 What form of energy is associated with the movement of charges, usually electrons? chemical electrical heat sound Energy and Its Transformation S8P2. Students will be familiar with the forms and transformations of energy. c. Compare and contrast the different forms of energy (heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, sound) and their characteristics. c. Compare and contrast the different forms of energy (heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, sound) and their characteristics. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3028 Level: 2 __________ energy is produced when a force causes a substance to vibrate, and the energy is transferred through the substance in a wave. Heat Light Mechanical Sound Energy and Its Transformation S8P2. Students will be familiar with the forms and transformations of energy. c. Compare and contrast the different forms of energy (heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, sound) and their characteristics. c. Compare and contrast the different forms of energy (heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, sound) and their characteristics. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3144 Level: 2 All waves transmit energy. mass. matter. radiation. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. a. Identify the characteristics of electromagnetic and mechanical waves. a. Identify the characteristics of electromagnetic and mechanical waves. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3145 Level: 2 Which of these is one way that mechanical waves differ from electromagnetic waves? Mechanical waves require energy and electromagnetic waves do not. Mechanical waves require a medium and electromagnetic waves do not. Electromagnetic waves require a medium and mechanical waves do not. Mechanical waves transmit matter and electromagnetic waves transmit energy Electromagnetic waves and mechanical waves are alike and different. What is one way in which these waves are similar? Both types of waves require a medium. Both types of waves have a frequency. Both types of waves transmit matter. Both types of waves have a pitch. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. a. Identify the characteristics of electromagnetic and mechanical waves. a. Identify the characteristics of electromagnetic and mechanical waves. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3147 Level: 2 You are sitting on the edge of a pool with your legs in the water. As light waves pass from the pool into the air, it looks like your legs are not attached at the knees where they meet the water. This is because light waves _______________ when they pass from one medium to another. are amplified diffract reflect refract Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. b. Describe how the behavior of light waves is manipulated causing reflection, refraction, diffraction, and absorption. b. Describe how the behavior of light waves is manipulated causing reflection, refraction, diffraction, and absorption. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3148 Level: 2 The speed of a sound wave depends MOSTLY on the amplitude of the wave. the frequency of the wave. the angle at which it approaches the listener. the medium through which the wave travels. A tuning fork with a frequency of 404 Hertz is struck with a soft hammer. The fork is struck a second time by the same hammer with twice as much force, and the volume, or amplitude, increases by a factor of two. What will the frequency of the second sound be? 101 Hertz 202 Hertz 404 Hertz 808 Hertz Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. f. Diagram the parts of the wave and explain how the parts are affected by changes in amplitude and pitch. f. Diagram the parts of the wave and explain how the parts are affected by changes in amplitude and pitch. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3152 Level: 2 The waves in the pool where you are floating have a crest height of about 1 foot. Bobby does a cannonball dive off the side of the pool and sends waves 4 feet high toward your raft. The waves that Bobby produced have a greater amplitude. compression. frequency. wavelength. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. f. Diagram the parts of the wave and explain how the parts are affected by changes in amplitude and pitch. f. Diagram the parts of the wave and explain how the parts are affected by changes in amplitude and pitch. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3188 Level: 2 There are two basic finishes to most paper, glossy and matte. A glossy finish is used to produce a higher finish quality, for instance the cover of a magazine. A matte finish is used to produce a softer finish with less glare, for instance your notebook paper. If you were to compare both of these surfaces under a high-powered microscope, how would they differ? The matte surface would be much rougher. The glossy surface would contain more fibers of white paper. The glossy surface would be still, while the matte surface would appear to move slightly. The matte surface would be solid, while the glossy surface would appear to have small holes. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. b. Describe how the behavior of light waves is manipulated causing reflection, refraction, diffraction, and absorption. b. Describe how the behavior of light waves is manipulated causing reflection, refraction, diffraction, and absorption. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3189 Level: 2 You can see your image in a shiny, flat surface because lights waves bounce directly back at you and your eyes. This is an example of diffraction. reflection. refraction. transparency. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. b. Describe how the behavior of light waves is manipulated causing reflection, refraction, diffraction, and absorption. b. Describe how the behavior of light waves is manipulated causing reflection, refraction, diffraction, and absorption. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3190 Level: 2 You can observe the color of your friends shirt with your eyes because the shirt produces light waves. the shirt releases light waves. light is reflected off of the shirt. light is transmitted from the shirt. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. c. Explain how the human eye sees objects and colors in terms of wavelengths. c. Explain how the human eye sees objects and colors in terms of wavelengths. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3202 Level: 2 Green plants look "green" because they transmit green light. reflect green wavelengths of the visible spectrum. absorb green wavelengths of the visible spectrum. reflect blue and yellow wavelengths of the visible spectrum. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. c. Explain how the human eye sees objects and colors in terms of wavelengths. c. Explain how the human eye sees objects and colors in terms of wavelengths. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3206 Level: 2 You and your father inspect an empty house with the hopes of buying it. You walk through the rooms talking to one another, and you notice that your voices and footsteps are echoing in the big, empty house. What causes the echo? sound waves moving slowly through air sound waves moving around the large rooms sound waves refracting around corners in the empty rooms sound waves reflecting off smooth, flat surfaces throughout the house Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. e. Relate the properties of sound to everyday experiences. e. Relate the properties of sound to everyday experiences. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3208 Level: 2 Imagine a ringing bell set inside a sealed glass jar. Once all the air is removed and a vacuum is created, the ringing sound is no longer heard. Explain why this happens. The glass prevents any sound from escaping. The lack of air in the jar causes the ringing to stop. Without air, the sound waves cannot travel to the ear. The pressure of the outside air causes the sound to remain within the jar. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. d. Describe how the behavior of waves is affected by medium. d. Describe how the behavior of waves is affected by medium. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3215 Level: 2 Lenny is looking at a sheet of paper that reflects all wavelengths of the visible spectrum that hit it. Lenny is looking at a sheet of paper that appears to be black. violet. red. white. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. c. Explain how the human eye sees objects and colors in terms of wavelengths. c. Explain how the human eye sees objects and colors in terms of wavelengths. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3216 Level: 2 Sound waves are transmitted fastest through air. liquids. solids. a vacuum. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. d. Describe how the behavior of waves is affected by medium. d. Describe how the behavior of waves is affected by medium. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3225 Level: 2 It was a cold, sunny day and the ground was covered with fresh snow. Maria wore her black sweatshirt outside to play in the snow. She knew that black would __________ light waves and help keep her warm. absorb diffract reflect refract Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. b. Describe how the behavior of light waves is manipulated causing reflection, refraction, diffraction, and absorption. b. Describe how the behavior of light waves is manipulated causing reflection, refraction, diffraction, and absorption Why does the human eye observe the different colors of a rainbow? White light is broken down in the eye into its separate colors. Different colors of light travel at different speeds to the eye. The eye sees different wavelengths of light as different colors. The eye sees different colors of light in different locations of the eye As the fire truck approached Mary, the pitch of the siren got higher. Once the fire truck passed and moved away, the siren's pitch got lower. This change in pitch is because of a change in the sound wave's amplitude. concussion. frequency. reflection. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. e. Relate the properties of sound to everyday experiences. e. Relate the properties of sound to everyday experiences. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3261 Level: 2 Porous building materials are often used on the surfaces in classrooms and restaurants because these surface tend to ____________ sound waves. absorb refract reflect transmit Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. e. Relate the properties of sound to everyday experiences. e. Relate the properties of sound to everyday experiences. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3266 Level: 2 As light waves pass through openings in a barrier or around the edges of an object, the waves change direction or are absorbed. diffract. reflect. refract. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. b. Describe how the behavior of light waves is manipulated causing reflection, refraction, diffraction, and absorption. b. Describe how the behavior of light waves is manipulated causing reflection, refraction, diffraction, and absorption. 8/18/2008 Item: VA03SC0810 Level: 2 The distance between one point on a compression and the corresponding point on the next compression in a sound wave is called a — wavelength. rarefaction. crest. trough. Which of the following is an example of kinetic energy? A baseball moving from the pitcher to the catcher A rock sitting on the top of a large hill A pendulum at the top of its swing A new flashlight battery Permission has been granted for reproduction by the Virginia Department of Education © Virginia Department of Education Energy and Its Transformation S8P2. Students will be familiar with the forms and transformations of energy. b. Explain the relationship between potential and kinetic energy. b. Explain the relationship between potential and kinetic energy. 8/13/2008 Item: VA04SC0503 Level: 2 The energy used to move most bicycles is an example of what type of energy? Electrical Mechanical Chemical Nuclear

57 Gasoline, wood, water behind a dam, and a boulder on the edge of a cliff all represent some form of potential energy. What form of potential energy do gasoline and wood have in common? heat light chemical mechanical Energy and Its Transformation S8P2. Students will be familiar with the forms and transformations of energy. a. Explain energy transformation in terms of the Law of Conservation of Energy. a. Explain energy transformation in terms of the Law of Conservation of Energy. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3019 Level: 2 What form of energy is associated with the movement of charges, usually electrons? chemical electrical heat sound Energy and Its Transformation S8P2. Students will be familiar with the forms and transformations of energy. c. Compare and contrast the different forms of energy (heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, sound) and their characteristics. c. Compare and contrast the different forms of energy (heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, sound) and their characteristics. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3028 Level: 2 __________ energy is produced when a force causes a substance to vibrate, and the energy is transferred through the substance in a wave. Heat Light Mechanical Sound Energy and Its Transformation S8P2. Students will be familiar with the forms and transformations of energy. c. Compare and contrast the different forms of energy (heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, sound) and their characteristics. c. Compare and contrast the different forms of energy (heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, sound) and their characteristics. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3144 Level: 2 All waves transmit energy. mass. matter. radiation. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. a. Identify the characteristics of electromagnetic and mechanical waves. a. Identify the characteristics of electromagnetic and mechanical waves. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3145 Level: 2 Which of these is one way that mechanical waves differ from electromagnetic waves? Mechanical waves require energy and electromagnetic waves do not. Mechanical waves require a medium and electromagnetic waves do not. Electromagnetic waves require a medium and mechanical waves do not. Mechanical waves transmit matter and electromagnetic waves transmit energy Electromagnetic waves and mechanical waves are alike and different. What is one way in which these waves are similar? Both types of waves require a medium. Both types of waves have a frequency. Both types of waves transmit matter. Both types of waves have a pitch. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. a. Identify the characteristics of electromagnetic and mechanical waves. a. Identify the characteristics of electromagnetic and mechanical waves. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3147 Level: 2 You are sitting on the edge of a pool with your legs in the water. As light waves pass from the pool into the air, it looks like your legs are not attached at the knees where they meet the water. This is because light waves _______________ when they pass from one medium to another. are amplified diffract reflect refract Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. b. Describe how the behavior of light waves is manipulated causing reflection, refraction, diffraction, and absorption. b. Describe how the behavior of light waves is manipulated causing reflection, refraction, diffraction, and absorption. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3148 Level: 2 The speed of a sound wave depends MOSTLY on the amplitude of the wave. the frequency of the wave. the angle at which it approaches the listener. the medium through which the wave travels. A tuning fork with a frequency of 404 Hertz is struck with a soft hammer. The fork is struck a second time by the same hammer with twice as much force, and the volume, or amplitude, increases by a factor of two. What will the frequency of the second sound be? 101 Hertz 202 Hertz 404 Hertz 808 Hertz Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. f. Diagram the parts of the wave and explain how the parts are affected by changes in amplitude and pitch. f. Diagram the parts of the wave and explain how the parts are affected by changes in amplitude and pitch. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3152 Level: 2 The waves in the pool where you are floating have a crest height of about 1 foot. Bobby does a cannonball dive off the side of the pool and sends waves 4 feet high toward your raft. The waves that Bobby produced have a greater amplitude. compression. frequency. wavelength. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. f. Diagram the parts of the wave and explain how the parts are affected by changes in amplitude and pitch. f. Diagram the parts of the wave and explain how the parts are affected by changes in amplitude and pitch. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3188 Level: 2 There are two basic finishes to most paper, glossy and matte. A glossy finish is used to produce a higher finish quality, for instance the cover of a magazine. A matte finish is used to produce a softer finish with less glare, for instance your notebook paper. If you were to compare both of these surfaces under a high-powered microscope, how would they differ? The matte surface would be much rougher. The glossy surface would contain more fibers of white paper. The glossy surface would be still, while the matte surface would appear to move slightly. The matte surface would be solid, while the glossy surface would appear to have small holes. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. b. Describe how the behavior of light waves is manipulated causing reflection, refraction, diffraction, and absorption. b. Describe how the behavior of light waves is manipulated causing reflection, refraction, diffraction, and absorption. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3189 Level: 2 You can see your image in a shiny, flat surface because lights waves bounce directly back at you and your eyes. This is an example of diffraction. reflection. refraction. transparency. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. b. Describe how the behavior of light waves is manipulated causing reflection, refraction, diffraction, and absorption. b. Describe how the behavior of light waves is manipulated causing reflection, refraction, diffraction, and absorption. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3190 Level: 2 You can observe the color of your friends shirt with your eyes because the shirt produces light waves. the shirt releases light waves. light is reflected off of the shirt. light is transmitted from the shirt. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. c. Explain how the human eye sees objects and colors in terms of wavelengths. c. Explain how the human eye sees objects and colors in terms of wavelengths. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3202 Level: 2 Green plants look "green" because they transmit green light. reflect green wavelengths of the visible spectrum. absorb green wavelengths of the visible spectrum. reflect blue and yellow wavelengths of the visible spectrum. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. c. Explain how the human eye sees objects and colors in terms of wavelengths. c. Explain how the human eye sees objects and colors in terms of wavelengths. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3206 Level: 2 You and your father inspect an empty house with the hopes of buying it. You walk through the rooms talking to one another, and you notice that your voices and footsteps are echoing in the big, empty house. What causes the echo? sound waves moving slowly through air sound waves moving around the large rooms sound waves refracting around corners in the empty rooms sound waves reflecting off smooth, flat surfaces throughout the house Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. e. Relate the properties of sound to everyday experiences. e. Relate the properties of sound to everyday experiences. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3208 Level: 2 Imagine a ringing bell set inside a sealed glass jar. Once all the air is removed and a vacuum is created, the ringing sound is no longer heard. Explain why this happens. The glass prevents any sound from escaping. The lack of air in the jar causes the ringing to stop. Without air, the sound waves cannot travel to the ear. The pressure of the outside air causes the sound to remain within the jar. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. d. Describe how the behavior of waves is affected by medium. d. Describe how the behavior of waves is affected by medium. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3215 Level: 2 Lenny is looking at a sheet of paper that reflects all wavelengths of the visible spectrum that hit it. Lenny is looking at a sheet of paper that appears to be black. violet. red. white. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. c. Explain how the human eye sees objects and colors in terms of wavelengths. c. Explain how the human eye sees objects and colors in terms of wavelengths. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3216 Level: 2 Sound waves are transmitted fastest through air. liquids. solids. a vacuum. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. d. Describe how the behavior of waves is affected by medium. d. Describe how the behavior of waves is affected by medium. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3225 Level: 2 It was a cold, sunny day and the ground was covered with fresh snow. Maria wore her black sweatshirt outside to play in the snow. She knew that black would __________ light waves and help keep her warm. absorb diffract reflect refract Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. b. Describe how the behavior of light waves is manipulated causing reflection, refraction, diffraction, and absorption. b. Describe how the behavior of light waves is manipulated causing reflection, refraction, diffraction, and absorption Why does the human eye observe the different colors of a rainbow? White light is broken down in the eye into its separate colors. Different colors of light travel at different speeds to the eye. The eye sees different wavelengths of light as different colors. The eye sees different colors of light in different locations of the eye As the fire truck approached Mary, the pitch of the siren got higher. Once the fire truck passed and moved away, the siren's pitch got lower. This change in pitch is because of a change in the sound wave's amplitude. concussion. frequency. reflection. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. e. Relate the properties of sound to everyday experiences. e. Relate the properties of sound to everyday experiences. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3261 Level: 2 Porous building materials are often used on the surfaces in classrooms and restaurants because these surface tend to ____________ sound waves. absorb refract reflect transmit Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. e. Relate the properties of sound to everyday experiences. e. Relate the properties of sound to everyday experiences. 8/18/2008 Item: UTPSC3266 Level: 2 As light waves pass through openings in a barrier or around the edges of an object, the waves change direction or are absorbed. diffract. reflect. refract. Energy and Its Transformation S8P4. Students will explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation. b. Describe how the behavior of light waves is manipulated causing reflection, refraction, diffraction, and absorption. b. Describe how the behavior of light waves is manipulated causing reflection, refraction, diffraction, and absorption. 8/18/2008 Item: VA03SC0810 Level: 2 The distance between one point on a compression and the corresponding point on the next compression in a sound wave is called a — wavelength. rarefaction. crest. trough. Which of the following is an example of kinetic energy? A baseball moving from the pitcher to the catcher A rock sitting on the top of a large hill A pendulum at the top of its swing A new flashlight battery Permission has been granted for reproduction by the Virginia Department of Education © Virginia Department of Education Energy and Its Transformation S8P2. Students will be familiar with the forms and transformations of energy. b. Explain the relationship between potential and kinetic energy. b. Explain the relationship between potential and kinetic energy. 8/13/2008 Item: VA04SC0503 Level: 2 The energy used to move most bicycles is an example of what type of energy? Electrical Mechanical Chemical Nuclear

58 On a cold, winter day, Sheena rubs her hands together. Stored chemical energy is transformed into mechanical energy. Due to the Law of Conservation of Energy some of the energy is also transformed into heat energy. light energy. solar energy. kinetic energy.

59 Predict the energy transformation that occurs when Carson sands a piece of wood with sandpaper. chemical energy to heat energy heat energy to mechanical energy mechanical energy to heat energy mechanical energy to chemical energy

60 Which type of energy involves the movement of charged particles? heat sound electrical mechanical

61 In the simple act of lighting a match, chemical energy stored in the match head is transformed into heat and light. What is true about this energy transformation? Most of the energy is lost when the match is struck. New energy in the form of light and heat is created when the match is struck. All of the potential chemical energy is transformed into heat and light energy. Some of the chemical energy is transformed into heat and light and the rest is converted into matter.

62 For a snack, Bill and Mary heated milk in a pot on the stove for hot chocolate and popped some popcorn in the microwave oven. How did they transfer heat energy to make these snacks? heating milk by radiation; popping popcorn by radiation heating milk by radiation; popping popcorn by convection heating milk by conduction; popping popcorn by radiation heating milk by convection; popping popcorn by conduction

63 K°C°FKelvin Celsius Celsius Fahrenheit Fahrenheit

64 Hot Liquid Cool Liquid Thermal Expansion As a substance is heated, it occupies more space. Thermal Expansion As a substance is heated, it occupies more space.

65 Expansion joints

66 Bi-metallic strip two layers of different metals. Brass: a = 19 x 10-6 C-1 Steel: a = 11 x 10-6 C-1

67 Thermal Expansion HEAT

68 Joe put a cheeseburger sealed in a plastic bag into the microwave, without much air in the bag. After it cooked, the bag was full of air. Where did the air come from? It came from the fan in the microwave. It came out of the cheeseburger. It was already in the bag and it expanded as it was heated. It came from a chemical reaction whereby energy from the microwave creates O 2 molecules.

69 4/29/ Electromagnetic radiation

70 In which state of matter are molecules in contact with each other but free to move around? solid liquid gas plasma In which state of matter are molecules in contact with each other but free to move around? solid liquid gas plasma

71 Kinetic Molecular Theory A substance has molecules moving at different velocities in different directions, and colliding into each other and their container.

72 Thermal Energy The kinetic energy of all the molecules of a substance. Thermal Energy The kinetic energy of all the molecules of a substance.

73 Temperature The average speed of the molecules of a substance. Temperature The average speed of the molecules of a substance.

74 Heat Transfer of thermal energy. Heat Transfer of thermal energy.

75 The bulb of a thermometer is placed in your mouth. Which of the following explains why the level of the liquid rises in the thermometer? Hot air rises inside the thermometer. Heat energy changes into light energy. The liquid expands when heated. Heat can change a solid into a liquid.

76 Most events in the universe involve some form of energy transfer.

77 Energy transfer turning energy from one form, into another.

78 The major reason for burning gasoline in an automobile engine is to convert chemical energy to mechanical energy. kinetic energy to potential energy. radiation to electrical energy. thermal energy to electrical energy.

79 A light bulb changes electrical energy into light energy only. heat and mechanical energy. light and heat energy. light and mechanical energy.

80 Conductor Something that allows thermal energy to pass easily Metal Water Glass

81 Insulator Something that does NOT allow thermal energy to pass easily Insulator Something that does NOT allow thermal energy to pass easily

82 Insulator Something that does NOT allow thermal energy to pass easily. Insulator Something that does NOT allow thermal energy to pass easily.

83 Conduction the transfer of thermal energy/electrons when objects contact each other. Conduction the transfer of thermal energy/electrons when objects contact each other. collisions of atoms

84 Which of the following best explains why the end of a spoon sticking out of a cup of hot water also gets hot? The hot water causes a chemical reaction to take place in the spoon. The heat from the hot water is conducted to the spoon handle. The hot water heats the air surrounding the upper part of the spoon. The hot water causes a physical change in the spoon handle Which of the following best explains why the end of a spoon sticking out of a cup of hot water also gets hot? The hot water causes a chemical reaction to take place in the spoon. The heat from the hot water is conducted to the spoon handle. The hot water heats the air surrounding the upper part of the spoon. The hot water causes a physical change in the spoon handle

85 Convection Heating, due to the upward current of hotter material. Heating, due to the upward current of hotter material.

86 Convection

87 Atmospheric CONVECTION causes Hurricanes and Tornadoes. Atmospheric CONVECTION causes Hurricanes and Tornadoes.

88 Convection Which of the following is an example of heat transfer by convection? A hot wood stove heats an entire room. The handle of a pot that is being heated becomes warm. A teaspoon in a glass of hot tea becomes warm. The coils of a toaster become red.

89 When it is very hot in his room, Stuart makes it cooler by opening both the top and the bottom of his window. Which statement best explains why this works? Air comes in the top to cool the ceiling and in the bottom to cool the floor. Cooler air comes in the bottom and warm air goes out through the top. Warmer air goes out through both the bottom and top. It does not make any difference because if there is no wind, the air will not come in.

90 Radiation the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves (photons), through space. When light rays hit a material, the molecules in that material move faster. the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves (photons), through space. When light rays hit a material, the molecules in that material move faster.

91 Radiation the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves, through space.

92 When sand absorbs the electromagnetic waves of the Sun, it becomes warm through the process of conduction. convection. radiation. evaporation. When sand absorbs the electromagnetic waves of the Sun, it becomes warm through the process of conduction. convection. radiation. evaporation.

93 In which situation has heat energy moved mainly by conduction through matter? A radiator heated with hot water warms a room. The person sitting closest to the blazing fire finds it necessary to move farther from the heat. The handle of a cast iron skillet being used to cook something becomes too hot to touch. The red-hot coil of an electric space heater is used to keep a small room warm.

94 Which BEST explains how the food on the stove is being heated? conduction convection interaction radiation

95 Which of the following is an example of heat transfer by convection? A hot wood stove heats an entire room. The handle of a pot that is being heated becomes warm. A teaspoon in a glass of hot tea becomes warm. The coils of a toaster become red.

96 When ice cream is left out of the freezer on a table for a long time, it melts. This change in state is caused by the ice cream giving up heat. air absorbing heat. ice cream absorbing heat. table absorbing heat. When ice cream is left out of the freezer on a table for a long time, it melts. This change in state is caused by the ice cream giving up heat. air absorbing heat. ice cream absorbing heat. table absorbing heat.

97 What is the process by which heat energy gets to Earth from the Sun? conduction radiation subduction convection What is the process by which heat energy gets to Earth from the Sun? conduction radiation subduction convection

98 Patti used a steel wrench to work on her bicycle on a hot, sunny day. She left the wrench on the hot concrete for an hour, then returned, to find the wrench very hot to touch. What is the BEST explanation for how the wrench got so hot? Heat transferred from the wrench to the air. Heat transferred from the bicycle to the wrench. Heat transferred from the wrench to the concrete. Heat transferred from the concrete to the wrench. Patti used a steel wrench to work on her bicycle on a hot, sunny day. She left the wrench on the hot concrete for an hour, then returned, to find the wrench very hot to touch. What is the BEST explanation for how the wrench got so hot? Heat transferred from the wrench to the air. Heat transferred from the bicycle to the wrench. Heat transferred from the wrench to the concrete. Heat transferred from the concrete to the wrench.

99 1.00 Kg Specific Heat For a given substance, How much energy it takes to increase the temperature of 1Kg by 1˚ C. High for conductors Low for insulators High for conductors Low for insulators 25 26

100 Through which of the following materials does heat travel the fastest? glass metal plastic wood

101 Beaker X contains 100 milliliters of water and Beaker Y contains 250 milliliters of water. Each beaker is heated on a hot plate at the same medium heat setting for five minutes. Which is the best prediction of the water temperature in the beakers? Beaker X will have the highest temperature. Beaker Y will have the highest temperature. Beaker X and Beaker Y will have the same temperature. Beaker Y will have a temperature of 150°F.

102 Suppose you had four spoons the same size and shape made out of glass, plastic, steel, and wood. Which spoon handle would get hot the quickest when the spoons are placed in a pan of hot water? the glass spoon the plastic spoon the steel spoon the wooden spoon Suppose you had four spoons the same size and shape made out of glass, plastic, steel, and wood. Which spoon handle would get hot the quickest when the spoons are placed in a pan of hot water? the glass spoon the plastic spoon the steel spoon the wooden spoon

103 Burt's mother asked him to use a spoon to stir the stew that was cooking on the stove. Which spoon will stay the coolest while he stirs? an iron spoon an aluminum spoon a wooden spoon a silver spoon

104 Chemical Reaction (change) when new substances are produced. Bonds ARE broken.

105 Chemical Energy energy stored in the bonds of molecules. Fuel Molecule that stores chemical energy in its bonds.

106 Which of the following is an example of chemical energy? A baseball moving from the pitcher to the catcher A rock sitting on the top of a large hill A pendulum at the top of its swing A new flashlight battery

107 Fossil fuels such as gas, oil, and coal have what kind of energy? Mechanical energy Chemical energy Electrical energy Nuclear energy

108 A burning candle is in the process of transforming heat energy into chemical energy. chemical energy into light and heat. chemical energy into mechanical energy. chemical energy into nuclear energy.

109 The potential and kinetic energy of an object.

110 Mechanical energy Kinetic Potential

111

112 Potential energy the energy of a stored position. Elastic Gravitational Potential the energy of a stored position. Elastic Gravitational Potential

113 Potential energy the energy stored in a position or state.

114 The potential energy of an object’s pull on another object.

115 The energy of an object that is def rmed under tension or compression.

116 A car stopped at the top of a ramp has heat energy. potential energy. kinetic energy. mechanical energy.

117 Which situation is an example of increasing potential energy? pulling a wagon uphill emptying a bucket of water A cat jumping from a tree A bicyclist stopping at a stop sign

118

119 = m x V 2 2 energy of the motion of an object. m = mass V = velocity

120 The location on the track where the train has the greatest potential energy is Kinetic

121 Kinetic energyinetic energy energy of a moving object.

122 When does a toy race car have kinetic energy? rolling down a hill sitting on a shelf upside down on the floor in the toybox with the lid closed

123 Bill pulls a rubber band tight to shoot a piece of paper. At the point when the rubber band is stretched to its maximum, compare and contrast the amounts of potential and kinetic energy. there is no potential or kinetic energy all potential energy and no kinetic energy all kinetic energy and no potential energy equal amounts of potential and kinetic energy

124 Which of the following is an example of kinetic energy? a child jumping rope a swimmer ready to dive a stuffed toy lying on a table firewood stacked in a fireplace Which of the following is an example of kinetic energy? a child jumping rope a swimmer ready to dive a stuffed toy lying on a table firewood stacked in a fireplace

125 When a pitcher throws a baseball, which of these has MOSTLY kinetic energy? the pitcher the ball the batter the catcher

126 People in many places in California produce their electricity from wind energy. Which must be true about the winds in these places in California? The winds are cold. The winds blow very little. The winds blow most of the time. The winds blow mostly in the morning. People in many places in California produce their electricity from wind energy. Which must be true about the winds in these places in California? The winds are cold. The winds blow very little. The winds blow most of the time. The winds blow mostly in the morning.

127 Which of these best shows kinetic energy?

128

129

130

131 Help me Splat !

132 A bouncing ball

133 Kinetic energyinetic energy or Potential energyotential energy ?

134 Kinetic energyinetic energy or Potential energyotential energy ?

135 Kinetic energyinetic energy or Potential energyotential energy ?

136 Kinetic energyinetic energy or Potential energyotential energy ?

137 WAVES ? Travels thru Kinet/Poten

138 Conservation of energy Thermodynamics Law 1:. Energy is never created or destroyed. When it is transferred, all of the energy goes somewhere.

139 When electrical energy is "used" by an electric light, what really happens to the energy? It is given off as other forms of energy. It changes to matter. It stops at the electric light. It disappears.

140 A moving bumper car (car 1) collides with a bumper car at rest (car 2). After the collision, both cars move. If momentum is conserved, which statement is correct? The momentum of car 1 increases and the momentum of car 2 decreases. The momentum of car 1 decreases and the momentum of car 2 increases. The total momentum of both cars increases. The total momentum of both cars decreases.

141 Energy may be changed into other forms with varying efficiency.

142 Efficiency The amount of energy that is changed into the desired form.

143 In most energy transfers, some energy is turned into thermal.

144 Which of the following could best be used to demonstrate energy being transformed from electricity to heat? A magnifying glass A triple beam balance A toaster A gas oven

145 LOVE judging others. LOVE judging others. Man. What a Junky!

146 A bouncing ball

147 Thermodynamics Law 2: Thurm Oh Die namm icks Energy flows from a higher concentration to a lower concentration. It flows from hot to cold. Disorder tends to increase. Thermodynamics Law 2: Thurm Oh Die namm icks Energy flows from a higher concentration to a lower concentration. It flows from hot to cold. Disorder tends to increase.

148 Thermodynamics Law 3: If all the thermal motion of molecules (kinetic energy) could be removed, absolute zero would result.

149 Two jars are placed inside an insulated box. One jar contains ice water and the other contains hot soup. What will happen to the two liquids? Both the hot soup and the ice water will gain heat. Both the hot soup and the ice water will lose heat. The hot soup will gain heat and the ice water will lose heat. The hot soup will lose heat and the ice water will gain heat. Two jars are placed inside an insulated box. One jar contains ice water and the other contains hot soup. What will happen to the two liquids? Both the hot soup and the ice water will gain heat. Both the hot soup and the ice water will lose heat. The hot soup will gain heat and the ice water will lose heat. The hot soup will lose heat and the ice water will gain heat.

150 Samuel is investigating a substance to determine what it is made of. He studies the physical and chemical properties of the substance. Which of these properties of the substance is a chemical property ? The melting point of the substance How easily the substance bends The density of the substance How well the substance burns Samuel is investigating a substance to determine what it is made of. He studies the physical and chemical properties of the substance. Which of these properties of the substance is a chemical property ? The melting point of the substance How easily the substance bends The density of the substance How well the substance burns

151 Ms. Lee heats up a pot of water on her stove. Water heated up at the bottom of the pot flows to the top of the pot. The colder water at the top sinks. As the water moves, heat flows from the hotter water to the colder water. Which of the terms describes this method heat transfer ? Conduction Convection Emission Radiation Ms. Lee heats up a pot of water on her stove. Water heated up at the bottom of the pot flows to the top of the pot. The colder water at the top sinks. As the water moves, heat flows from the hotter water to the colder water. Which of the terms describes this method heat transfer ? Conduction Convection Emission Radiation

152 Chou lights a candle and the wax begins to melt. Which statement describes the movement of the particles as the solid candle melts to a liquid ? The particles move slower and farther apart. The particles move faster and farther apart. The particles move faster and closer together. The particles move slower and closer together. Chou lights a candle and the wax begins to melt. Which statement describes the movement of the particles as the solid candle melts to a liquid ? The particles move slower and farther apart. The particles move faster and farther apart. The particles move faster and closer together. The particles move slower and closer together.

153 Matt adds 5 grams of vinegar to 7 grams of baking soda in a sealed container. Then he watches the chemical reaction. Which of these predicts the mass of the materials in the container after the reaction is complete ? 0 grams 2 grams 12 grams 35 grams Matt adds 5 grams of vinegar to 7 grams of baking soda in a sealed container. Then he watches the chemical reaction. Which of these predicts the mass of the materials in the container after the reaction is complete ? 0 grams 2 grams 12 grams 35 grams

154 Emily is riding a roller coaster, which moves up a hill slowly and then starts to move faster as it goes towards the bottom of the hill. Where on the hill will Emily have the MOST kinetic energy ? Halfway up the hill. At the top of the hill. Halfway down the hill. At the bottom of the hill. Emily is riding a roller coaster, which moves up a hill slowly and then starts to move faster as it goes towards the bottom of the hill. Where on the hill will Emily have the MOST kinetic energy ? Halfway up the hill. At the top of the hill. Halfway down the hill. At the bottom of the hill.

155 The ratio of an object’s mass to its volume is its Area Density Perimeter Torque The ratio of an object’s mass to its volume is its Area Density Perimeter Torque

156 Some people think that the solution to coal, gas, and oil shortages is to use electricity. What is the biggest problem with this solution? Most electricity is produced from coal, gas, or oil. If we switch over to electricity, many people will lose their jobs. It is impossible to build electric cars in great quantities. Electricity is far too expensive. Some people think that the solution to coal, gas, and oil shortages is to use electricity. What is the biggest problem with this solution? Most electricity is produced from coal, gas, or oil. If we switch over to electricity, many people will lose their jobs. It is impossible to build electric cars in great quantities. Electricity is far too expensive.

157 Diving into the ocean, as you go deeper, the water gets colder because the saltiest water is always coldest and sinks to the bottom. there are no waves or wind to mix the hot and cold water. warm water is less dense than cold water, so it stays on top. there are fewer fish and other animals to warm the deep water. Diving into the ocean, as you go deeper, the water gets colder because the saltiest water is always coldest and sinks to the bottom. there are no waves or wind to mix the hot and cold water. warm water is less dense than cold water, so it stays on top. there are fewer fish and other animals to warm the deep water.

158 Jupiter has more mass than Earth. Which of these statements would be true about the force of gravity on Rubin, if he were able to visit Jupiter ? It would be Zero on Jupiter It would be smaller, but not zero, on Jupiter It would be the same on Jupiter It would be larger in Jupiter Jupiter has more mass than Earth. Which of these statements would be true about the force of gravity on Rubin, if he were able to visit Jupiter ? It would be Zero on Jupiter It would be smaller, but not zero, on Jupiter It would be the same on Jupiter It would be larger in Jupiter

159 The End Produced by Jake Israel Directed by Jake Israel Original Story by Jake Israel Screenplay Jake Israel Engineer Jake Israel Photo enhancement Jake Israel Casting Jake Israel Editor Jake Israel Custom animation Jake Israel Location manager Jake Israel Special Effects Jake Israel Field research Jake Israel © 2008 Jacob (Cowboy) Israel All rights reserved

160 This powerpoint was kindly donated to is home to over a thousand powerpoints submitted by teachers. This is a completely free site and requires no registration. Please visit and I hope it will help in your teaching.


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