# NOTES: Reflection and Refraction Principle of reflection: the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection--for all mirrors. A parabolic mirror creates.

## Presentation on theme: "NOTES: Reflection and Refraction Principle of reflection: the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection--for all mirrors. A parabolic mirror creates."— Presentation transcript:

NOTES: Reflection and Refraction Principle of reflection: the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection--for all mirrors. A parabolic mirror creates an image with no distortion. Spherical mirrors (cheaper to make) work only close to the axis. Principle of refraction: light bends when it passes at an angle between two media with different speeds of light like air and glass--lenses utilize this principle to focalize images. Lenses The Focal length of a lens is the distance parallel rays entering the lens focus to a point. Rays from a distant object may be considered to be parallel rays. A convex or converging lens is curved outward on both sides. A concave or diverging lens is curved inward on both sides. Eyeglasses are often convex-concave.

Principle of reflection: the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection --for all mirrors, flat or curved.

The Focal length of a mirror is the distance from the mirror parallel rays hitting it focus to a point. (Note: each ray Is reflected at an angle = to it’s angle of incidence.) A parabolic mirror focuses rays to a point…

…but a spherical mirror does NOT! Most cheap telescope mirrors are spherical, but the distortion is minimal.

Principle of refraction: light bends when it passes at an angle between two media with different speeds of light like air and glass.

This is similar to waves on the ocean. They change their path when coming in at an angle. This is because the speed of the wave is smaller in shallow water.

The speed of light is smaller in glass or water than in air. Thus the light changes its direction.

This principle is used in lenses. Converging or convex lens Diverging or concave lens Note: rays from a distant object come in nearly parallel.

Problem: lenses suffer from chromatic aberration. Different colors (wavelengths) have different speeds of light, and diffract over different angles. Solution: add an achromat.

Lenses make images: We can use ray diagrams with three principal rays to determine where they are.

The images are real or virtual: Real images are formed by light rays virtual images are not—they are optical illusions.

NOTES: Telescopes Reflecting or Newtonian telescope (reflector): A large curved objective mirror focuses an image, a small eyepiece lens magnifies it. The image is inverted. Refracting telescope (refractor): A large objective lens (usually converging) focuses an image and a small eyepiece lens magnifies it. The image is also inverted. Seeing--the following conditions interfere with clear viewing: 1. Atmospheric turbulence--why stars twinkle. 2. Atmospheric absorption--some wavelengths. 3. Weather--cloud cover. 4. Light pollution--city lights. Powers of Telescopes: 1. Light gathering power--proportional to the area of objective. 2. Magnification--m = F/f (F focal length of objective, f focal length of eyepiece) 3. Resolution--the angle of separation at which two objects merge and look like one. Interferometry: using two radio telescopes or more and time delays to simulate on large telescope. Usually a radio telescope. Satellites: necessary for most infrared, x-ray, gamma ray, micro-wave, UV. Uhuru--xray satellite discovered first black hole.

Telescopes Reflecting or Newtonian telescope (reflector): Equatorial Mount.

A large curved objective mirror focuses an image, a small eyepiece lens magnifies it. The image is inverted.

Refracting telescope (refractor): A large objective lens (usually converging) focuses an image and a small eyepiece lens magnifies it. The image is also inverted. Distance between lenses is a little more than the sum of the two focal lengths.

Seeing--the following conditions interfere with clear viewing: 1. Atmospheric turbulence--why stars twinkle.

The Keck Twin Telescopes in Hawaii compensate for turbulence by mechanically bending component mirrors. This is called adaptive optics.

2. Atmospheric absorption--some wavelengths.

3. Weather--cloud cover.

4. Light pollution--city lights.

Powers of Telescopes: 1. Light gathering power--proportional to the area of objective.

2. Magnification--m = F/f (F focal length of objective, f focal length of eyepiece)

3. Resolution--the angle of separation at which two objects merge and look like one.

Interferometry: using two telescopes or more and time delays on computer to simulate on large telescope. Usually a radio telescope. Example: Very Large Array In New Mexico

Very Long Baseline Array: World’s largest aperture

Satellites: necessary for most infrared, x-ray, gamma ray, micro-wave, UV. The Chandra gamma (and x-ray) observatory: Named after 1983 Nobel laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. (NASA.)

Uhuru—x-ray satellite discovered x-rays from first black hole, Cygnus X-1. Uhuru means freedom in Swahili. Uhuru NOT Uhura

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