Presentation on theme: "Information from the Cosmos"— Presentation transcript:
1Information from the Cosmos RadiationInformation from the Cosmos
2Radiation,Waves, & Information Most of the information around us gets to us in waves.Sound energy that travels to our ears is in one form of wave.Light is energy that comes to our eyes if the form of another type of wave.Energy (information) that is transferred from place to place in the form of a wave is called RADIATION.
3Information from the Cosmos Until recently, our knowledge of the universe was obtained only by studying the visible light that happened to arrive on Earth.Since the 1930’s, possible to study other types of radiation and particles ---radio waves, X-rays, gamma rays, cosmic rays, neutrinos, and gravitational radiation.To understand the methods used to study the cosmos, we must understand the basic nature and behavior of light.
4It is neither, but it’s like both So, what is light?The particle or ray model of light is illustrated by the properties of reflection and refraction.Is it a particle?The wave model of light is illustrated by the properties of reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, and polarization.Is it a wave?But there are problems: if light is a wave, and waves need a “medium” such as air or water to carry them, then how can light travel through empty space?It is neither, but it’s like bothThe solution was to decide that light was neither a wave nor a particle, but something else which sometimes behaved like them.
5What is a Wave?Wave motion is NOT a mechanical phenomenon because a wave is not a material object but a form.It cannot be assigned a mass, and the concept of acceleration cannot be applied to a wave.The motion of a wave is vastly different from the motion of the medium in which it travels In fact, a wave can exist without any movement of matter at all!So, what is a wave? It is a pattern or form that moves.It can be adeformation of a material object (music string or waves on the surface of a body of water)ORpattern in a field (light or radio waves).
6Waves: Standard Dimensions In physics, waves are described by a few standard dimensions.Amplitude A= height of wave above “rest position”Wavelength = length of one cycleFrequency f = how often wave crest passes, longer wavelength means lower frequencyVelocity v= speed of wavev = f x
7period = 1 / frequency OR frequency = 1 / period Frequency and PeriodFrequency: how often a vibration (cycle, repetition) occurs in some interval of time, # vibrations (or cycles) per unit time.units are Hertz (Hz)1-Hz = 1 vibration/sec = 1 cycle/sec103 Hz = kHz (AM radio frequencies)106 Hz = MHz (FM radio frequencies)Period: the time to complete one vibration (or cycle),the inverse of the frequencyperiod = 1 / frequency OR frequency = 1 / period
8Wave SpeedThe speed of some waves depends on the medium through which the wave travels.Sound waves travel at speeds of m/s in air, and about four times as fast in water.The speed of the wave is related to the frequency and wavelength of the wave.Wave speed = frequency x wavelength
9Motion of Waves Is there a relationship between the motion of the wave through spaceandthe motion of the medium that a wave moves in?
10Wave TypesTwo types of wavestransverselongitudinalCheerleader demo
11Types of wavesTransverse waves: the motion of the medium is at right angles to the direction in which the wave travels.Examples: stretched strings of musical instruments, waves on the surfaces of liquids, some of the waves produced in earthquakes.Although they require no “medium” to travel, electromagnetic waves are also transverse waves.Longitudinal waves: the particles in the medium move along the direction of the wave; travel in solids, liquids, and gases.Examples: sound waves, some of the waves produced in earthquakes.
12Do waves travel through empty space? What if there is no medium to move in?Can any waves travel through empty space?If so, which ones?
13Light as a WaveLight is a type of radiation; it is a type of wave that travels through space.Light waves are fundamentally different from many other waves that travel only through material media (sound or water waves).Light waves require NO material medium to travel from place to place.The wave speed of all types of light in a vacuum is called the speed of light, c c = 300,000 km/sec
14Terminology Radiation: Light: Electromagnetic (EM) radiation: a way to transfer of energy in the form of a waveLight:another name for electromagnetic radiationElectromagnetic (EM) radiation:Also known as light, transfers energy and information from one place to another (in form of coupled electric and magnetic waves)Visible light:the range of electromagnetic radiation that the human eyes perceive as visibleNeed to understand these
16Group QuestionDetermine the wavelength of your group’s favorite radio station.Assume you are 100 km (~60 miles) from the station transmitter. Calculate how long it takes for the radio waves to arrive at your location from the radio station transmitter.Wave speed = frequency x wavelengthSpeed of light (radio waves) = c = 3x 108m/secDistance = speed x timex103 Hz (AM radio frequencies)x106 Hz (FM radio frequencies)
17Creating Electromagnetic Waves All matter is made up of atoms.Atoms are, in turn, made up of smaller particles: protons, electrons, and neutrons.Two of the elementary particles that make up atoms possess a property described as electrical charge.The charges on each are equal and opposite.electron: - chargeproton: + charge
18Charged Particle Interactions Any electrically charged object exerts a force on other charged objects.Electronsnegatively chargedProtonspositively chargedLike charges repel one another.Unlike charges attract.
19Electrical Force Electrical force: is a universal force(every charged particle affects every other charged particle)may be attractive or repulsive forceis always directed along the line connecting two chargesdepends on the product of the two chargesdepends on the distance between the two charges squared(obeys the “inverse square rule”)Today, physicists describe electric forces in terms of an electrical field produced by the presence of electrical charge.
20Charged Particles and Electric Fields Electric field strength proportional to 1/r2 .An electric field extends outward in all directions from any positively charged particle.If a charged particle moves, its electric field changes.The resulting disturbance travels through space as a wave.
21Magnetic FieldsIf an electric field changes with time (let’s say the source charge wiggles),then a magnetic field is created,coupled to the time-variant electric field.Magnetic fields influence behavior of magnetized objects.Earth’s magnetic field causes compass needles to point Nbar magnetselectromagnetsA simplistic explanation of magnetic fields
22ElectromagnetismElectric and magnetic fields do not exist as independent entities.They are different aspects of a single phenomenon:Electromagnetism (EMR)Together, they constitute an electromagnetic wave that carries energy and information from one part of the universe to another.
23where h = Planck’s constant Frequency and EnergyLight waves carry energy (E) across space.The energy is related to the frequency of the light wave byE = hfwhere h = Planck’s constantRecall that wave speed relates frequency and wavelength: v = fand for light, c = fso, E f or E 1/
24Creating and Detecting Light Light is created by the motion of charged particles.Matter is made up of atoms, which are in turn made up of charged particles.Motions of these charged particles create light.Not just the light we detect with our eyes, but at all wavelengths (or frequencies).
26Properties of Light Polarization Reflection Refraction Dispersion DiffractionInterference
27Properties of Light: Reflection and Refraction An isolated light beam travels in a straight line.Light can change directions under certain conditions:Reflection from a surface,mirrors, objectsRefraction (or bending of a ray of light) as the ray travels from one transparent medium to another.pencil in a clear glass of waterlight through a piece of glass
28Properties of Light: Dispersion Electromagnetic waves interact with the charged particles in matter and travel more slowly in transparent media than in a vacuum.The change in speed of the light wave causes the wave to refract.Since the speed of an EM wave in a medium changes with wavelength, the amount of refraction depends on the wavelength.This effect is called dispersion.
29Visible Light Prism will separate light into its components Composed of 7 hues (Roy G. Biv), known as its spectrumRed (~ 700 nm or 7000 Å)OrangeYellowGreenBlueIndigoViolet (~ 400 nm or 4000 Å)Color determined by its frequency (or, equivalently, its wavelength)The sequence of colors red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet may be remembered by memorizing the name of that fine fellow "ROY G. BV". This was originally "ROY G. BIV", because it used to be common to call the region between blue and violet "indigo". In modern usage, indigo is not usually distinguished as a separate color in the visible spectrum; thus Roy no longer has any vowels in his last name. (from )
30Visible SpectrumRed Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet
31Properties of Light: Diffraction Diffraction is the bending of a wave as it passes through a hole or around an obstacle.If light consists of parallel rays, they would travel through a small pinhole and make a small, bright spot on a nearby screen.Fuzzy shadowSharp-edged shadowEffect cannot be explained by ray model of light.
32Diffraction of WavesActually observe a spot larger than the pinhole and varying in brightness.The pinhole somehow affects the light that passes through it.Diffraction is proportional to the ratio of wavelength to width of gap.The longer the wavelength and/or the smaller the gap, the greater the angle through which the wave is diffracted.Fuzzy shadow
33Properties of Light: Interference and Superposition What happens if two waves run into each other?Waves can interact and combine with each other, resulting in a composite form.Interference is the interaction of the two waves.reinforcing interaction = constructive interferencecanceling interaction = destructive interferenceSuperposition is the method used to model the composite form of the resulting wave.
34Interference of WavesInterference: ability of two or more waves to reinforce or cancel each other.Constructive interference occurs when two wave motions reinforce each other, resulting in a wave of greater amplitude.Destructive interference occurs when two waves exactly cancel, so that no net motion remains.
35Radiation and Temperature What determines the type of electromagnetic radiation emitted by the Sun, stars, and other astronomical objects? TemperatureElectromagnetic radiation is emitted when electric charges accelerate, changing either the speed or the direction of their motion.The hotter the object, the faster the atoms move in the object, jostling one another, colliding with more electrons, changing their motions with each collision.Each collision results in the emission of electromagnetic radiation- radio, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays. How much of each depends on the temperature of the object producing the radiation.
36Measuring Temperature Atoms and molecules that make up matter are in constant random motion.Temperature is a direct measure of this internal motion.The higher the temperature, the faster (on average) the random motion of particles in matter.Temperature of an object represents the average thermal energy of particles that make up that object.
37TWO MAJOR SCALES °F and °C Fahrenheit scale based on temperature that salt water freezes 0°F (lower than pure water).Related to Celsius (or Centigrade) by the formula:F = 9/5 C + 32C = 5/9(F - 32).Celsius is the metric temperature scale, and thus the one used by scientists
38ABSOLUTE SCALE K AND °CCelsius (originally Centigrade) based on freezing and boiling point of pure water, chosen to be 0°C and 100°CKelvin based on absolute coldest temperature possible (absolute zero)Related byK = C –C = KKelvin is the SI unit, and thus also used by the scientific community. For a good web page on this, go to:
39All molecular motion stops Temperature ScalesTemperature ScaleHydrogen fusesWater boilsWater freezesAll molecular motion stopsFahrenheit18,000,032oF212oF32oF-459oFCelsius10,000,000oC100oC0oC-273oCKelvin10,000,273 K273 K373 K0 K
40Radiation Laws Blackbody Radiation Wien’s Law Stefan-Boltzmann Law Planck SpectrumCharacteristics of RadiatorWien’s LawRelates wavelength at which a blackbody emits its maximum energy, max, to the temperature, T, of the blackbody.Stefan-Boltzmann LawRelates total energy emitted per second per square meter by a blackbody, E, to the 4th power of its absolute temperature T.
41Blackbody RadiationConsider an idealized object that absorbs all the electromagnetic radiation that falls on it - called a “blackbody.”A blackbody absorbs all energy incident on it and heats up until it is emitting energy at the same rate that it absorbs energy.The equilibrium temperature reached is a function of the total energy striking the blackbody each second.
42Characteristics of Blackbody Radiation A blackbody with a temperature higher than absolute zero emits some energy at all frequencies (or wavelengths).A blackbody at higher temperature emits more energy at all frequencies (or wavelengths) than does a cooler one.The higher the temperature of a blackbody, the higher the frequency (the shorter the wavelength) at which the maximum energy is emitted.
43Blackbody RadiationBlackbody radiation: the distribution of radiation emitted by any heated object.The curve peaks at a single, well-defined frequency and falls off to lesser values above and below that frequency.The overall shape (intensity vs frequency) is characteristic of the radiation emitted by any object, regardless of its size, shape, composition, or temperature.
44Planck SpectrumAs an object is heated, the radiation it emits peaks at higher and higher frequencies.Shown here are curves corresponding to temperatures of K (room temperature), 1000 K (glow dull red), K (red hot), and K (white hot).
45“Red Hot”As something begins to heat-up, there probably isn’t any visible information to tell you it is warming up.Once it starts to glow red, you have learned it’s hot – don’t touch.Like the stove burners.As it continues getting hotter, it changes to orange, then yellow, green, blue and white.White because all visible wavelengths are represented fairly evenly. With light, black is the absence of color (wavelengths), and white is the presence of all color (wavelengths). This is opposite of pigments where white is absences of color and black is all color combined. Rarely will something have a “sharp blackbody peak” in green, which is why it is rare to see.
46This relationship is known as Wien’s law. The Sun and stars emit energy that approximates the energy from a blackbody.It is possible to estimate their temperatures by measuring the energy they emit as a function of wavelength - that is, by measuring their color.The wavelength at which a blackbody emits its maximum energy can be calculated by max = 3,000,000 / Twhere the wavelength max is in nanometers (10-9 m)and the temperature T is in kelvin.This relationship is known as Wien’s law.
47Hotter objects are brighter and “bluer” than cooler objects. Effect of TemperatureHotter objects are brighter and “bluer” than cooler objects.
48Getting Warmer Top picture: a cool gas cloud. 2nd from top: a “cool” infrared emitting star appears reddish. Notice how little the other colors contribute relative to red.2nd from bottom: our star, the SunBottom picture: a star cluster of very hot UV stars. Notice how they appear white.
50Problem - Wien’s lawThe average surface temperature of the Sun is about 5800 K. At what wavelength is maximum energy emitted from the Sun?If T = 5800 Kand max = 3,000,000 / T ,then max = 3,000,000 / 5800 = 520 nm.520 nm is at the middle of the visible light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.The human eye is most sensitive to the wavelengths at which the Sun puts out the most energy.
51Stefan-Boltzmann LawIf add up the contributions from all parts of the E-M spectrum, obtain the total energy emitted by a blackbody over all wavelengths.That total energy emitted per second per square meter by a blackbody at temperature T is proportional to the 4th power of its absolute temperature.This is known as the Stefan-Boltzmann law,E = T where E stands for the total energy and is a constant number.
52Problem - Stefan-Boltzmann Law ET = T4 The average surface temperature of the Sun is about 5800 K If the Sun were twice as hot, T = 2 x 5800 K = 11,600 K, how much more energy would it radiate than it does now?The energy radiated by the Sun would be 24 or 16 times more than now.
55Why Do We Need Space Telescopes? Because not all light can make it through the atmosphere – which is a good thing in some cases. Such as Gamma ray, x-ray, and most UV radiation are unable to penetrate the atmosphere and reach down to the ground. If the atmosphere is said to be transparent to a wavelength of light, then that wavelength actually reaches the ground, such as visible light (which is why we see it). Thus, the atmosphere is said to have a window to that wavelength. If the atmosphere is said to be opaque to a wavelength, then it is unable to penetrate the atmosphere and reach the ground. As you can see from the diagram above and on page 71 of your text, some forms of radiation can penetrate to a certain depth, but never actually reach the ground where we are, like infrared.
56Opacity of the Atmosphere Only a small fraction of the radiation produced by astronomical objects actually reaches our eyes because atoms and molecules in the Earth's atmosphere absorb certain wavelengths and transmit others.Opacity is proportional to the amount of radiation that is absorbed by the atmosphere.Wavelength (angstroms)Half-Absorption Altitude (km)