Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Conical Waves in Nonlinear Optics and Applications Paolo Polesana University of Insubria. Como (IT)

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Conical Waves in Nonlinear Optics and Applications Paolo Polesana University of Insubria. Como (IT)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Conical Waves in Nonlinear Optics and Applications Paolo Polesana University of Insubria. Como (IT)

2 Summary Stationary states of the E.M. field Solitons Conical Waves Generating Conical Waves A new application of the CW A stationary state of E.M. field in presence of losses Future studies

3 Stationarity of E.M. field Linear propagation of light Self-similar solution: the Gaussian Beam Slow Varying Envelope approximation

4 Stationarity of E.M. field Linear propagation of light Self-similar solution: the Gaussian Beam Nonlinear propagation of light Stationary solution: the Soliton

5 1D Fiber soliton The E.M. field creates a self trapping potential The Optical Soliton Analitical stable solution

6 Multidimensional solitons Townes Profile: It’s unstable! Diffraction balance with self focusing

7 Multidimensional solitons Townes Profile:

8 Multidimensional solitons 3D solitons Higher Critical Power: Nonlinear losses destroy the pulse

9 Conical Waves A class of stationary solutions of both linear and nonlinear propagation Interference of plane waves propagating in a conical geometry The energy diffracts during propagation, but the figure of interference remains unchanged Ideal CW are extended waves carrying infinite energy

10 Bessel Beam An example of conical wave

11 Bessel Beam 1 cm apodization An example of conical wave

12 1 cm apodization Bessel Beam Conical waves diffract after a maximal length

13 10 cm diffr. free path 6 microns Rayleigh Range β Focal depth and Resolution are independently tunable 1 micron Wavelemgth 527 nm 3 cm apodization β = 10°

14 Bessel Beam Generation

15 Building Bessel Beams: Holographic Methods Thin circular hologram of radius D that is characterized by the amplitude transmission function: The geometry of the cone is determined by the period of the hologram

16 Different orders of diffraction create diffrerent interfering Bessel beams 2-tone (black & white) Creates different orders of diffraction

17 Central spot 180 microns Diffraction free path 80 cm The corresponding Gaussian pulse has 1cm Rayleigh range

18 Building Nondiffracting Beams: refractive methods z Wave fronts Conical lens

19 Building Nondiffracting Beams: refractive methods z Wave fronts Conical lens The geometry of the cone is determined by 1.The refraction index of the glass 2.The base angle of the axicon

20 Pro 1.Easy to build 2.Many classes of CW can be generated Contra 1.Difficult to achieve sharp angles (low resolution) 2.Different CWs interfere Holgrams Axicon Pro 1.Sharp angles are achievable (high resolution) Contra 1.Only first order Bessel beams can be generated

21 Bessel Beam Studies

22 Slow decaying tails High intensity central spot bad localization low contrast Remove the negative effect of low contrast? Drawbacks of Bessel Beam

23 The Idea

24 Multiphoton absorption ground state excited state virtual states

25 Coumarine 120 The peak at 350 nm perfectly corresponds to the 3photon absorption of a 3x350=1050 nm pulse The energy absorbed at 350 nm is re- emitted at 450 nm

26 1 mJ energy Result 1: Focal Depth enhancement A Side CCD 4 cm couvette filled with Coumarine-Methanol solution Focalized beam: 20 microns FWHM, 500 microns Rayleigh range IR filter

27 Result 1: Focal Depth enhancement 1 mJ energy Bessel beam of 20 microns FWHM and 10 cm diffraction-free propagation A Side CCD 4 cm couvette filled with Coumarine-Methanol solution B Focalized beam: 20 microns FWHM, 500 microns Rayleigh range IR filter

28 A B 4 cm Comparison between the focal depth reached by A) the fluorescence excited by a Gaussian beam B)the fluorescence excited by an equivalent Bessel Beam 80 Rayleigh range of the equivalent Gaussian!

29 Result 2: Contrast enhancement Linear Scattering 3-photon Fluorescence

30 Summary We showed an experimental evidence that the multiphoton energy exchange excited by a Bessel Beam has Gaussian like contrast Arbitrary focal depth and resolution, each tunable independently of the other Possible applications Waveguide writing Microdrilling of holes (citare) 3D Multiphoton microscopy

31 Opt. Express Vol. 13, No. 16 August 08, 2005

32 P. Polesana, D.Faccio, P. Di Trapani, A.Dubietis, A. Piskarskas, A. Couairon, M. A. Porras: “High constrast, high resolution, high focal depth nonlinear beams” Nonlinear Guided Wave Conference, Dresden, 6-9 September 2005

33 Waveguides Cause a permanent (or eresable or momentary) positive change of the refraction index

34 Laser: 60 fs, 1 kHz

35 Direct writing Bessel writing

36 1 mJ energy Front CCD IR filter Front view measurement

37

38 We assume continuum generation red shift blue shift

39 Bessel Beam nonlinear propagation: simulations Third order nonlinearity Multiphoton Absorption Input conditions pulse duration: 1 ps Wavelength: 1055 nm FWHM: 20 microns 4 mm Gaussian Apodization 10 cm diffraction free K = 3

40 Third order nonlinearity Bessel Beam nonlinear propagation: simulations Multiphoton Absorption Input conditions pulse duration: 1 ps Wavelength: 1055 nm FWHM: 20 microns 4 mm Gaussian Apodization FWHM: 10 microns Dumped oscillations

41 Spectra Input beam Output beam

42 1 mJ energy Front CCD IR filter Front view measurement: infrared

43 A stationary state of the E.M. field in presence of Nonlinear Losses 1 mJ 2 mJ 1.5 mJ 0.4 mJ

44 Unbalanced Bessel Beam Complex amplitudes E in E out E in E out

45 Unbalanced Bessel Beam Loss of contrast (caused by the unbalance) Shift of the rings (caused by the detuning)

46 UBB stationarity 1 mJ energy Front CCD Variable length couvette z

47 1 mJ energy Front CCD Variable length couvette z UBB stationarity

48 Input energy: 1 mJ UBB stationarity radius (cm)

49 Summary We propose a conical-wave alternative to the 2D soliton. We demonstrated the possibility of reaching arbitrary long focal depth and resolution with high contrast in energy deposition processes by the use of a Bessel Beam. We characterized both experimentally and computationally the newly discovered UBB: 1. stationary and stable in presence of nonlinear losses 2. no threshold conditions in intensity are needed

50 Future Studies Application of the Conical Waves in material processing (waveguide writing) Further characterization of the UBB (continuum generation, filamentation…) Exploring conical wave in 3D (nonlinear X and O waves)


Download ppt "Conical Waves in Nonlinear Optics and Applications Paolo Polesana University of Insubria. Como (IT)"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google