2 Why Ripple Tanks :Real waves (sound, light, radiation) are difficult to observeProperties of waves should be independent of the type of waveWater waves (which are easy to see) provide a useful analogy for other types of waves
4 TransmissionThe traveling of a wave through a medium away from a vibrating source
5 TransmissionThe wavelength of the generated wave does not change as it travels the length of the ripple tankThe speed of the wave remains a constant
6 TransmissionIf the medium doesn’t change the speed must remain constantA change in the frequency must result in a change in the wavelengthAn increase in the frequency causes a shortening of the wavelength
7 ReflectionThe changing direction of a wave upon impact with a barrier or object
8 ReflectionThe speed of the wave, frequency and wavelength remains unchanged after reflectionOnly the direction of the wave changes
9 ReflectionThe direction of the wave changes such that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection
10 RefractionRefraction is the bending of a wave as it passes from one type of medium into another type of medium
11 RefractionAs the surface waves travel from a deep to shallow environment the waves will bend and decrease in wavelength.
12 RefractionSince the frequency of the waves can not change and the wavelength decreases, the speed of the wave as it travels from a deep section to a shallow section must decrease as well. This causes the waves to “pile up” on one another.Tsunami
13 RefractionThis bending of the wave and the resultant change in speed has environmental implications!
14 DiffractionThe bending of a wave as it either passes by a barrier / object OR the spreading out of a wave as it passes through an opening
15 DiffractionLonger wavelengths diffract easier around a barrier compared to shorter wavelengthsThis is seen in the difference between light (a short wavelength) and sound (a long wavelength)
16 DiffractionWaves can also diffract (bend) as they pass through an openingMaximum diffraction occurs when the width of the slit is close to the wavelength of the energy
17 DiffractionDiffraction is often used in creating wave breaks to help dissipate the incoming energy of the wave
18 InterferenceThe total disturbance within a medium when more than one wave is present
19 Interference The amplitudes of the waves will add together as vectors. A crest plus a crest forms a much larger crestA trough plus a trough form a deeper trough
20 InterferenceIf a crest and crest (trough and trough) add together we end up with constructive interference
21 InterferenceIf a crest adds to a trough (or trough to a crest) we end up with destructive interference
22 InterferenceIn most cases we end up with partial interference creating a beat.
23 InterferenceMany objects display an interference pattern (such as electrons)