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Ripple Tank Summary. Why Ripple Tanks : Real waves (sound, light, radiation) are difficult to observe Real waves (sound, light, radiation) are difficult.

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Presentation on theme: "Ripple Tank Summary. Why Ripple Tanks : Real waves (sound, light, radiation) are difficult to observe Real waves (sound, light, radiation) are difficult."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ripple Tank Summary

2 Why Ripple Tanks : Real waves (sound, light, radiation) are difficult to observe Real waves (sound, light, radiation) are difficult to observe Properties of waves should be independent of the type of wave Properties of waves should be independent of the type of wave Water waves (which are easy to see) provide a useful analogy for other types of waves Water waves (which are easy to see) provide a useful analogy for other types of waves

3 Wave Properties Transmission Transmission Reflection Reflection Refraction Refraction Diffraction Diffraction Interference Interference

4 Transmission The traveling of a wave through a medium away from a vibrating source The traveling of a wave through a medium away from a vibrating source

5 Transmission The wavelength of the generated wave does not change as it travels the length of the ripple tank The wavelength of the generated wave does not change as it travels the length of the ripple tank The speed of the wave remains a constant The speed of the wave remains a constant

6 Transmission If the medium doesn’t change the speed must remain constant If the medium doesn’t change the speed must remain constant A change in the frequency must result in a change in the wavelength A change in the frequency must result in a change in the wavelength An increase in the frequency causes a shortening of the wavelength An increase in the frequency causes a shortening of the wavelength

7 Reflection The changing direction of a wave upon impact with a barrier or object The changing direction of a wave upon impact with a barrier or object

8 Reflection The speed of the wave, frequency and wavelength remains unchanged after reflection The speed of the wave, frequency and wavelength remains unchanged after reflection Only the direction of the wave changes Only the direction of the wave changes

9 Reflection The direction of the wave changes such that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection The direction of the wave changes such that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection

10 Refraction Refraction is the bending of a wave as it passes from one type of medium into another type of medium Refraction is the bending of a wave as it passes from one type of medium into another type of medium

11 Refraction As the surface waves travel from a deep to shallow environment the waves will bend and decrease in wavelength. As the surface waves travel from a deep to shallow environment the waves will bend and decrease in wavelength.

12 Refraction Since the frequency of the waves can not change and the wavelength decreases, the speed of the wave as it travels from a deep section to a shallow section must decrease as well. This causes the waves to “pile up” on one another. Since the frequency of the waves can not change and the wavelength decreases, the speed of the wave as it travels from a deep section to a shallow section must decrease as well. This causes the waves to “pile up” on one another. Tsunami Tsunami

13 Refraction This bending of the wave and the resultant change in speed has environmental implications! This bending of the wave and the resultant change in speed has environmental implications!

14 Diffraction The bending of a wave as it either passes by a barrier / object OR the spreading out of a wave as it passes through an opening The bending of a wave as it either passes by a barrier / object OR the spreading out of a wave as it passes through an opening

15 Diffraction Longer wavelengths diffract easier around a barrier compared to shorter wavelengths Longer wavelengths diffract easier around a barrier compared to shorter wavelengths This is seen in the difference between light (a short wavelength) and sound (a long wavelength) This is seen in the difference between light (a short wavelength) and sound (a long wavelength)

16 Diffraction Waves can also diffract (bend) as they pass through an opening Waves can also diffract (bend) as they pass through an opening Maximum diffraction occurs when the width of the slit is close to the wavelength of the energy Maximum diffraction occurs when the width of the slit is close to the wavelength of the energy

17 Diffraction Diffraction is often used in creating wave breaks to help dissipate the incoming energy of the wave Diffraction is often used in creating wave breaks to help dissipate the incoming energy of the wave

18 Interference The total disturbance within a medium when more than one wave is present The total disturbance within a medium when more than one wave is present

19 Interference The amplitudes of the waves will add together as vectors. The amplitudes of the waves will add together as vectors. A crest plus a crest forms a much larger crest A crest plus a crest forms a much larger crest A trough plus a trough form a deeper trough A trough plus a trough form a deeper trough

20 Interference If a crest and crest (trough and trough) add together we end up with constructive interference If a crest and crest (trough and trough) add together we end up with constructive interference

21 Interference If a crest adds to a trough (or trough to a crest) we end up with destructive interference If a crest adds to a trough (or trough to a crest) we end up with destructive interference

22 Interference In most cases we end up with partial interference creating a beat. In most cases we end up with partial interference creating a beat.

23 Interference Many objects display an interference pattern (such as electrons) Many objects display an interference pattern (such as electrons)


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