Presentation on theme: "Anatomy of medical terms"— Presentation transcript:
1Anatomy of medical terms Anatomy of a Medical TermMany medical terms are composed of word part combinations.Recognizing these word parts and their meanings simplifies learning medical terminology. These word parts are as follows:■ prefix: word part found at the beginning of a word. Usuallyindicates number, location, time, or status.■ root: word part that gives the essential meaning of theword.■ combining vowel: single vowel, usually an o, that is addedto the end of a root to make the word easier to pronounce.■ combining form: combination of the root and combiningvowel.■ suffix: word part found at the end of a word. Usuallyindicates procedure, condition, disease, or disorder.
2The combining formThe combining form is a word root plus a combining vowel.Combining forms usually describe a part of the body. Newwords are created when combining forms are added to prefi xes,other combining forms, and suffixes. For example, the termpanleukopenia is composed of the following word parts:■ pan- (pahn), a prefix meaning all■ leuk/o (loo-kō), a combining form meaning white■ -penia (pē-nē-ah), a suffix meaning deficiency or reductionin numberPanleukopenia is a deficiency of all types of white bloodcells.
3suffixes Suffixes are attached to the end of a word part to modify its meaning. For example, the combining form gastr/o meansstomach and can be modified using various suffixes.■ The suffix -tomy means cutting into or incision.Gastrotomy is incision into the stomach.■ The suffix -stomy means a surgically created opening.Gastrostomy is a surgically created opening betweenthe stomach and the body surface.■ The suffix -ectomy means surgical removal or excision.Gastrectomy is surgical removal of the stomach.
4Suffixes “Pertaining To” Suffixes ■ -ac (ahck), as in cardiac (pertaining to the heart).■ -al (ahl), as in renal (pertaining to the kidney).■ -an (ahn), as in ovarian (pertaining to the ovary).■ -ar (ahr), as in lumbar (pertaining to the loin, lower back).■ -ary (ahr-ē), as in alimentary (pertaining to thegastrointestinal tract).■ -eal (ē-ahl), as in laryngeal (pertaining to the larynx).■ -ic (ihck), as in enteric (pertaining to the intestines).■ -ine (ihn), as in uterine (pertaining to the uterus).■ -ous (uhs), as in cutaneous (pertaining to the skin).■ -tic (tihck), as in nephrotic (pertaining to thekidneys).
5Suffixes Surgical Suffixes ■ -ectomy (ehck-tō-mē) = surgical removal, as inmastectomy, surgical removal of the breast or mammary glands.■ -pexy (pehck-sē) = suture to stabilize, as in gastropexy,surgically stabilizing the stomach to the abdominal wall.■ -plasty (plahs-tē) = surgical repair, as in rhinoplasty,surgical repair of the nose.■ -stomy (stō-mē) = surgically created opening, as incolostomy, a surgically created opening between thecolon and body surface.■ -tomy (tō-mē) = cutting into, as in laparotomy, anincision into the abdomen.
6Suffixes Procedural Suffi xes ■ -centesis (sehn-tē-sihs) = surgical puncture to remove fluid or gas (for diagnosis or for treatment to remove excess fluid or gas), as in cystocentesis, a surgical puncture of the urinary bladder with a needle to remove fluid (urine).■ -gram (grahm) = record of, as in electrocardiogram, the electrocardiographic hard copy record.■ -graph (grahf) = instrument that records (or used as a record), as in electrocardiograph, the machine that records the electrical activity of the heart.■ -graphy (grahf-ē) = procedure that records, as in electrocardiography, the procedure used to record the electrical activity of the heart.■ -lysis (lī-sihs) = separation or breakdown, as in urinalysis, separation of the urine into its constituents.■ -scope (skōp) = instrument to visually examine, as in endoscope, an instrument used to visually examine inside the body.■ -scopy (skōp-ē) = procedure to visually examine, as in endoscopy, the procedure of visually examining insidethe body.■ -therapy (thehr-ah-pē) = treatment, as in chemotherapy, treatment with chemical substances or drugs.
7Suffixes Double R Suffixes ■ -rrhagia or -rrhage (rā-jē-ah or rihdj) = bursting forth, as in hemorrhage, bursting forth of blood from the vessels.■ -rrhaphy (rahf-ē) = to suture, as in enterorrhaphy,suturing of the intestines.■ -rrhea (rē-ah) = flow, discharge, as in diarrhea,complete discharge of the bowels.■ -rrhexis (rehck-sihs) = rupture, as in myorrhexis,rupture of the muscle.
8Conditional and Structural Suffixes ■ -algia and -dynia (ahl-jē-ah and dihn-ē-ah) = pain, as in arthralgia and arthrodynia, or joint pain.■ -itis (ī-tihs) = inflammation, as in hepatitis, inflammation of the liver.■ -malacia (mah-lā-shē-ah) = abnormal softening, as in osteomalacia, abnormal softening of bone.■ -megaly (mehg-ah-lē) = enlargement, as in cardiomegaly, enlargement of the heart.
9Conditional and Structural Suffixes ■ -osis (ō-sihs) = abnormal condition, as in cardiosis, anabnormal condition of the heart.■ -pathy (pahth-ē) = disease, as in enteropathy, a diseaseof the small intestine.■ -sclerosis (skleh-rō-sihs) = abnormal hardening, as inarteriosclerosis, abnormal hardening of the arteries.■ -um (uhm) = structure, as in pericardium, the structuresurrounding the heart.
10SuffixesSuffixes may change a word’s part of speech. Different suffixesmay change the word from a noun (naming people, places, orthings) to an adjective (descriptor).■ Cyanosis is a noun meaning condition of blue discoloration,whereas cyanotic is an adjective meaning pertainingto blue discoloration.■ Anemia is a noun meaning a blood condition of deficientred blood cells and/or hemoglobin, whereas anemic isan adjective meaning pertaining to a blood condition ofdeficient red blood cells and/or hemoglobin.
11Suffixes■ Mucus is a noun meaning a slimelike substance that is composed of glandular secretion, salts, cells, and leukocytes, whereas mucous is an adjective meaning pertaining to mucus.■ Ilium is a noun meaning a part of the hip, whereas iliac is an adjective meaning pertaining to the hip.■ Condyle is a noun meaning a rounded projection on a bone, whereas condylar is an adjective meaning pertaining to a rounded projection on a bone.■ Carpus is a noun meaning the joint between the radiusand ulna and metacarpal bones, whereas carpal is anadjective meaning pertaining to the joint between theradius and ulna and metacarpal bones.
12Pronunciation Guide Vowel Sound Example “a” at the end of a word ah idea“ae” followed by r or s ah aerobic“i” at the end of a word ī bronchi“oe” eh oestrogen “oi” oy sarcoid“eu” - u euthanasia“ei” ī Einstein“ai” ay air“au” aw auditory
13Consonant pronunciation Consonant Sound Example“c” before e, i, and y s cecum“c” before a, o, and u k cancer“g” before e, i, and y j genetic“g” before a, o, and u g gall“ps” at beginning of word s psychology“pn” at beginning of word n pneumonia“c” at end of word k anemic“cc” followed by i or y first c = k, accidentsecondc = s
14Consonant pronunciation “ch” at beginning of word k chemistry“cn” in middle of word both c (pronounce kand n(pronounceehn) gastrocnemius“mn” in middle of word both m and n amnesia“pt” at beginning of word t pterodactyl“pt” in middle of word both p and t optical“rh” r rhinoceros“x” at beginning of word z xylophonexenograph
15Multiple Choice 1. The prefix __________ means away from. a. Ad b. ab c. exd. endo-2. The suffix __________ means an instrument to visually examine.a. -ectomyb. -scopec. -scopyd. -graphy3. The prefix _________ means elevated, while the prefix__________ means depressed.a. pre-, postb.endo-, exoc.hyper-, hypod.inter-, intra-
16Multiple Choice 4. The suffix __________ means pertaining to. a. -al b. -ary or -arc. -icd. all of the above5. The suffix __________ means incision.a. -exb. -tomyc. -ectomyd. -graphy6. The suffix __________ means abnormal condition.a. -osisb. -rrheac. -rrhagiad. -uria
1717. Which word association is incorrect? a. inter- means betweenb. sub- means below, under, or lessc. an- means without or nod. ad- means away from8. The prefix __________ means below.a. Suprab.superc.interd.sub-
189. The prefix(es) __________ mean(s) many. a. oligb. a-, anc.polyd.eu-10. The prefix(es) __________ mean(s) without or no.a. a-, anb. oligc. Dysd. hyper-11. Th e suffix -algia meansa. painb. excessivec. liverd. abnormal condition
1912. The prefix pre- meansa. afterb. aroundc. befored. during13. Which suffix may be part of the term meaning a procedureto visually examine?a. -lysisb. -scopyc. -rrhexisd. -scope14. Which type of word part is always placed at the end of a term?a. combining formb. prefixc. suffixd. root
20MatchingMatch the word parts in Column I with the definition in Column II.Column I Column II1. _____________ -itis a. incision or cutting into2. _____________ -gram b. before3. _____________ post- c. surgical puncture to remove fluid or gas4. _____________ -tomy d. difficult, painful, or bad5. _____________ pre- e. enlargement6. _____________ -centesis f. excision or surgical removal7. _____________ -therapy g. liver8. _____________ dys- h. kidney9. _____________ peri- i. infl ammation10. _____________ ren/o j. record11. _____________ hepat/o k. after12. _____________ -megaly l. treatment13. _____________ -ectomy m. around
21Fill in the BlanksWrite the medical terms that represent the following defi nitions.1. Pertaining to the stomach __________________2. Inflammation of the liver __________________3. Abnormal softening of bone __________________4. Joint pain __________________5. Procedure to visually examine inside the body __________________6. Heart enlargement __________________7. Pertaining to the kidney __________________8. Bursting forth of blood from vessels __________________9. Suturing of stomach to body wall __________________10. Treatment with chemicals or drugs __________________
22Spell CheckCross out any misspelled words in the following sentences and replace them with the proper spelling.1. Thick mucous was evident in the cat with upper respiratory disease. __________________________________2. Urine was collected via cistocentesis so that the urinanalysis could be performed to determine whether the dog had a urinary tractinfection. ____________________________________________________________________3. The horse’s diarhea was caused by intestinal parasites. ____________________________________________4. The cutaneus lesion was not cancerous. ____________________________________________________5. A local anestetic was used so that the surgery could be performed on the cow. _____________________________
23Underline the root in following terms 1. hepat/itis2. gastr/o/intestin/al3. cardi/o/logy4. intra/ven/ous5. nephr/osis
24Underline the suffix in following terms 6. hepat/itis7. gastr/o/intestin/al8. cardi/o/logy9. intra/ven/ous10. nephr/osis
25Underline the prefix in the following terms. 11. hyper/secretion12. peri/card/itis13. endo/cardi/um14. poly/uria15. ur/o/lith