2 Friendships in Adulthood Three broad themes underlie adult friendships:Affective or emotional basisThis includes self-disclosure, expressions of intimacy, appreciation, affection, and support.Based on trust, loyalty, and commitmentShared or communal natureFriends participate in or support activities of mutual interest.Sociability and compatibilityFriends keep us entertained and are sources of amusement, fun, and recreation.
3 Men, Women’s, and Cross-Sex Friendships Women tend to have more friendships than men.Friendships between men and women tend to:have a beneficial effect, especially for menbe difficult to maintain
4 Love Relationships Sternberg has identified three ideal components of love:PassionIntimacyCommitmentAssortative mating: selecting a mate based on shared values, goals, and interestsHomogamy: the degree to which people share similar values and interests
5 Violence in Relationships Abusive relationships occur when one person becomes aggressive toward their partner.Aggression can range from verbal to physical to murder.People remain in abusive relationships for many reasons,including low self-esteemand the belief that theycannot leaveBattered woman syndrome
6 Violence in Relationships Many college students report experiencing abuse while dating.In studies done since 2000:7% reported physical abuse36% reported emotional abuseAcquaintance (date) rape is experienced by 1 in 4 college womenRoughly 40 to 50% of women are injured during a sexual attack
7 Violence in Relationships Honor killings: Common cause of women’s murders in Arab countries is brother or other male relatives killing the victim because of honor.
8 Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation Elder abuse has several categories:PhysicalSexualEmotional or PsychologicalFinancial or materialAbandonmentNeglectSelf-neglectRisk factors and causes of Elder Abuse, Neglect, or Exploitation:Spouses or partners who have a history of being abusive tend to remain that way in late life.Unscrupulous businesspeople take advantage of cognitively disadvantaged older adults.
9 Singlehood Most adults between 20 and 24 are single Approximately 80% of men and 70% of womenPeople remain single for a variety of reasons.Three distinct groups of young singles:Those who suffer distress at being single.Those who are experiencing a continuum of desiring to remain single and wanting to be married.Others that are quite happy being single.
10 Cohabitation Becoming an increasingly popular lifestyle choice 523,000 couples in 19705,500,000 couples in 2000Couples cohabitate for three main reasonsConvenience, sharing expenses, sexual accessibility – part-time or limited cohabitationCouples are engaging in a trial marriage with an intent on marrying – premarital cohabitationLong-term commitment that is a marriage in fact, but lacking official sanction – substitute marriage
11 Factors influencing marital success MarriageThe median age at first marriage is increasing and has done so over the last few decades.Factors influencing marital successMaturity of the partners at time of marriageHomogamy - Marriagebased on similarityFeelings of equalityExchange theoryeach partner contributessomething to therelationship that the otherwould be hard pressed toprovide
12 The Developmental Course of Marital Satisfaction Marital satisfaction is highest at the beginning of the marriage, falls until children leave home, and rises in later life.
13 Keeping Marriages Happy Most long-term marriages tend to be happy, because both members of the couple:show an ability to adapt to changes in their relationshiprealize that expectations about one's marriage change over timeSeven Key Things to Keep a Good MarriageMake time for your relationshipExpress your love to your spouseBe there in times of needCommunicate constructively and positively about problems in the relationshipBe interested in your spouse’s lifeConfide in your spouseForgive minor offenses, and try tounderstand major ones
14 Divorce Grandma's Advice Video Clip Divorce in the U.S. is common and rates are higher than in many other countries.Men and women agree on reasons for divorce:Infidelity Incompatibility Drug and alcohol use Growing apart
15 Effects of Divorce on the Couple Divorce may impair well-being even several years later.Divorce Hangover: inability to “let go”Divorce in middle- or late-lifeIf the woman initiates the divorce, she reports self-focused growth and optimism.If she did not, she tends to ruminate and feel vulnerable.Middle-aged divorced women are less likely to remarry and more likely to have financial problems than men.
16 RemarriageDespite adjustment problems, the vast majority of divorced people remarry.Usually men and women wait about 3.5 years.Few differences between first marriages and remarriages.Most second marriages have 25% higher risk of dissolution than first marriages.Remarriage in late life appears to be very happy, especially if the partners were widowed.In this case, the biggest problem is usually resistance by adult children.
17 WidowhoodExperiencing the death of one's spouse is a traumatic event, but one which is highly likely.Reactions to widowhood depend on the quality of the marriage.Widowed people are vulnerable to being abandoned (socially isolated) by their couples-based friendship network.Gender differencesMore than half of women over 65 are widows; only 15% of same-aged men are widowersWidowhood is more common among women because they tend to marry older men.Widowed men are typically older than widowed women.Men are more likely to die soon after their spouse.Either by suicide or natural causes
18 Family Dynamics and the Life Course The Parental RoleToday, couples have fewer children and have their first child later than in the past.
19 Single Parents in the United States Single-parent households have remained constant since 1994 at 9 percent.Proportion of births to unmarried mothers is at an all time high at 37%.Single parents are mostly womenSingle mothers and ethnic patterns:70% of African American births are to single mothers48% of Latino births are to single mothers25% of European births are to single mothersConcerns/obstacles of the single parentFinancially less well-offIntegrating work andparenthood is difficultDating
20 Midlife Issues: Adult Children and Parental Caregiving Sandwich generation:Middle-aged parents caught between caring for their children and acting as caregivers for their parents
21 Adult Children: Becoming Friends and the Empty Nest Middle aged parents experience two positive developments.Suddenly their children see them in a new light.The children leave home.Only 25% report negative emotions when their children leave home.Difficulties emerge when children were a major source of a parent’s identity.Most parents typically report distress if adult children move back home.
22 Caring for ones parents Filial obligation: to care for one’s parents when necessary44 million Americans provide care for older parents, in-laws, grandparents.Caregiving Stresses include:Coping with parent’s declining cognitive ability and problematic behaviorWorkload burnoutLoss of previous relationship with parentWhen the caregiving role infringes on other responsibilities
23 Grandparenthood How do Grandparents Interact with Grandchildren? Grandparents pass on skills, religious, social, and vocational values.Grandchildren give to grandparents by keeping them in touch with youth and the latest trends (computers, iPods).Being a Grandparent is meaningful.Kivnick has identified five meanings of being a grandparent:Centrality (most important part of ones life)Value as an elder (source of wisdom)Immortality through clanReinvolvement with one’s personal past(recalling their own grandparents)Indulgence (ability to spoil grandchildren)
24 Grandparents, Grandchildren, and Divorce Grandparents are increasingly being put in the position of raising their grandchildren.Approximately 800,000 U.S. households include a grandparent raising a grandchild under the age of 18.Grandparents who raise their grandchildren face many special problems.Reasons for raising grandchildren are varied.
25 Family Dynamics and the Life Course Great-GrandparenthoodIncreasing numbers of people are living long enough to become great-grandparents.Which brings additional status and meaning to one's lifeBeing a great-grandparent is an important source of personal and family renewal.