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Psychology of Gender. You Just Don’t Understand by Deborah Tannen MalesFemales Guise of Opposition one-upsmanship Guise of Connection one-down.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychology of Gender. You Just Don’t Understand by Deborah Tannen MalesFemales Guise of Opposition one-upsmanship Guise of Connection one-down."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology of Gender

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6 You Just Don’t Understand by Deborah Tannen MalesFemales Guise of Opposition one-upsmanship Guise of Connection one-down Focus on Status avoid failure Focus on Involvement avoid isolation Focus on IndependenceFocus on Intimacy Logical - thinkersEmotional-feelers Problem-Solvers Gift of understanding

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8 Differences in Personal Relationships  Gray’s motivation is $$$$$$$ 18 million from book sales18 million from book sales $35,000 per seminar$35,000 per seminar  Claims are grossly exaggerated use of anecdotal informationuse of anecdotal information  Polarizing men and women offensive creates greater distancecreates greater distance

9 What’s the difference anyway?  Meta-Analytic Reviews: Cognitive Abilities Cognitive Abilities Sexual Behavior and Attitudes Sexual Behavior and Attitudes Conformity and Social Influence Conformity and Social Influence Emotional Experience Emotional Experience Risk Taking Risk Taking Aggression Aggression

10 Preliminary Remarks  Introduction to Meta-analysis  Sex/Gender Terminology  Methodological Considerations

11 Introduction to Meta-Analysis  Meta-analysis: Numerically averaging results across many studies  A standard way to compute difference between groups: Cohen’s d statistic Small =.20 Small =.20 Medium =.50 Medium =.50 Large =.80 Large =.80

12 Defining Terms  Sex - biological (anatomy, physiology, chromosomal characteristics)  Gender - psych, social, cultural  Gender role identity - degree to which one’s self concept connects to psych, social, cultural understanding for males and females

13 Methodological Considerations  Gender Differences or Sex Differences?  Sex/Gender Differences: Strict dichotomies or continuous variables?  Magnitude of Difference versus Within Group Variability  File Drawer Problem  Translating “significant difference” into practical significance

14 Gender and Cognition  The “Missing” 5%: Selection pressures enable man to achieve “higher eminence, in whatever he takes up, than can woman--whether requiring deep thought, reason, invention, or imagination, or merely the uses of the senses and hands.” --Darwin

15 Gender and Cognition: Verbal Tests Source: Hyde & Linn, 1988 Notes: n = 165 studies; Negative d values mean women score higher

16 Gender and Cognition: Math Tests Source: Hyde et al. 1990 Notes: n = 100 studies, Positive d values indicate men score higher

17 Study of the Mathematically Precocious (Benbow, 1988) SAT-M Males: M = 436; Females: M = 404, d = +.39 Male:Female 600+ = 2:1 Male:Female 700+ = 4:1 Predictive Validity? Media accounts lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy? Gender and Cognition: Math Tests

18 Gender and Cognition: Spatial Tests Source: Linn & Peterson, 1995 Notes: Positive d values indicate men score higher than women Spatial Test d Mental Rotation 0.56 Spatial Perception 0.44 Spatial Visualization 0.19

19 Gender and Cognition Cognitive Crowding Hypothesis: Females more likely to have verbal ability represented in both hemispheres. Male brains more likely to have the left hemisphere devoted exclusively to verbal abilities and right hemisphere devoted to spatial abilities. Sex Differences in Lateralization Female brains are more symmetrically organized for cognitive functions (more bilateral in organization) Male brains are more asymmetrically organized (more lateralized in organization)

20 Gender and Cognition Critique of Biological Theories: Gender disparities on standardized tests declining in more recent years. Training eliminates disparity on spatial skills tests. Socialization mediating biology? Early reliance on verbal skills impacting women’s performance on spatial and mathematical tests?

21 Sexual Behavior and Attitudes

22 19.33Incidence of Homosexuality 26.96Incidence of Masturbation 12.25Number of Sexual Partners 135.33Incidence of Intercourse 11-.35Anxiety, Fear or Guilt About Sex 39.57Sexual Permissiveness 10.49Attitude toward Committed Intercourse 10.81Attitude toward Casual IntercoursendMeasure Source: Oliver and Hyde, 1993 Note: Positive d values occur when men score higher than women.

23 Conformity and Social Influence  Asch-type Conformity Experiments: Women conform more than men Women conform more than men d=.32 (Becker, 1986)d=.32 (Becker, 1986) d=.28 (Eagly & Carli, 1981)d=.28 (Eagly & Carli, 1981)  Persuasion Women report more attitude change Women report more attitude change d=.16 (Becker, 1986)d=.16 (Becker, 1986) d=.11 (Eagly & Carli, 1981)d=.11 (Eagly & Carli, 1981)  Negotiation (Stuhlmacher and Walters, 1999) Men more effective in Zero Sum Games (d=.20) Men more effective in Zero Sum Games (d=.20)

24 Conformity and Social Influence  Leadership Styles (Eagly et al., 2003) Transformational Transformational Inspirational leadership that gains the trust confidence and admiration of group membersInspirational leadership that gains the trust confidence and admiration of group members Women more likely than men (d=.10)Women more likely than men (d=.10) Transactional Transactional Managing group members through punishment and rewardsManaging group members through punishment and rewards Women more likely to use rewards (d=.13), men punishment (d=.12)Women more likely to use rewards (d=.13), men punishment (d=.12) Laissez-faire Laissez-faire Do not manage group members muchDo not manage group members much Men more likely than women (d=.16)Men more likely than women (d=.16)

25 Emotional Experience  Self Disclosure (Dindia and Allen, 1992) Women self disclose more than men (d=.18) Women self disclose more than men (d=.18) Compared to their counterparts, women express sadness and depression more often, men express anger more often Compared to their counterparts, women express sadness and depression more often, men express anger more often  Emotional Expression Women externalize, men internalize (Brody & Hall, 2002) Women externalize, men internalize (Brody & Hall, 2002)  Response to Stress (Taylor, 2002) Men show a fight-or-flight response, women more likely to show a tend-and-befriend response Men show a fight-or-flight response, women more likely to show a tend-and-befriend response

26 Risk Taking Self Report Data d Smoking-.02 Drinking/Drug Use.04* Sexual Activities.07* Driving.29* Observational Data Driving.17* Intellectual Risk Taking.40* Physical Activity.16* Gambling.21* Experiment.41* Source: Miller and Schafer, 1999. Note: Positive d values occur when men score higher than women. * denotes a statistically significant difference

27 Aggression Observational Data d Peer reports.84 Experimental Data Unprovoked Aggression.43 Provoked Aggression Overall Provocation is a physical attack Provocation is insult about intelligence.06.48.59

28 Aggression  Pattern of findings constant across cultures and nations, though degree is variable (Archer and Mehdikhani, 2004)  Difference is largest between 18-22 years of age (d=.66, Archer and Mehdikhani, 2004)  Indirect or relational aggression higher in women compared to men (Crick & Nelson, 2002; Simmons, 2002)

29 Introduction to Social Factors  Parental Treatment and the Learning of Gender Roles Baby X Studies (Stern and Karraker, 1989) Baby X Studies (Stern and Karraker, 1989) Knowledge of infant’s gender affects childrens’ interactions more than adults’ interactions with the infantKnowledge of infant’s gender affects childrens’ interactions more than adults’ interactions with the infant Parent reactions to gender-typed play Parent reactions to gender-typed play Fathers’ police more than mothers, everyone polices boys more than girls (e.g., Raag & Rackliff, 1998)Fathers’ police more than mothers, everyone polices boys more than girls (e.g., Raag & Rackliff, 1998) Big Boys Don’t Cry (Brock, 1978; Weinberg et al., 1998) Big Boys Don’t Cry (Brock, 1978; Weinberg et al., 1998) Parents assign gender-typed chores Parents assign gender-typed chores Daughters assigned household chores, sons outside work (e.g., Antill et al., 1996)Daughters assigned household chores, sons outside work (e.g., Antill et al., 1996)

30 Introduction to Social Factors  Enacting Stereotypes Mass Media Mass Media Commercials and TV Shows (Furnham & Mak, 1999)Commercials and TV Shows (Furnham & Mak, 1999) Cartoons (Thompson and Zerbinos, 1995)Cartoons (Thompson and Zerbinos, 1995) When gender is salient, men and women act in stereotypic ways (Deaux & Major, 1987) When gender is salient, men and women act in stereotypic ways (Deaux & Major, 1987) Men more likely to help in public and wnen women in need (Eagly & Crowley, 1981)Men more likely to help in public and wnen women in need (Eagly & Crowley, 1981) Stereo-type threat (Steele, 1997) Stereo-type threat (Steele, 1997) When stereotypes queston the abilities of one sex they may undermine the performance of individual men and womenWhen stereotypes queston the abilities of one sex they may undermine the performance of individual men and women Self-fulfilling prophecies and Behavioral Confirmation Self-fulfilling prophecies and Behavioral Confirmation Feminists judged unlikable and unattractive (Haddock & Zanna, 1994)Feminists judged unlikable and unattractive (Haddock & Zanna, 1994) Women (but not men) not liked if brash and self-promoting (Rudman, 1998)Women (but not men) not liked if brash and self-promoting (Rudman, 1998) Women evincing direct and masculine style of leadership judged less likable than men similarly described (Eagly, et al., 1992 )Women evincing direct and masculine style of leadership judged less likable than men similarly described (Eagly, et al., 1992 )


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