E RIKSON ’ S S TAGES OF P SYCHOSOCIAL T HEORY Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is one of the best-known theories of personality in psychology. Erikson believed that childhood is very important in personality development He accepted many of Freud's theories, including the id, ego, and superego, and Freud's theory of infantile sexuality. But Erikson rejected Freud's attempt to describe personality solely on the basis of sexuality, and, unlike Freud, felt that personality continued to develop beyond five years of age.
E RIKSON ’ S S TAGES OF P SYCHOSOCIAL T HEORY Much like Sigmund Freud, Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages. Unlike Freud’s theory of psychosexual stages, Erikson’s theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan. In his most influential work, Childhood and Society (1950), he divided the human life cycle into eight psychosocial stages of development. Erikson suggested that people experience eight ‘crises’ in the form of psychosocial stages as they progress from birth to old age. Each stage builds on the successful completion of earlier stages.
E RIKSON ’ S S TAGES OF P SYCHOSOCIAL T HEORY In each stage the person confronts, and hopefully masters, new challenges. The challenges of stages not successfully completed may be expected to reappear as problems in the future. Erik Erikson developed the theory in the 1950's as an improvement on Freud's psychosexual stages. One of the main elements of Erikson’s psychosocial stage theory is the development of ego identity. Ego identity is the conscious sense of self that we develop through social interaction. According to Erikson, our ego identity is constantly changing due to new experience and information we acquire in our daily interactions with others.
E RIKSON ’ S S TAGES OF P SYCHOSOCIAL T HEORY If the stage is handled well, the person will feel a sense of mastery, which he sometimes referred to as ego strength or ego quality. If the stage is managed poorly, the person will merge with a sense of inadequacy. In each stage, Erikson believed people experience a conflict that serves as a turning point in development. conflict These conflicts are centered on either developing a psychological quality or failing to develop that quality. During these times, the potential for personal growth is high, but so is the potential for failure.
ERIK ERIKSON ' S EIGHT STAGES OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Integrity versus Despair Have I lived a full life and taken advantage of what life offered? Generativity versus Absorption Will I produce something of real value or leave a legacy? Intimacy versus Isolation Shall I share my life with another or live alone? Identity versus Role Confusion Who am I and where am I going? Industry versus Inferiority Am I Competent or am I a worthless failure? Initiative versus Guilt Am I Good or am I Bad? Autonomy versus Shame & Doubt Can I do things myself or must I depend on others? Trust versus Mistrust Is my world Predictable and Supportive? Middle AgeLate Adult Young Adulthood Adolescence Late Childhood Early Childhood Toddlerhood Infancy Babies
1. I NFANCY : B IRTH TO 18 M ONTHS T RUST VS. M ISTRUST Basic strength: Drive and Hope infancy is referred as the Oral Sensory Stage (as anyone might who watches a baby put everything in her mouth) where the major emphasis is on the mother's positive and loving care for the child, with a big emphasis on visual contact and touch. If we pass successfully through this period of life, we will learn to trust that life is basically okay and have basic confidence in the future. If we fail to experience trust and are constantly frustrated because our needs are not met, we may end up with a deep-seated feeling of worthlessness and a mistrust of the world in general. Incidentally, many studies of suicides and suicide attempts point to the importance of the early years in developing the basic belief that the world is trustworthy and that every individual has a right to be here. Not surprisingly, the most significant relationship is with the maternal parent, or whoever is our most significant and constant caregiver.
2. E ARLY C HILDHOOD : 18 M ONTHS TO 3 Y EARS A UTONOMY VS. S HAME Basic Strengths: Self-control, Courage, and Will During this stage children learn to master skills for themselves. Not only do they learn to walk, talk and feed themselves, they are learning finer motor development as well as the much appreciated toilet training. Here children have the opportunity to build self-esteem and autonomy as they gain more control over their bodies and acquire new skills, learning right from wrong. One of their skills is their ability to use the powerful word "NO!" It may be pain for parents, but it develops important skills of the will. It is also during this stage, however, that children can be very vulnerable. If they’re shamed in the process of toilet training or in learning other important skills, they may feel great shame and doubt of our capabilities and suffer low self-esteem as a result. The most significant relationships are with parents.
3. P LAY A GE : 3 TO 5 Y EARS I NITIATIVE VS. G UILT Basic Strength: Purpose During this period children experience a desire to copy the adults around them and take initiative in creating play situations. They make up stories with Barbie's and Ken's, toy phones and miniature cars, playing out roles in a trial universe. They also begin to use that wonderful word for exploring the world—"WHY?" While Erikson was influenced by Freud, he downplays biological sexuality in favor of the psychosocial features of conflict between child and parents. Nevertheless, he said that at this stage we usually become involved in the classic "Oedipal struggle" and resolve this struggle through "social role identification." If we're frustrated over natural desires and goals, we may easily experience guilt. The most significant relationship is with the basic family.
4.S CHOOL A GE : 6 TO 12 Y EARS (L ATER C HILDHOOD I NDUSTRY VS. I NFERIORITY Basic Strengths: Method and Competence During this stage, often called the Latency, children are capable of learning, creating and accomplishing numerous new skills and knowledge, thus developing a sense of industry. This is also a very social stage of development and if children experience unresolved feelings of inadequacy and inferiority among their peers, they can have serious problems in terms of competence and self-esteem. As the world expands a bit, their most significant relationship is with the school and neighborhood. Parents are no longer the complete authorities they once were, although they are still important.
5. A DOLESCENCE : 12 TO 18 Y EARS I DENTITY VS. R OLE C ONFUSION Basic Strengths: Devotion and Fidelity (commitment) Up to this stage, development mostly depends upon what is done to us. From here on out, development depends primarily upon what we do. While adolescence is a stage at which we are neither a child nor an adult, life is definitely getting more complex as we attempt to find our own identity, struggle with social interactions, and grapple with moral issues. Our task is to discover who we are as individuals separate from our family of origin and as members of a wider society. many of the children go into a period of withdrawing from responsibilities, which Erikson called a "moratorium." And if they are unsuccessful in navigating this stage, they will experience role confusion and upheaval. A significant task for them is to establish a philosophy of life and in this process they tend to think in terms of ideals, which are conflict free, The problem is that we don't have much experience and find it easy to substitute ideals for experience. However, we can also develop strong devotion to friends and causes. It is no surprise that our most significant relationships are with peer groups.
6. Y OUNG ADULTHOOD : 18 TO 35 I NTIMACY AND S OLIDARITY VS. I SOLATION Basic Strengths: Affiliation and Love In the initial stage of being an adult we seek one or more companions and love. As we try to find mutually satisfying relationships, primarily through marriage and friends, we generally also begin to start a family, though this age has been pushed back for many couples who today don't start their families until their late thirties. If negotiating this stage is successful, we can experience intimacy on a deep level. If we're not successful, isolation and distance from others may occur. And when we don't find it easy to create satisfying relationships, our world can begin to shrink as, in defense, we can feel superior to others. Our significant relationships are with marital partners and friends.
7. M IDDLE A DULTHOOD : 35 TO 55 OR 65 G ENERATIVITY VS. S ELF ABSORPTION OR S TAGNATION Basic Strengths: Production and Care We tend to be occupied with creative and meaningful work and with issues surrounding our family. Also, middle adulthood is when we can expect to "be in charge," the role we've longer envied. The significant task is to perpetuate culture and transmit values of the culture through the family (taming the kids) and working to establish a stable environment. Strength comes through care of others and production of something that contributes to the betterment of society, which Erikson calls generativity, so when we're in this stage we often fear inactivity and meaninglessness. As our children leave home, or our relationships or goals change, we may be faced with major life changes—the mid-life crisis—and struggle with finding new meanings and purposes. If we don't get through this stage successfully, we can become self-absorbed and stagnate. Significant relationships are within the workplace, the community and the family.
8. L ATE A DULTHOOD : 55 OR 65 TO D EATH I NTEGRITY VS. D ESPAIR Basic Strengths: Wisdom As older adults we can often look back on our lives with happiness and are content, feeling fulfilled with a deep sense that life has meaning and we've made a contribution to life, a feeling Erikson calls integrity. Our strength comes from a wisdom that the world is very large and we now have a detached concern for the whole of life, accepting death as the completion of life. On the other hand, some adults may reach this stage and despair at their experiences and perceived failures. They may fear death as they struggle to find a purpose to their lives, wondering "Was the trip worth it?" Alternatively, they may feel they have all the answers (not unlike going back to adolescence) and end with a strong dogmatism (rigitidy) that only their view has been correct. The significant relationship is with all of mankind—"my- kind.”
4. DIFFERENT FORMS OF PARENTING STYLE Baumrind’s Parenting Styles http://social.jrank.org/pages/461/Parenting-Parenting-Style.html Authoritarian Parents are restrictive and punitive. Children tend to be socially incompetent, anxious, and exhibit poor communication skills. Indulgent Parents are highly involved but set few restrictions. Children have poor self-control. Neglectful Parents are uninvolved. Children have poor self- control, don’t handle independence well, and low achievement motivation. Authoritative Parents are nurturing and supportive, yet set limits. Children are self-reliant, get along with peers, and have high self-esteem.
T HE I MPACT OF P ARENTING S TYLES Authoritarian parenting styles generally lead to children who are obedient and proficient, but they rank lower in happiness, social competence and self-esteem. Authoritative parenting styles tend to result in children who are happy, capable and successful (Maccoby, 1992). Permissive or Indulgent parenting often results in children who rank low in happiness and self-regulation. These children are more likely to experience problems with authority and tend to perform poorly in school. Uninvolved or neglectful parenting styles rank lowest across all life domains. These children tend to lack self- control, have low self-esteem and are less competent than their peers.
W HY D O P ARENTING S TYLES D IFFER ? After learning about the impact of parenting styles on child development, you may wonder why all parents simply don't utilize an authoritative parenting style. After all, this parenting style is the most likely to produce happy, confident and capable children. What are some reasons why parenting styles might vary? Some potential causes of these differences include culture, personality, family size, parental background, socioeconomic status, educational level and religion. The parenting styles of individual parents also combine to create a unique blend in each and every family. For example, the mother may display an authoritative style while the father favors a more permissive approach. In order to create a cohesive approach to parenting, it is essential that parents learn to cooperate as they combine various elements of their unique parenting styles.
Communicate effectively with families about school programs and their child’s progress Involve families with their children in learning activities at home Encourage parents to be volunteers Provide assistance to families Coordinate community collaboration Include families as participants in school decisions School-Family Linkages
Increasing Opportunity Integrity VS Despair Generatavity Vs Stagnation Intimacy Identity Vs Diffusion Industry Vs Inferiority Autonomy Vs Shame Initiative Vs Guilt Trust Vs Mistrust Society Own Children Partner Peers/Friend s School/Nursery Family Members Siblings Parents and Caregivers Individual Change Environmental Change
C RITICISM : E RIKSON Erikson got much of his research for creating the stages from reading biographies on famous men like Martin Luther King and Gandhi. Stages are not completely accurate. Based on personal and subjective interpretations Identity formation issues: What about adults who reform their identity, rediscover who they are? Is it possible for an individual to change throughout life? Critics argue that his theory is more appicable to boys than girls. There is a gender differences to the developmental stages. Reflects the personality development of males more than females Underestimated the cultural differences that may influence the behavior at particular age levels.
A PPLICATION OF T HEORY Question for Discussion: How can we apply psychosocial theory in education (focus on teaching-learning)? Time: 15 minutes discussion
Application of Theory StagesApplication Younger preschool (toddler) Allow plenty of opportunities to free play and experimentation, but with guidance Avoid shaming for unacceptable behavior Older preschool (Early Childhood) Encourage activities that permit the use of initiative and provide a sense of accomplishment Avoid making children feel guilty about well motivated but inconvenient questions or action. Elementary school year Help children experience a sense of industry ive such tsk so well that they will know they are successful No comparison between, but encourage for cooperation Try to help jealous children for their own satisfaction
Application of Theory StagesApplication Secondary School Level (Adolescence) Keep in mind each pupil’s search for a sense of identity. Provide recognition for those who count. Help to formulate short-term goals while they continue to search for long-term goals. Try to minimize role confusion – provide appropriate guidance for occupational choice.