The Watched, the Watching, and the Others CCTV – to control crime by surveilling others Effectiveness – debatable - fear of crime - terrorist attacks Britain – highest level of surveillance 4.2 million CCTV cameras
Deterrence from having certain kind of people frequent particular streets, locales Function creep – where the technology is used for more than it was intended, to surveil more than the target But it is not an effective crime deterrence mechanism Violates human rights and civil liberties. Vulnerability to adhoc digital manipulation.
Sherbrooke first city to install CCTV in 1991 – but was removed soon after because it was found to violate privacy rights (court decision). Next Sudbury – longest running CCTV system of surveillance Now, everywhere, particularly at airports and on key arteries, but also pubs, other private businesses and homes.
Public Knowledge CrimeStoppers Detective shows – highlighting the presumed effectiveness of CCTV (Person of Interest) https://youtu.be/YdVyJWI-dwE https://youtu.be/YdVyJWI-dwE
Theoretical Perspectives The Panopticon – 18 th Century design of a prison where the inmates could be watched by a guard who was concealed in the centre tower.
“The building is circular. The prisoners’ cells occupy the circumference, and are divided from each other to prevent all communication. The room for the inspector, or chief warden, occupies the centre of the building. Light is provided by a window in each cell, but the inspector’s room is designed in such a way that no direct light penetrates it from the perspective of the prisoners” (Jam Jacobs Blog Spot) http://jamjacobs.blogspot.ca/2011/03/information- panopticon-development-and.html
Dispersal CCTV in ads (see Watchdogs ad on Youtube)* https://youtu.be/1hpU_Neg1KA https://youtu.be/1hpU_Neg1KA CCTV in movies CCTV in TV – the visual made for the visual CCTV on the streets, and at different sites Two sides to surveillance – as a protective force and as an intrusive force
For TV Programming CCTV legitimizes intrusion in the name of protection (detective and sci fi genres, e.g. Scott & Bailey – British detective show on netflix, also Terror TV) CCTV footage embedded in news stories Also used in comedy show In advertising General legitimization of the use of surveillance (see last week’s presentation – Candid Camera)
Synopticon Thomas Matthiesen’s concept: Where the many see the few Panopticon – where the few see the many An example of the panopticon can be seen on our website – the collateral damage video, when it was first taken.* Synopticon – when the video was posted on Youtube, many saw it Reality TV shows, shows that feature celebrities of all sorts – you see many seeing the few.
Groombridge That it is not privacy per se that is the issue, but rather intimacy. Intimacy should be valorized. In other words, intimacy is what is endangered by surveillance technology. This ties in with what Meyrowitz discusses in his article.
Omnicon Where all watch, or might potentially watch, everyone. In other words, the watched are watching the watchers are watching the watched. As Foucault argues, where there is power, there is always resistance. E.g. CCTV Camera Players* https://youtu.be/RILTl8mxEnE