Presentation on theme: "Ch.3. Who is “family” to you? Defining Family A broad definition of family includes: The traditional family definition (parent and child), Intimate partners."— Presentation transcript:
Defining Family A broad definition of family includes: The traditional family definition (parent and child), Intimate partners Trusted others Individuals living in the same household, Individuals who have daily interactions with one another and those who care for the person in question.
Family Systems Theory “Bounded set of interrelated elements exhibiting coherent behavior as a trait.” (Constantine, 1986) “An assemblage or objects related to each other by some regular interaction or interdependence.” (Webster)
Overview to Family Systems Most families fall on a continuum somewhere between healthy and dysfunctional This continuum represents the range of experiences, history and functioning of a family system
Family Systems Perspectives Family members actions influence all members of the system All families are in a constant state of change The family system seeks stability in the midst of these changes When individual members change, the system seeks to restore itself
Six Concepts Related to Family Structure Boundaries Power and Intimacy Freedom of Expression Warmth, Joy and Humor Organization and negotiating skills Value Systems
Organization and negotiating skills Healthy Families: room for discussion in times of negotiating; spirit of camaraderie; tasks run smoothly; little stress. Unhealthy Families: tasks done with difficulty and inconsistently; repeated arguments; organizational structure maintained by control.
Warmth, Joy and Humor Healthy Families: humor important bonding element; shared happy experiences; humor runs freely; allows members to feel at ease. Unhealthy Families: little or no shared happy memories; feel as though no one cares; humor at others expense; do not seek to comfort others.
Freedom of Expression Healthy Families: lively discussion; accepted differences; love is not withdrawn due to differences; ambivalence and uncertainty accepted. Unhealthy Families: pressure to hide feelings; avoid adversity; range of feelings are unacceptable.
Power and Intimacy Unhealthy Families: little or no consideration for member feelings or opinions; usually one member dominates decision making. Healthy Families: equal power in primary dyad, consideration of member viewpoints promotes intimacy.
Boundaries Unhealthy Families: roles are unclear; minimal connection within a community; isolation; rigid roles and expectations. Healthy Families: Ability to speak freely without fear of retaliation or punishment
VALUE SYSTEM Unhealthy Families: value system is rigid or non- existent; people are perceived as bad; no acceptance of differing views. Healthy Families: members find a niche within the family; members see value in belonging; capacity for symbolism; individuals find higher meaning in life.
Benefits of Parent Involvement When schools work together with families to support learning, children tend to succeed not just in school, but throughout life. Source: The Parent Institute
Benefits of Parent Involvement Research indicates that the most accurate predictor of a student’s achievement in school is not income or social status, but the extent the student’s family is able to: 1. Create a home environment that encourages learning. 2. Express high and realistic expectations for their children’s achievement and future careers. 3. Become involved in their children’s education at school and in the community. Source: www.cde.state.co.us - Strengthening Parent Involvement
History of Parent Involvement Post WWI (1945 - 1950s) Participation in parent conferences Homework monitoring Report card review – sign report card PTA meetings Fundraising events Mother-focused - “room mothers”
Parent participation: special education Parent participation was mandated first in 1975: Education of All Handicapped Children’s Act. In 1986 legislation called for a focus on the family in the delivery of early intervention services.
SPECIAL NEEDS AND THE FAMILY No one ever plans on having a disability When an individual is severely affected by injury, accident or illness it has an enormous effect on not only their own life, but on those closest to them— which almost invariably involves the family!
Impact on family: Stages Shock and denial Adjustment Reintegration and acknowledgment Establishing a support system Kubler-Ross: Five Stages of Grieving Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance
Children with Special Needs Approximately 1% of all newborn babies can be identified as having conditions that are considered as special needs. 1% of all special needs are detected during the 2nd year of life From 8-11% of the school-age population will show conditions that need special education services (Someday’s Child)
Family Relations And Special Needs Felt they neglected other children Marriages suffered Resented relatives failure to understand and accept child with a disability Services Support groups Respite care Professional counseling Table P.66 Very Important Table P.69: Family centered philosophy in Early Intervention