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By Hayley Reynolds, Emily Meyers, and Christa Fowler.

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1 By Hayley Reynolds, Emily Meyers, and Christa Fowler

2 - Term used to describe a person’s conception and expression of their individuality or group affiliations.-

3 Objectives Is identity ever fully developed? Based on Marcia’s identity statuses, was each subject within their age group on track to developing Identity Achievement? Identity as a whole can never fully develop as behavioral, phenomenological, and structural elements are constantly affecting the person. However, through everyday experiences, a person can acquire Identity Achievement in certain aspects of their life. Hypothesis

4 Erik Erikson Born June, 15 th 1902 in Frankfurt, Germany. Mother raised him alone because father had an affair. She remarried in 1904 to a doctor: Both were Jewish. Not a very good student. Loved to travel. Found his calling at the age of 25. Married Joan Serson at age 27. Taught at a Freudian School in Moved to Boston during World War II. Died in 1994.

5 Definitions Ego-identity- a feeling for who is and one’s place in the larger social order. Moratorium- period during which young people take a time to try and find themselves. Psychosocial Moratorium- kind of “time out” period of finding oneself. Fidelity- the ability to sustain one’s freely pledged loyalties. Generativity- broad term that refers not only to the creation of children, but also to the production of thing and ideas through work. Ego-strengths- the emotion that the individual is supposed to obtain after successfully developing a stage.

6 Stage Theories Erikson’s Theory Freud’s Theory Trust vs. MistrustOral Autonomy vs. Shame, DoubtAnal Initiative vs. GuiltPhallic (Oedipal) Industry vs. InferiorityLatency Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence) Genital Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adult) Generativity vs Self- Absorption, Stagnatation (Adulthood) Ego Integrity vs. Despair (Old age)

7 Adolescents: Identity vs. Role Confusion Turbulent stage  Continuing with that idea, Erikson believed social conflict and demand helped establish a new sense of ego identity. Impulse for will of their own and no longer themselves. Problem in this stage is that they “might look bad” to others. Form groups. Develop sense of identity through accomplishments. Examples: Stand up, walk, run, draw, read etc. Psychosocial moratorium. Central task = to find some way of life to which he/she can make a permanent commitment. Ego strength = Fidelity

8 Young Adult: Intimacy vs. Isolation Steps by which people widen and deepen their capacities to love and care for others. Attainment = intimacy. Failure to attain genuine mutuality results in isolation. Ego strength = mature love.

9 Adulthood: Generativity vs. Self- Absorption, Stagnation Established intimacy which then expands beyond just the two people  Concerned with raising the next generation. This stage is where generativity comes in. Sacrifice and overcome temptations. Can occur with no children (Example: priest/nun) Problem & U.S. view.

10 Old Age: Ego Integrity vs. Despair As older people face death, they often do a “life review”. Erikson emphasizes the importance of both positive and negative roles in this crisis. The inner struggle tends to make the older person something of a philosopher. Ego strength = wisdom.

11 Erikson’s TheoryMarcia’s Theory Trust vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame, Doubt Initiative vs. Guilt Industry vs. Inferiority Identity vs. Role ConfusionDiffusion Intimacy vs. IsolationForeclosure Generativity vs. Self- Absorption, Stagnation Moratorium Ego Identity vs. DespairAchievement

12 Defining Criteria of the Identity Statuses Identity Achievement MoratoriumForeclosure Identity Diffusion Exploration of alternatives PresentIn-processAbsent May be present or absent CommitmentPresent Present but vague PresentAbsent

13 Ego Identity Behavioral - identity negotiation may arise from the learning of social roles through personal experience. Identity negotiation is a process in which a person negotiates with society at large regarding the meaning of his or her identity. Structural - an increase in overall ego strength, so that the other ego function (Example: delay of gratification, thinking under stress, mutuality of inter-personal relationships) should show heightened development concomitant with identity development. Phenomenological - requires a substantial re-thinking about the nature of human existence. “Identity-in-the-world-”  experienced every day life

14 Rubric These questions were carefully worded and adapted from Marcia’s book, Ego Identity: A Handbook for Psychosocial Research, in order to determine what stage of identity each individual is in. These questions were formed to reflect Marcia’s three aspects of ego identity; structural, phenomenological, and behavioral. The responses were then rated on scale of 1-4 to indicate a particular status and were averaged.

15 Test Subjects 8 th Graders from Holy Family Catholic School.(7) Students from the University of Dallas.(7) Adults over the age of 40.(6)

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20 Conclusion We were unable to answer our first hypothesis, however, with the collective research, we can conclude that with the rise of identity development, Identity Achievement could be possible. Our second hypothesis can be taken to be correct because even young adolescents showed early signs of Identity Achievement in certain areas. This achievement progressively increased with each age group reiterating that new experiences continuously effect Identity Achievement.

21 Limitations and Problems Small numbers. Wording of the questions. Limited social views. No access to “Old Age” test subjects

22 NurtureNature Erikson Marcia Nature/Nurture Line Erikson says: “Development functions by the epigenetic principle. It says that humans develop through a predetermined unfolding of personalities in eight stages. Our progress through each stage is in part determined by our success, or lack of success, in all the previous stages.”

23 Special Thanks The children and their parents of the 8 th grade class at Holy Family Catholic School, the students of UD, and the willing adults who participated in our study. Mrs. Khirallah  Silvia Wykeacre I love Mrs. K! Love V <3


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