2 Developmental Psychology a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
3 Issues that Developmental Psychologists Study Nature/nurture: How do genetic inheritance (our nature) and experience (the nurture we receive) influence our development?Continuity/stages: Is development a gradual, continuous process like riding an escalator, or does it proceed through a sequence of separate stages, like climbing rungs on a ladder?Stability/change: Do our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age?
4 When men and women start producing egg cells Women were born producing eggsMen start producing sperm at puberty
5 Definition of zygoteZygote: the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
6 Definition of EmbryoEmbryo: the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
7 Definition of FetusFetus: the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
8 Definition of placenta Placenta: which formed as the zygote’s outer cells attached to the uterine wall, transfers nutrients and oxygen from mother to fetus. The placenta also screens out many potentially harmful substances
9 Definition of teratogens Teratogens: agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
10 Smoking mothersIf she is a heavy smoker, her fetus may receive fewer nutrients and be born underweight and at risk for various problems
11 Definition of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions
12 Rooting ReflexWhen something touches their cheek, babies turn toward that touch, open their mouth, and vigorously root for a nipple. Finding one, they automatically close on it and begin sucking—which itself requires a coordinated sequence of reflexive tonguing, swallowing, and breathing
13 William JamesThe pioneering American psychologist William James presumed that the newborn experiences a “blooming, buzzing confusion.”
14 Definition of Habituation Habituation: decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner
15 Novelty Preference Procedure In the novelty preference procedure, the infants looked at the face rather than the body of the animal
16 We Know the Smell of our mothers at 1 week old Within days after birth, our brain’s neural networks were stamped with the smell of our mother’s body. Thus, a week-old nursing baby, placed between a gauze pad from its mother’s bra and one from another nursing mother, will usually turn toward the smell of its own mother’s pad
17 We can recognize our mothers voice at 3 weeks old At 3 weeks, if given a pacifier that sometimes turns on recordings of its mother’s voice and sometimes that of a female stranger’s, an infant will suck more vigorously when it hears its now-familiar mother’s voice
18 Figure 5.5In humans, the brain is immature at birth. As the child matures, the neural networks grow increasingly more complex
19 Pruning ProcessFiber pathways supporting language and agility proliferate into puberty, after which a pruning process shuts down excess connections and strengthens others
20 Definition of Maturation Maturation: biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
21 Motor DevelopmentWith occasional exceptions, the sequence of physical (motor) development is universal.Babies roll over before they sit unsupported, and they usually creep on all fours before they walk
22 Back-to-sleep-position The recommended infant back-to-sleep position (putting babies to sleep on their backs to reduce the risk of a smothering crib death)
23 Genes play a role in motor development Identical twins typically begin sitting up and walking on nearly the same day
24 Infantile amensiaOur earliest memories seldom predate our third birthday. We see this infantile amnesia in the memories of some preschoolers who experienced an emergency fire evacuation caused by a burning popcorn maker
25 First Conscious Memory The average person remembers their first conscious memory at 4 or 5
26 HippocampusHippocampus is the brain structure responsible for memory
30 Figure 5.8Psychologists Judy DeLoache, David Uttal, and Karl Rosengren (2004) report that 18- to 30-month-old children may fail to take the size of an object into account when trying to perform impossible actions with it. At left, a 21-month-old attempts to slide down a miniature slide. At right, a 24-month-old opens the door to a miniature car and tries to step inside.
31 Definition of SchemaSchema: a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
32 Definition of Assimilate Assimilate: interpreting our new experience in terms of our existing schemas
33 Definition of Accommodation Accommodation: adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
36 Definition of sensorimotor stage Sensorimotor Stage: in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
37 Definition of Object Permanence Object Permanence: the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
38 Definition of Preoperational Stage Preoperational Stage: in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
39 Definition of Conservation Conservation: the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
40 Judy DeLoache’s study on symbolic thinking Judy DeLoache (1987) discovered this when she showed children a model of a room and hid a model toy in it (a miniature stuffed dog behind a miniature couch). The 2½ -year-olds easily remembered where to find the miniature toy, but they could not use the model to locate an actual stuffed dog behind a couch in a real room. Three-year-olds—only 6 months older—usually went right to the actual stuffed animal in the real room, showing they could think of the model as a symbol for the room.
41 Definition of Egocentrism Egocentrism: in Piaget’s theory, the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view
42 Definition of Theory of Mind Theory of Mind: people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states—about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict
43 Jenkins and AstingtonJennifer Jenkins and Janet Astington (1996) showed Toronto children a Band-Aids box and asked them what was inside. Expecting Band-Aids, the children were surprised to discover that the box actually contained pencils. Asked what a child who had never seen the box would think was inside, 3-year-olds typically answered “pencils.” By age 4 to 5, the children’s theory of mind had leapt forward, and they anticipated their friends’ false belief that the box would hold Band-Aids
44 Lev VygotskyLev Vygotsky concept of relying on inner speech: internalizing their culture’s language and relying on inner speech
45 Definition of Concrete Operational Concrete Operational: in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
46 Difference in Neurological Speed “When my daughter Laura was 6, I was astonished at her inability to reverse simple arithmetic. Asked, “What is 8 plus 4?” she required 5 seconds to compute “12,” and another 5 seconds to then compute 12 minus 4. By age 8, she could answer a reversed question instantly” -Piaget
47 Definition of formal operational Formal operational: in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
48 Definition of AutismAutism: a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others’ states of mind.
49 Autism StatisticsOnce believed to affect 1 in 2500 children, autism or a related disorder will now strike 1 in 150 American children and, in Britain’s London area, 1 in 86 children
50 Theory that people with autism have an impaired theory of mind They have difficulty inferring others’ thoughts and feelings. They do not appreciate that playmates and parents might view things differently.
51 Asperger’s Syndrome a “high-functioning” form of autism Asperger syndrome is marked by normal intelligence, often accompanied by exceptional skill or talent in a specific areaDeficient social and communication skills (and thus an inability to form normal peer relationships)
53 Simon Baron Cohn“If two ‘systemizers’ have a child, this will increase the risk of the child having autism,”“I do not discount environmental factors,” he notes. “I’m just saying, don’t forget about biology.”
54 Genetics StudiesIf one twin is diagnosed with autism, the chances are 70 percent that the identical co-twin will be as well (Sebat et al., 2007). The younger sibling of a child with autism also is at a heightened risk of 15 percent or so (Sutcliffe, 2008).
55 Scaffold MaterialFrom which children can step to higher levels of thinkingBy mentoring children and giving them new words, parents and others provide this
56 Definition of Stranger Anxiety Stranger Anxiety: the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
57 Definition of Attachment Attachment: an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
58 Harlow’s StudyThe Harlows recognized that this intense attachment to the blanket contradicted the idea that attachment derives from an association with nourishment.
59 Why the monkeys liked the cloth mother Researchers soon learned that other qualities—rocking, warmth, and feeding—made the cloth mother even more appealing.
60 Parent-infant emotional Communication Much of this communications happens via touchTouch is very important in development
61 Definition of critical period Critical period: an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
62 Definition of imprinting Imprinting: the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
63 Definition of secure attachment Secure attachment: In their mother’s presence they play comfortably, happily exploring their new environment. When she leaves, they are distressed; when she returns, they seek contact with her
64 Definition of insecure attachment Insecure attachment: They are less likely to explore their surroundings; they may even cling to their mother. When she leaves, they either cry loudly and remain upset or seem indifferent to her departure and return
65 Mary AinsworthSensitive, responsive mothers—those who noticed what their babies were doing and responded appropriately—had infants who exhibited secure attachment. Insensitive, unresponsive mothers—mothers who attended to their babies when they felt like doing so but ignored them at other times—had infants who often became insecurely attached.
66 Harlow’s Monkey StudyThe Harlows’ monkey studies, with unresponsive artificial mothers, produced even more striking effects. When put in strange situations without their artificial mothers, the deprived infants were terrified
67 Definition of temperament Temperament: a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
68 Easy vs. Difficult babies difficult—irritable, intense, and unpredictableeasy—cheerful, relaxed, and feeding and sleeping on predictable schedules
69 Definition of Basic Trust Basic trust: according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
70 Harlow’s StudyThe Harlows recognized that this intense attachment to the blanket contradicted the idea that attachment derives from an association with nourishment.
71 When abandoned in an orphanage Those abandoned in Romanian orphanages during the 1980s looked “frighteningly like [the Harlows’] monkeys
72 Monkeys could not mateMonkeys that lived in isolation were unable to mate
73 Monkeys when impregnated When monkeys who lived in isolation were impregnated, they almost murder their first born and are very aggressive
74 Maestripieri, 2005 studyA recent experiment with primates confirms the abuse-breeds-abuse phenomenon. Whether reared by biological or adoptive mothers, 9 of 16 females who were abused by their mothers became abusive parents, as did no female reared by a nonabusive mother
75 Sandra ScarrIn Mother Care/Other Care, developmental psychologist Sandra Scarr (1986) explained that children are “biologically sturdy individuals… who can thrive in a wide variety of life situations.”
76 Definition of self concept Self concept: all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, “Who am I?”
77 Self awareness vs. self recognition Self-awareness begins when we recognize ourselves in a mirror. By this indicator, self-recognition emerges gradually over about a year, starting in roughly the sixth month as the child reaches toward the mirror to touch her image as if it were another child
78 Dutch researchers Femmie Juffer and Marinus van IJzendoorn they found “no difference in self-esteem” between adopted and not adopted kids
80 Definition of authoritarian parents parents impose rules and expect obedience: “Don’t interrupt.” “Keep your room clean.” “Don’t stay out late or you’ll be grounded.” “Why? Because I said so.
81 Definition of authoritative parents parents are both demanding and responsive. They exert control by setting rules and enforcing them, but they also explain the reasons for rules. And, especially with older children, they encourage open discussion when making the rules and allow exceptions
82 Definition of permissive parents Parents submit to their children’s desires. They make few demands and use little punishment.
83 Definition of adolescence Adolescence: the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
84 Definition of pubertyPuberty: the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
85 Definition of primary sex characteristics Primary sex characteristics: the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
86 Definition of secondary sex characteristics Secondary sex characteristics: nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
87 Definition of Menarche Menarche: the first menstrual period
88 Definition of Spermarche Spermarche: Most men similarly recall their first ejaculation (spermarche), which usually occurs as a nocturnal emission
89 PredictabilityThe sequence of sexual development is more predictable compared to the timing of the development
90 Characteristics of boys who develop early For boys, early maturation pays dividends: Being stronger and more athletic during their early teen years, they tend to be more popular, self-assured, and independent, though also more at risk for alcohol use, delinquency, and premature sexual activity
91 Characteristics of girls who develop early If a young girl’s body is out of sync with her own emotional maturity and her friends’ physical development and experiences, she may begin associating with older adolescents or may suffer teasing or sexual harassment
92 Definition of myelinthe fatty tissue that forms around axons and speeds neurotransmission, enables better communication with other brain regions
93 Frontal LobeThe frontal lobe is not fully matured until one is 25 years old
94 Not able to make great decisions “If a gun is put in the control of the prefrontal cortex of a hurt and vengeful 15-year-old, and it is pointed at a human target, it will very likely go off.”National Institutes of Health brain scientist Daniel R. Weinberger, “A Brain Too Young for Good Judgment,” 2001The frontal lobe of a 15 year old is not fully developed
95 Teens care too much what others think of them “When the pilot told us to brace and grab our ankles, the first thing that went through my mind was that we must all look pretty stupid.”Jeremiah Rawlings, age 12, after a 1989 DC-10 crash in Sioux City, Iowa
96 Formal operationMost achieve the intellectual summit Piaget called formal operations, and they become more capable of abstract reasoning
97 Lawrence Kohlbergsought to describe the development of moral reasoning, the thinking that occurs as we consider right and wrongcame up with preconventional, conventional, and postconventional morality
98 Preconventional Morality Before age 9, most children’s morality focuses on self-interest: They obey rules either to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards.
99 Conventional Morality By early adolescence, morality focuses on caring for others and on upholding laws and social rules, simply because they are the laws and rules
100 Postconventional Morality With the abstract reasoning of formal operational thought, people may reach a third moral level. Actions are judged “right” because they flow from people’s rights or from self-defined, basic ethical principles.
101 Joshua Greeneused brain imaging to spy on people’s neural responses as they contemplated such dilemmas. Only when given the body-pushing type of moral dilemma did their brain’s emotion areas light up
102 Marc Hauser’s studyHauser believes that humans are hard-wired for moral feelings. Faced with moral choices, people across the world, with similar evolved brains, display similar moral intuitions.
104 Definition of identity Identity: our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
105 Definition of social identity Social identity: the “we” aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to “Who am I?” that comes from our group memberships
106 William DamonConcept of achieving a purpose: a desire to accomplish something personally meaningful that makes a difference to the world beyond oneself
107 Definition of Intimacy Intimacy: in Erikson’s theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
108 Csikszentmihalyi and Hunter’s study used a beeper to sample the daily experiences of American teens, they found them unhappiest when alone and happiest when with friendsAs Aristotle long ago recognized, we humans are “the social animal.”
109 mundane things that children and parents fight over household choresbedtime,homework
110 positive correlations amongst peer relationships that go hand in hand with girls having a good relationship with your momHigh school girls who have the most affectionate relationships with their mothers tend also to enjoy the most intimate friendships with girlfriends
111 Peers vs. Parent influence Adolescence is typically a time of diminishing parental influence and growing peer influence.
112 rite of passageShortly after sexual maturity, such societies bestowed adult responsibilities and status on the young person, often marking the event with an elaborate initiation—a public rite of passage.
113 Marriage Ratesthe average age at first marriage varies by ethnic group but has increased more than 4 years since 1960 (to 27 for men, 25 for women)
114 Definition of emerging adulthood Emerging adulthood: for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to early twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood
115 A 20 year old would be more likely to win a marathon than a 27 year old
116 Definition of Menopause Menopause: the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
117 Data from AfricaData from Africa support an evolutionary theory of menopause: Infants with a living maternal grandmother—typically a caring and invested family member without young children of her own—have had a greater chance of survival
118 Gradual Declines for men They experience a gradual decline in…sperm counttestosterone levelspeed of erection and ejaculationSome may also experience distress related to their perception of declining virility and physical capacities
119 Life expectancyThe increasing life expectancy, which provides an increasing demand for cruise ships, hearing aids, retirement villages, and nursing homes
120 Definition of telomeres Telomeres: people’s chromosome tips
121 Death- deferral phenomenon In one recent 15-year-period, 2000 to 3000 more Americans died on the two days after Christmas than on Christmas and the two days beforeAnd the death rate increases when people reach their birthdays, as it did for those who survived to the milestone first day of the new millennium
122 Sensory abilities that decline Visual sharpnessDistance perceptionAdaption to changes in light levelMuscle strengthReaction timeStaminaVisionSense of smellHearing
123 Immune system weakensThe body’s disease-fighting immune system weakens, making older people more susceptible to life-threatening ailments such as cancer and pneumonia.
124 Physical exercise benefits Physical exercise stimulates brain cell development and neural connections, thanks perhaps to increased oxygen and nutrient flowThat may explain why active older adults tend to be mentally quick older adults, and why, across 20 studies, sedentary older adults randomly assigned to aerobic exercise programs have exhibited enhanced memory and sharpened judgment
125 DementiaDementia: A series of small strokes, a brain tumor, or alcohol dependence can progressively damage the brain, causing that mental erosion we call dementia
126 Alzheimer’s diseasethe feared brain ailment, Alzheimer’s disease, which strikes 3 percent of the world’s population by age 75. Alzheimer’s symptoms are not normal aging. (Occasionally forgetting where you laid the car keys is no cause for alarm; forgetting how to get home may suggest Alzheimer’s.)
127 Crook and Westinvited 1205 people to learn some names. Fourteen videotaped people said their names, using a common format: “Hi, I’m Larry.” Then the same individuals reappeared and said, for example, “I’m from Philadelphia”—thus providing visual and voice cues for remembering their name.everyone remembered more names after a second and third replay of the introductions, but younger adults consistently surpassed older adults
134 Definition of crystallized intelligence Crystallized intelligence: our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
135 Definition of fluid intelligence Fluid intelligence: our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
136 Definition of terminal decline Terminal decline: Researchers call this near-death drop terminal decline
137 No mid life crisisFor the 1 in 4 adults who do report experiencing a life crisis, the trigger is not age, but a major event, such as illness, divorce, or job loss
138 Definition of social clock Social clock: the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
139 Adult bonds of loveAdult bonds of love are most satisfying and enduring when marked by a similarity of interests and values, a sharing of emotional and material support, and intimate self-disclosure
140 Marriage Marriage is a predictor of… happiness, health, sexual satisfactionincome
141 Biggest Mistake in life When people are asked what they think their biggest mistake in life, the most common answer is that they wish they tried harder in school