Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Lecture 2 Chapter 5. Who developed the psychosocial theory with a the first stage as Trust vs. mistrust? A.Sigmund Freud B.Erik Erikson C.Jean Piaget.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Lecture 2 Chapter 5. Who developed the psychosocial theory with a the first stage as Trust vs. mistrust? A.Sigmund Freud B.Erik Erikson C.Jean Piaget."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 2 Chapter 5

2 Who developed the psychosocial theory with a the first stage as Trust vs. mistrust? A.Sigmund Freud B.Erik Erikson C.Jean Piaget D.Lawrence Kohlberg E.Abraham Maslow

3 Who developed the Theory of Moral Development A.Sigmund Freud B.Erik Erikson C.Jean Piaget D.Lawrence Kohlberg E.Abraham Maslow

4 Who developed the psychoanalytical theory and coined the 3 functional components of the mind as Id, Ego & Superego? A.Sigmund Freud B.Erik Erikson C.Jean Piaget D.Lawrence Kohlberg E.Abraham Maslow

5 Who developed the cognitive theory about how children learn and coining the terms Schema, assimilation & accommodation? A.Sigmund Freud B.Erik Erikson C.Jean Piaget D.Lawrence Kohlberg E.Abraham Maslow

6 Theories of Growth & Development What is Growth? – Increase in physical size – Qualitative – Objective

7 Theories of Growth & Development What is Development? – Progressive acquisition of skills – Qualitative – Subjective What is maturation? – Attainment of full development of a skill

8 Directional Terms Cephalocaudal G&D Progresses from: – Head (Cephalo)  – Tail (Caudal) Proximodistal G&D progresses from: – Center (proximal)  – Extremities (distal)

9 Genetics vs. Environment Why did my boys play with balls and cars and not dolls and flowers? A.Because they were born that way B.Because the environment in which they lived influenced them to like balls more than dolls.

10 Genetics vs. Environment 2 major influences on G&D Hereditary characteristics – Genes Environmental – All others

11 G&D characteristics 1.Simple  complex 2.Continuous 3.Individualized 4.All systems 5.Holistic process

12 Uniqueness Personality – Behavior patterns that distinguish one person from another

13 Understanding Theories Stages Progressive Ladder effect Regress

14 Psychoanalytical Theory Father: – Sigmund Freud 3 part theory 1.Levels of awareness 2.Components of the personality/mind 3.Psychosexual stages

15 Freud’s levels of awareness Conscious Sub-conscious Unconscious Became the basis of Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis

16 Level of awareness: Conscious Experiences with in immediate awareness Reality logic

17 Level of awareness: Subconscious AKA: Preconscious Stores memories, thoughts, feelings that can be recalled with little effort

18 Level of awareness: Unconscious Part of the mind “closed” to awareness Memories that are painful

19 Psychoanalytical Theory Father: – Sigmund Freud 3 part theory 1.Levels of awareness 2.Components of the personality/mind 3.Psychosexual stages

20 3 Components of the mind Id Ego Superego

21 Component of the Mind: Id Body’s basic primitive urges Pleasure Libido (sex drive) Demands immediate satisfaction – “I want it NOW!”

22 Component of the Mind: SuperEgo Judges, controls, punishes Dictates right from wrong Conscience “You can’t have it.”

23 Component of the Mind: Ego Executive of the mind Compromise “Well, maybe later”

24 Psychoanalytical Theory Father: – Sigmund Freud 3 part theory 1.Levels of awareness 2.Components of the personality/mind 3.Psychosexual stages

25 Defense Mechanisms AKA: mental mechanisms Techniques used to “cope” Sigmund Freud Short term use / “Adaptive” – OK Over use / “Maladaptive” To protect one’s EGO

26 Defense Mechanism: Suppression Conscious Putting it out of your awareness

27 Defense Mechanism: Rationalization Most widely used Justify or excuse undesirable action or feelings

28 Defense Mechanism: Identification Take on the personality traits of another http://www.youtube.co m/watch?feature=playe r_detailpage&v=v0iIEg- ub-o http://www.youtube.co m/watch?feature=playe r_detailpage&v=v0iIEg- ub-o

29 Defense Mechanism: Sublimation Rechanneling/ redirect unacceptable impulses into acceptable outlets

30 Defense Mechanism: Regression Conflict  return to an earlier more developmentally secure stage

31 Defense Mechanism: Denial Unable to recognize the event or emotions http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature= player_detailpage&v=wwGVDmEsi8A http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature= player_detailpage&v=wwGVDmEsi8A

32 Defense Mechanism: Displacement Transfer emotions from person to object

33 Defense Mechanism: Projection Blaming mechanism Rejects unacceptable thoughts or feelings and attribute them to another person

34 Defense Mechanism: Compensation Make up for deficiencies in one area by excelling in another are

35 Defense Mechanism: Undoing Attempt to make-up for something unacceptable

36 Defense Mechanism: Reaction formation Overcompensation Unacceptable feelings or thoughts are replaced with opposite feelings or thoughts

37 Defense Mechanism: Conversion Unconscious anxiety converts into physical symptoms (no organic basis)

38 Which defense mechanism is it? You are arrested for drunk driving several times but don't believe you have a problem with alcohol. Suppression Rationalization Identification Sublimation Regression Denial Displacement Projection Compensation Undoing Reaction-formation Conversion

39 Which defense mechanism is it? You and your roommate have get into an argument so you stomp off into another room and pout Suppression Rationalization Identification Sublimation Regression Denial Displacement Projection Compensation Undoing Reaction-formation Conversion

40 Which defense mechanism is it? You get really mad at your husband but scream that he's the one mad at you. Suppression Rationalization Identification Sublimation Regression Denial Displacement Projection Compensation Undoing Reaction-formation Conversion

41 Which defense mechanism is it? When you get mad at your sister, you break your drinking glass by throwing it against the wall. Suppression Rationalization Identification Sublimation Regression Denial Displacement Projection Compensation Undoing Reaction-formation Conversion

42 Which defense mechanism is it? When you say you're not angry when you really are. Suppression Rationalization Identification Sublimation Regression Denial Displacement Projection Compensation Undoing Reaction-formation Conversion

43 Which defense mechanism is it? I always study hard for tests and I know a lot of people who cheat so it's not a big deal I cheated this time Suppression Rationalization Identification Sublimation Regression Denial Displacement Projection Compensation Undoing Reaction-formation Conversion

44 Which defense mechanism is it? Intense rage redirected in the form of participation in sports such as boxing or football Suppression Rationalization Identification Sublimation Regression Denial Displacement Projection Compensation Undoing Reaction-formation Conversion

45 Which defense mechanism is it? You have feelings of dislike for someone so you buy them a gift Suppression Rationalization Identification Sublimation Regression Denial Displacement Projection Compensation Undoing Reaction-formation Conversion

46 Psychoanalytical Theory Father: – Sigmund Freud 3 part theory 1.Levels of awareness 2.Components of the personality/mind 3.Psychosexual stages

47 Freud’s 5 Stages of Psychosexual Development 1.Oral 2.Anal 3.Phallic 4.Latency 5.Genital Conflict  Resolve  Next stage

48 Oral Stage Birth – 18 months Mouth erogenous area Oral gratification

49 Anal Stage 18 months – 3 years Learning independence and control Focus on excretory functions

50 Phallic Stage 3 – 6 years ID with parent of the same gender Develop sexual identity Focus on genitals Oedipus complex – Boys unconscious sexual attraction to his mother – Tries to get rid of father Electra complex – Girl is attracted to her father – Tries to get rid of mother

51 Latency stage 6-12 years Sexuality is repressed Focus on relationships with same sex peers

52 Genital Stage 13-20 years Libido reawakened – Puberty Focus on relationships with member of the opposite sex

53 Psychoanalytical Theory Father: – Sigmund Freud 3 part theory 1.Levels of awareness 2.Components of the personality/mind 3.Psychosexual stages

54 Psychosocial Theory Erik Erikson 8 stages span lifespan Tasks have to be accomplished  –  Independence –  Self-esteem

55 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Trust Vs. Mistrust Age Birth – 18 mo. Infancy Major developmental Task – Develop trust with mothering figure and generalize it to others Major Question: – "Can I trust the people around me?“ Basic Virtue: – Hope Important Event: – Feeding

56 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Autonomy Vs. Shame & Doubt Age 18 mo – 3 yrs Early Childhood Major developmental Task – Gain some control & independence within the environment Major Question: – "Can I do things myself or am I reliant on the help of others?" Basic Virtue: – Will Important Event: – Toilet Training

57 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Initiative Vs. Guilt Age – 3-6 yrs – Late childhood Major developmental Task – Develop sense of purpose & the ability to initiate and direct own activities Major Question: – “Am I good or bad?” Basic Virtue: Purpose Important Event: – Exploration, Play

58 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Industry Vs. Inferiority Age – 6 – 12 yrs – School age Major developmental Task – Develop self-confidence by learning, competing etc. Major Question: – "How can I be good?“ Basic Virtue: – Competence Important Event: – School

59 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Identity Vs. Role Confusion Age – 12 – 20 yrs – Adolescence Major developmental Task – Integrate tasks mastered & secure sense of self Major Question: – "Who am I?“ Basic Virtue: – Fidelity Important Event: – Social Relationships

60 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Intimacy Vs. Isolation Age – 20 – 30 – Young adulthood Major developmental Task – Form intense lasting relationship Major Question: – "Will I be loved or will I be alone?“ Basic Virtue: – Love Important Event: – Romantic Relationships

61 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Generativity Vs. Stagnation Age – 30 – 65 yrs – Adulthood Major developmental Task – Achieve life goals and also considering the welfare of future generations Major Question: – "How can I contribute to the world?“ Basic Virtue: – Care Important Event: – Parenthood & Work

62 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Ego Integrity Vs. Despair Age – 65 yrs – death – Old age Major developmental Task – To review one’s life and derive meaning Major Question: – "Did I live a meaningful life?“ Basic Virtue: – Wisdom Important Event: – Reflecting back on life

63 Question: Jane, a preschooler, insists on dressing herself each morning for school, even though she generally selects mismatching outfits, misses buttons, and wears her shoes on the wrong feet. When her mother tries to dress Jane or fix her outfit, Jane brushes her mother off and insists on doing it herself. What stage of psychosocial development best describes Jane’s behavior?

64 Question: At each stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, people experience a(n) _________ that serves as a turning point. A.Epiphany B.Conflict C.Paradigm shift D.Turmoil

65 Question: The stage that occurs between birth and one year of age is concerned with: A.Trust vs. Mistrust B.Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt C.Initiative vs. Guilt D.Identity vs. Role Confusion

66 Question: Erikson believed that people move through a series of _______ psychosocial stages throughout the lifespan. A.Four B.Eight C.Ten D.Twelve

67 Question: The crisis that arises in young adulthood is concerned with: A.Trust vs. Mistrust B.Industry vs. Inferiority C.Integrity vs. Despair D.Intimacy vs. Isolation

68 Question: According to Erikson, what is the major conflict faced during adolescence? A.Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt B.Intimacy vs. Isolation C.Identity vs. Role Confusion D.Generativity vs. Stagnation

69 Question: Eight-year old Steven has a difficult time making friends at school. He has trouble completing his schoolwork accurately and on time, and as a result, receives little positive feedback from his teacher and parents. According to Erikson’s theory, failure at this stage of development results in _____________? A.Feelings of inferiority B.A sense of guilt C.A poor sense of self D.Mistrust

70 Question: The central conflict in the eighth stage of Erikson’s theory focuses on integrity vs. despair and involves reflecting back on your life. Those who are unsuccessful at resolving this conflict will look back with regret, anger, and bitterness. Those who are successful will feel a sense of satisfaction with the life they have lived. According to Erikson, those who are successful in this stage emerge with ______________. A.Hope B.Fidelity C.Purpose D.Wisdom

71 Cognitive Theory Jean Piaget Intellect & develop thought processes

72 Cognitive theory 3 Major Concepts Schema – Idea’s that grow from experience Assimilation – Ability to absorb new information into schemas Accommodation – Schemas change with new information

73 A child seeing a zebra for the first time and calling it a horse. The child assimilates this information into her schema for a horse. When the child takes into consideration the different properties of a zebra compared to a horse, perhaps calling a zebra a horse with stripes. When she eventually learns the name of zebra, she has accommodated this information.

74 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development SENSORIMOTOR Age – Birth – 2 yrs Major developmental Task – Mobility – Sense of self – Object permanence – Form mental images

75 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Preoperational Age – 2 – 6 yrs Major developmental Task – Express self with language – Understanding gestures – Object permanence

76 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Concrete operational Age – 6 - 12 yrs Major developmental Task – Logical thinking – Reversibility & spatiality – Differentiate and classify – Socializing – Apply rules

77 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Formal operational Age – 12 – 16 yrs Major developmental Task – Abstract thinking – Testing hypotheses – Logical thinking – Cogitative maturity

78 Piaget believed that children in the preoperational stage have difficulty taking the perspective of another person. This is known as: a) Reversibility b) Egocentrism c) Metacognition d) Constructivism

79 The ability to think abstractly and systematically solve problems emerges during the: a) Concrete Operational Stage b) Sensorimotor Stage c) Formal Operational Stage d) Preoperational Stage

80 According to Piaget, children in the concrete operational stage have difficulty with: a) Perspective-taking b) Deductive logic c) Inductive logic d) Conservation

81 Piaget's stages are criticized by some due to: a) His theory was based on an unrepresentative sample of children. b) Not all people reach the formal operational stage or use formal operational thought consistently. c) His theory underestimates children's abilities. d) All of the above.

82 Jane's mother has two crackers, both of equal size. She breaks one of the crackers up into four pieces. Jane says she wants the one with the most and immediately chooses the four pieces, even though the two amounts are equal. Jane's choice illustrates Piaget's concept of: a) Accommodation b) Egocentrism c) False belief d) Conservation

83 A schema is a: a) Category of knowledge that allows us to interpret and understand the world. b) Process of taking in new information. c) Process of balancing old knowledge and new information. d) None of the above.

84 Piaget assumed that children are __________ in constructing understanding of the world. a) Passive b) Active c) Neutral d) Bystanders

85 Jane has learned to feed herself with a spoon. When her mother gives her a fork, she immediately begins to feed herself. Jane has __________ the fork into her schema for utensils. a) Accommodated b) Appropriated c) Assimilated d) Initiated

86 Human Needs Theory

87 Abraham Maslow

88 Physiological Needs O2 Food Water

89 Safety Needs Feeling free from danger and risk Secure in one’s own environment

90 Belonging Feeling worthy of affection and social support

91 Self-Esteem Feeling competent Strong self-worth

92 Self-Actualization Meeting one’s full potential

93 Theory of Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg Develop moral reasoning as you gain ability to think logically 3 levels of moral development 6 stages of acquired moral reasoning

94 Kohlberg Dilemma In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug-for his wife. Should the husband have done that?

95 Level: Preconventional Age 4-10 yrs Stage 1.Punishment & obedience oriented 2.Instrumental relativist oriented Behavior motivated by fear of punishment Behavior motivated by egocentrism and concern for self

96 Level: Conventional Age: 10-13 yrs Stage 3.Interpersonal concordance orientation 4.Law and order orientation Behavior motivated by expectations of others, strong desire for approval & acceptance Behavior motivated by respect for authority

97 Level: Postconventional Age: adolescence up Stages 5. Social contract legalistic orientation 6. Universal ethical principle orientation Behavior motivated by respect for laws and moral principles Behavior motivated by internalized principles of honor


Download ppt "Lecture 2 Chapter 5. Who developed the psychosocial theory with a the first stage as Trust vs. mistrust? A.Sigmund Freud B.Erik Erikson C.Jean Piaget."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google