2Social PsychologySocial Psychology – the scientific study of how a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others.
3Social ThinkingAttribution Theory- tendency to give a causal explanation for someone’s behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person’s dispositionSituational cause- cause of behavior attributed to external factors, such as delays, the action of others, or some other aspect of the situation.Dispositional cause - cause of behavior attributed to internal factors such as personality or character.Name to know: Fritz HeiderA teacher may wonder whether a child’s hostility reflects an aggressive personality (dispositional attribution) or is a reaction to stress or abuse (a situational attribution).
4Social ThinkingFundamental Attribution Error- tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal dispositionWe see Joe as quiet, shy, and introverted most of the time, but with friends he is very talkative, loud, and extroverted.Self Serving Bias - if our behavior is irritating to others, it’s the situation not our personal disposition
5Effects of Attribution How we explain someone’s behavior affects how we react to it.
6AttributionSelf Handicapping - a person offers a preliminary “excuse” that they can fall back on if they failJust World - helps explain the misfortunes of others by being a result of some behavior of theirs; we are careful to avoid these behaviorsIllusion of Control – people overestimate their ability to control events
7AttitudeAttitude - a tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, idea, or situation.affective (emotional) componentthe behavioral componentthe cognitive componentIf we believe a person is mean, we may feel dislike for the person and act in an unfriendly manner.
8Formation of Attitudes Direct contact with the person, situation, object, or idea.Direct instruction from parents or others.Interacting with other people who hold a certain attitude.Watching the actions and reactions of others to ideas, people, objects, and situations.
9AttitudeCentral Route Persuasion: when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.Occurs most for naturally analytical people or those involved in the issue.Peripheral Route Persuasion: Occurs when issues do not engage systematic thinking, but rather when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as celebrity endorsements; attractivenessMore snap judgments such as the well dressed, popular celebrity promoting a political candidate.
10Actions Can Affect Attitudes Not only do people stand for what they believe in (attitude), they start believing in what they stand for.Attitudes follow behaviorCooperative actions feed mutual likingSports teams
11Actions Can Affect Attitudes Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon- tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger requestDoor-in-the-face technique – asking for a large commitment and being refused, and then asking for a smaller commitment- “settling”Norm of reciprocity - assumption that if someone does something for a person, that person should do something for the other in return.Role- set of expectations about a social positiondefines how those in the position ought to behave
12Stanford Prison Experiment In what has become known as the Stanford Prison experiment, Zimbardo (1972) assigned the roles of guards and prisoners to random students and found that guards and prisoners developed role- appropriate attitudesStanford Prison ExperimentAbu Ghraib Prison- discussion p.678
13Cognitive Dissonance Theory Cognitive Dissonance Theory- we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent (Leon Festinger)example- when we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudesYou don’t like the teacher so in that class it is OK.You have a belief that cheating on tests is bad.But you cheat on a test!!!
15Social InfluenceSocial influence - the process through which the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an individual.Conformity- changing one’s behavior to match that of other peopleObedience - changing one’s behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change.Compliance – a person changes behavior upon request but there is a level of agreement
16Social InfluenceThe Chameleon Effect - Humans are natural mimics. Unconsciously mimicking others’ expressions, postures, and voice tones helps us feel what they are feeling.Mood Linkage- sharing up and down moodsSolomon Asch- Group ConformitySuggestibility is a subtle type of conformity, adjusting our behavior or thinking toward some group standard.About 1/3 of the participants conformed.70% conformed at least onceAsch Study
17Reasons for Conforming Normative Social Influence- Influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid rejection.A person may respect normative behavior because there may be a severe price to pay if not respected.Informational Social Influence- The group may provide valuable information, but stubborn people will never listen to others.
18Stanley Milgram’s Study of Obedience People comply to social pressures and the situation. How would they respond to outright command?Milgram designed a study that investigates the effects of authority on obedience.Effect of punishment on learning; word pairs“teacher” administered what they thought were real shocks to a “learner”Voltage goes up for every wrong answer
19Stanley Milgram’s Study of Obedience Ordinary people can do shocking things.63% compliedEthical issues….Would not have received approval from today’s IRB (Internal Review Board)A third of the individuals in Milgram’s study resisted social coercion.
20Group InfluenceSocial facilitation - the tendency for the presence of other people to have a positive impact on the performance of an easy task.What you do well, you are likely to do better with an audience; what you find difficult may seem impossible with an audienceSocial Inhibition – presence will hinder performance on difficult tasksSocial loafing - the tendency for people to put less effort into a simple task when working with others on that task.Individual is not held fully accountable
21Group InfluenceDe-individuation – a lack of individual responsibility that comes from being in a crowdFeel anonymous and aroused; Explains rioting behaviors.Group polarization – the strengthening of shared beliefs.People who discuss shared views will come to believe in them more strongly – this can be positive or negativeInternet
22Group InfluenceGroup think - kind of thinking that occurs when people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned.Abu Ghraib Prison- discussion p.678Why did the guards take those actions?Conditions that strengthen conformity
24Social RelationsPrejudice - negative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social group.Prejudice is often directed towards different cultural, ethnic, or gender groups.Blue Eyes/Brown Eyes Study- 3rd graders in a Iowa classroom in the 1960’sComponents of PrejudiceBeliefs (stereotypes)- overgeneralizedEmotions (hostility, envy, fear)Predisposition to act – negative behavior (to discriminate)
26Social Roots of Prejudice Social InequalitiesSocial DivisionsEmotional Scapegoating
27Social Roots of Prejudice In-groups - social groups with whom a person identifies; same; “us or we”In-group Bias: The tendency to favor one’s own groupOut-groups - social groups with whom a person does not identify; different; “them or they”Out-group homogeneity Bias - people are judged as more similar because of a lack of knowledgeEthnocentrism- tendency to think that your nation or culture is superior to othersRealistic conflict theory - conflict between groups increases prejudice and discrimination.
28Emotional Roots of Prejudice Scapegoating - tendency to direct prejudice and discrimination at out-group members who have little social power or influence.Finding someone to blame
29Cognitive Roots of Prejudice We categorize people into groups by stereotyping themBlue eyes/ Brown Eyes Study- Jane ElliotOther-race effect - which emerges during infancy, is the tendency to recall faces of one’s own race more accurately than faces of other races.
30Cognitive Roots of Prejudice Implicit personality theory - sets of assumptions about how different types of people, personality traits, and actions are related to each other.Schemas - mental patterns that represent what a person believes about certain types of people. Schemas can become stereotypes.
31Stopping PrejudiceSocial cognitive theory – views prejudice as an attitude acquired through direct instruction, modeling, and other social influences.Social identity theory – theory in which the formation of a person’s identity within a particular social group is explained by social categorization, social identity, and social comparison.Social identity - the part of the self-concept including one’s view of self as a member of a particular social category.Social comparison – the comparison of oneself to others in ways that raise one’s self-esteem.
32Stopping PrejudiceStereotype vulnerability - the effect that people’s awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior.Contact Theory- Contact between hostile groups will reduce animosity if they are made to work towards a superordinate goal.
33AggressionAggression – physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy another person.Biological influences on aggression may include genetics, the amygdala and limbic system, and testosterone and serotonin levels.Alcohol releases aggressive responses to frustration
34Four psychological factors that influence aggressive behavior are: Dealing with aversive eventsStudies in which animals and humans experience unpleasant events reveal that those made miserable often make others miserable.Frustration- Aggression Principle- the blocking of an attempt to achieve a desired goal creates anger, which can generate aggression.
35Four psychological factors that influence aggressive behavior are: 2. Learning aggression is rewardingWhen aggression leads to desired outcomes, one learns to be aggressive. This is shown in both animals and humans.3. Observing models of aggressionAlbert Bandura Study- ModelingSexually coercive men are promiscuous and hostile in their relationships with women. This coerciveness has increased due to television viewing of R- and X-rated movies.
36Four psychological factors that influence aggressive behavior are: 4. Acquiring social scripts.Social role - the pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is in a particular social position.Violent TV, movies, and videos are related to aggression.
38AttractionInterpersonal attraction - liking or having the desire for a relationship with another person4 Factors of Attraction:Proximity: Geographic nearness is a powerful predictor of friendship.Mere Exposure Effect- Repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases their attraction
394 Factors of Attraction2. Physical Attractiveness: Once proximity affords contact, the next most important thing in attraction is physical appearance 3. Similarity: Similar views among individuals causes the bond of attraction to strengthen 4. Reciprocal Liking - tendency of people to like other people who like them in return.
40LoveLove - a strong affection for another person due to kinship, personal ties, sexual attraction, admiration, or common interests.Robert Sternberg states that the three components of love are intimacy, passion, and commitment.Passionate Love- aroused state of intense positive absorption in anotherBeginning of a relationship- physical arousal and cognitive appraisal
41Forms of LoveRomantic love - type of love consisting of intimacy and passion.Companionate love - type of love consisting of intimacy and commitment.Deep and affectionate attachmentEmpty love - has commitmentInfatuation – has passion
43Other conditions of love Equity – people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to itSelf-disclosure - revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
44AltruismProsocial behavior - socially desirable behavior that benefits others.Altruism - prosocial behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk of harm to oneself.Unselfish regard for the welfare of others
45Bystander Effect Kitty Genovese death Bystander effect - referring to the effect that the presence of other people has on the decision to help or not help, with help becoming less likely as the number of bystanders increases.
46Bystander EffectDiffusion of responsibility - occurring when a person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility.Someone else will do it!Pluralistic Ignorance – after a period of time without intervention, people believe nothing needs to be doneResearchers Latané and Darley found that people who were alone were more likely to help in an emergency than people who were with others.One bystander cannot diffuse responsibility.
48Norms of HelpingSocial Exchange Theory – if the rewards you anticipate from helping exceed the costs, you will helpReciprocity Norm – we should return help, not harm, to those who have helped usSocial-Responsibility Norm – we should help those who need help, even if the costs outweigh the benefits
49ConflictConflict - is perceived as an incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.People become deeply involved in potentially destructive social processes that have undesirable effects.Social Traps - conflicting parties are caught in mutually destructive behaviorTragedy of the Commons- multiple individuals, acting independently, will ultimately deplete a limited resource, leading to the detriment of all
50ConflictMirror-Image Perceptions - People in conflict form diabolical images of one another.Saddam Hussein“Wicked Pharaoh”George Bush“Evil”
51Syracuse Newspapers/ The Image Works CooperationSuperordinate Goals are shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.Syracuse Newspapers/ The Image WorksPreview Question 16: How can we transform feelings of prejudice, aggression, and conflict into attitudes that promote peace?Communication and understanding developed through talking to one another. Sometimes it is mediated by a third party.
52GRITGraduated & Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction (GRIT): This is a strategy designed to decrease international tensions. One side recognizes mutual interests and initiates a small conciliatory act that opens the door for reciprocation by the other party.