Presentation on theme: "The Role of Socialization"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Role of Socialization Environment and Heredity
2 SocializationSocialization: continuing process whereby an individual acquires a personal identity and learns the norms, values, behaviour, and social skills appropriate to his/her social position.
3 What is the Role of Socialization? What makes us who we are?Is it determined by genetics?Or is it our environment?
4 Divide into groups of 3 or 4 Create a list of 5 reasons to justify each positionNATUREVSNURTURE
5 Nature vs. Nurture Debate Traditional clash over the relative importance of biological inheritance and environmental factors in human developmentHeredity vs. environmentMost social scientists have moved beyond this debateAcknowledge interaction of these variables in shaping human development
6 Nature: Influence of Heredity OskarJackSudetenland, Czechoslovakiamaternal grandmotherstrict Catholic upbringingMember of Hitler YouthLearned to hate JewsTrinidadJewish fatherJoined Israeli kibbutz (collective settlement) at 17Served in Israeli army
7 Brothers reunited in middle age SimilaritiesDifferenceswearing wire-rimmed glasses and moustacheswore pocket shirts with epauletslike spicy foods and sweet liqueursare absent-mindedhave a habit of falling asleep in front of the TVThink it’s funny to sneeze in a crowd of strangersFlush the toilet before using itStore rubber bands on their wristsRead magazines from back to frontDip buttered toast in their coffee (Holden 1980)Jack = workaholicOskar = enjoyed leisure timeJack = traditional liberal who was much more accepting of feminismOskar = traditionalist who was domineering toward womenJack = extremely proud to be JewishOskar = never mentioned his Jewish heritage
8 Heredity and Environment Separated twins studiesMinnesota Center for Twin and Adoption ResearchSimilaritiesCharacteristics (temperament, voice patterns, and nervous habits) = linked to heredityTendency toward leadership and dominanceDifferenceAttitudes, values and types of mate chosen, drinking habits = linked to environmentNeed for intimacy, comfort, and assistance
9 SociobiologySystematic study of the biological bases of social behaviourApply Charles Darwin’s principles of natural selection to study social behaviourAssume that particular forms of behaviour become genetically linked to a species if they contribute to its fitness to surviveIn its extreme form, sociobiology suggests that all behaviour is the result of genetic or biological factors and that social interactions play no role in shaping people’s conduct.
10 Sociobiology continued… Focus on how human nature is affected by the genetic composition of a group of people who share certain characteristicsMany sociologists are highly critical of sociobiologists’ tendency to explain, or seemingly justify, human behaviour on the basis of nature and ignore its cultural and social basis.
11 Nurture: Environment and the Impact of Isolation The Case of IsabelleLived in almost total seclusion until age 6Darkened roomOnly contact with deaf, mute mother, and grandparents who kept her hiddenDiscovered by Ohio authorities when her mother escaped the grandparents
12 Isabelle Socialization Reactions Communication Could not speakCroaking soundsSimple gestures to communicate with motherSocializationDeprived of interaction and socialization experiencesSaw few peopleReactionsInitially showed strong fear of strangersReacted like a wild animalAs grew accustomed became apathetic
13 Training IsabelleAt first believed she was deaf, but soon became to react to soundsSpecialists develop a systematic training program to help her adapt to human relationships and socializationQuickly passed over six years of missed development
14 Isabella’s progress Speaking in complete sentences Few daysSpeaking first words2 monthsSpeaking in complete sentences9 monthsIdentifying words and sentences9 yearsReady to attend school with others children14 years6th grade and well adjusted
15 Cases of neglect Romania (former communist Eastern Europe) Romanian orphanagesBabies in cribs 18 or 20 hoursFeeding bottles, little adult care for 1st 5 yearsMany orphans fearful of human contactProne to unpredictable antisocial behaviourHuge adjustment problems for 20% of orphans adopted to NA families
16 Importance of Early Socialization Not enough to care for an infant’s physical needsParents must also concern themselves with children’s social development
17 Primate Studies Harlow’s experimentation – rhesus monkeys Raised away from their mothers and away from contact with other monkeysFearful and frightened, did not mateartificially inseminated female became abusive mother
18 Harlow’s “Artificial Mothers” Two substitute mothersCloth-covered replicaWire-covered that had the ability to offer milkWent to wire one for milk but spent more time clinging to cloth “mother”Monkeys valued the artificial mother that provided a comforting physical sensation more than the one that provided food.Appears that the infant monkeys developed greater social attachments from their need for warmth, comfort, and intimacy.