Presentation on theme: "BY TIFFANY TERRELL-MARSHALL. Domestic violence and are behaviors used by one person in a relationship to control the other. Partners may be married."— Presentation transcript:
BY TIFFANY TERRELL-MARSHALL
Domestic violence and are behaviors used by one person in a relationship to control the other. Partners may be married or not married; heterosexual, gay, or lesbian; living together, separated or dating. Violence can be criminal and includes physical assault (hitting, pushing, shoving, etc.), sexual abuse (unwanted or forced sexual activity), and stalking. Although emotional, psychological and financial abuse are not criminal behaviors, they are forms of abuse and can lead to criminal violence.
Domestic violence is also referred to as Intimate Partner Violence
1871 Alabama becomes the first state to repeal the legal right of a husband to beat his wife. 1967 One of the first domestic violence shelters opens in Maine. 1972 The first emergency rape crisis hotline opens in Washington, DC 1975 Pennsylvania creates the first state coalition against sexual assault (Pennsylvania Coalition Against Rape). A year later, Pennsylvania also becomes home to the first state coalition against domestic violence (Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence) and to provide orders of protection for battered women. 1976 La Casa de Las Madres in San Francisco, California is opened. This was the first battered women’s shelter established by women of color.
1984 The Duluth Project ("Power and Control" Wheel) is formed and pioneers the first coordinated criminal justice response model to domestic violence. 1984 The U.S. Department of Justice establishes the Task Force on Family Violence and submits the first-ever report that examines the scope and impact of domestic violence in America.
1985 U.S. Surgeon General C. Everett Koop identifies domestic violence as a public health issue that cannot be dealt by the police alone. 1988 Congress amends the Victims of Crime Act, requiring state victim compensation programs to make awards to victims of domestic violence. 1990 U.S. Senator Biden introduces the first Violence Against Women Act.
September 13, 1994 Violence Against Women Act is signed into law as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. 1995 U.S. President Bill Clinton appoints Bonnie Campbell to head the Department of Justice's Violence Against Women Policy Office (VAWO). 1996 The National Domestic Violence Hotline begins operating and receives its first call on February 21st.
2000 President Clinton signs the Violence Against Women Act of 2000 into law. 2006 U.S. President George W. Bush signs the Violence Against Women Act of 2005 into law. 2009 U.S. President Barack Obama becomes first president to declare April as Sexual Assault Awareness Month
In a survey taken by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in 2010, it was found that 40% of the victims of severe, physical domestic violence are men. Despite many findings that show almost equal amounts of abuse perpetrated against men and women, the media and government focus the most attention on the female victims of domestic violence.
More men than women were victims of intimate partner physical violence within the past year, according to a national study funded by the Centers for Disease Control and U.S. Department of Justice. According to the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (hereinafter NISVS) released in December, 2011, within the last 12 months an estimated 5,365,000 men and 4,741,000 women were victims of intimate partner physical violence. (Black, M.C. et al., 2011, Tables 4.1 and 4.2) 1 This finding contrasts to the earlier National Violence Against Women Survey (Tjaden, P. G., & Thoennes, N., 2000)(hereinafter NVAWS), which estimated that 1.2 million women and 835,000 men were victims of intimate partner physical violence in the preceding 12 months 1 There is a significant difference between the NVAWS and NISVS surveys: in the number of victims of physical violence National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey estimated 4,741,000 women/ 5,365,000 men Vs National Violence Against Women Survey 1.2 million women/835,000 men
Although there has been an increase in the number of fatal domestic violence incidents against women, men are more likely to be victims of attacks with a deadly weapon. According to one study, 63% of males as opposed to 15% of females had a deadly weapon used against them in a fight with an intimate partner.
1 in 4 women (24.3%) and 1 in 7 men (13.8%) aged 18 and older in the United States have been the victim of severe physical violence by an intimate partner in their lifetime (Black et al., 2011). Nearly, 15% of women (14.8%) and 4% of men have been injured as a result of intimate partner violence (IPV) that included rape, physical violence, and/or stalking by an intimate partner in their lifetime (Black et al., 2011). In 2010, 241 males and 1095 females were murdered by an intimate partner (U.S. Department of Justice, FBI, 2011).
In Texas, 39% of all women murdered in 2011 were victims of intimate partner violence. The Texas Council on Family Violence (TCFV) released a report on October 31, 2013 that shows an increase in the number of women killed in domestic violence murders in Texas by their husband, ex-husband, intimate partner, boyfriend or ex-boyfriend. The report reveals 114 women were killed in domestic violence murders in 2012. 102 women were killed in 2011.
The 2012 fatalities reflect that victims' ages ranged from 15 to 84. Three women were under the age of 20; a 22-year-old boyfriend killed a 15- year-old minor by strangling her to death in a hotel room. The eldest (84 years old) victim's husband shot and killed her. Victims age 30-39 represent the most prevalent age group; followed by victims' age 20-29, and then by victims age 40-49. These trends have remained consistent for the last two years. Unlike 2011, which saw no fatalities for women age 60-69, four women in this age group were murdered in 2012. In line with the previous years, Harris County, which includes the city of Houston, experienced the highest number of deaths (30). Next in descending order were Dallas County (9), which includes the city of Dallas, Tarrant County (6), which includes Fort Worth and Arlington and Bexar County (5), which includes the city of San Antonio. El Paso County experienced four deaths in 2012, an increase from previous years. Significantly, Hidalgo County experienced four fatalities; Hidalgo County includes the cities of Hidalgo and Alton and this county has a significantly lower population than the top five or indeed other counties with fewer fatalities. Travis County (3), which includes the city of Austin is the fifth largest county in the state and had three domestic violence murders.
Some key statistics include: The victim's ages ranged from age 15 to 84 Harris County had the highest number of deaths (30) 74% of the women were killed at home 60% were shot 17% were stabbed 11% were strangled 21 women had taken steps to leave 20 homicides took place within one to two days of a national holiday 15 bystanders or witnesses killed 4 bodies burned
Physical abuse is the use of physical force against another in a way that injures that person or puts the victim at risk of being injured. Physical abuse ranges from physical restraint to murder and may include pushing, throwing, tripping, slapping, hitting, kicking, punching, grabbing, chocking, shaking, etc. Emotional/Psychological abuse is any use of words, tone, action or lack of action meant to control, hurt or demean another person. Emotional abuse typically includes ridicule, intimidation, or coercion. Verbal abuse is included in this category. Sexual abuse is any forced or coerced sexual act or behavior motivated to acquire power and control over the partner. It includes forced sexual contact and contact that demeans, humiliates or instigates feelings of shame or vulnerability, particularly in regards to the body, sexual performance or sexuality. Financial abuse is the use or misuse of the financial or monetary resources of the partner or of the partnership without the partner’s freely given consent. It can include preventing the partner from working or jeopardizing his/her employment so as to prevent them from gaining financial independence. Spiritual abuse is using the victim’s religious or spiritual beliefs to manipulate them. It can include preventing the victim from practicing their beliefs or ridiculing his/her beliefs.
Verbal Abuse: Name-calling Put downs Yelling Use of profanity Unfounded accusations Cruel and hurtful remarks Degrading the victim in public Diminishing accomplishments Flying into rages Emotional Abuse: Isolation Ignoring Controlling finances or employment Lack of trust/Suspicion Following or stalking the victim Criticizing Threats of suicide Threats of taking away children Threats of physical violence/murder Minimizes or denies behavior, explosive or critical reactions Physical Abuse: Choking/Strangulation Holding the victim down against their will Throwing or breaking objects Pushing Shoving Slapping Biting Punching Kicking Using a weapon Murder Sexual Abuse: Rape Forcing unwanted sexual acts Use of weapons during sex Forced sex involving multiple partners Inflicts pain during sex
Anxiety Depression Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Antisocial behavior Suicidal behavior in females Low self-esteem Inability to trust others, especially in intimate relationships Fear of intimacy Emotional detachment Sleep disturbances Flashbacks Replaying assault in the mind According to the National Center for Victims of Crime: men experience many of the same psychological reactions to violence as women. These include: Guilt, shame, and humiliation Anger and anxiety Depression Withdrawal from relationships
Before beginning therapy you should assess your client’s level of safety: you can use you own version of a safety scale (rating 1-10) (10) being the client does not feel in danger at all at home and or out in public places, (I) being the client is in extreme fear of being abused by their intimate partner and or have recently experienced abuse by their intimate partner. Your initial session may involve safety planning and providing referrals, such as shelters. Before you start counseling you need to take some time to understand yourself and your own prejudices. Everyone has prejudices and biases that they must address in order to be a neutral and supportive counselor. Some of the possible issues that you will face as a counselor are… Domestic Violence Incest Child Abuse STDs, HIV/AIDS Birth-control, condoms Drug/Alcohol use/abuse Pre-marital sex Sexual Assault Rape Sexual Harassment Safety Planning Memorize important phone numbers of people to call in emergency If your children are old enough, teach them important phone numbers, including when to dial 911 Keep information about domestic violence in a safe place, where your abuser won’t find it, but where you can get it when you need to review it Keep change for pay phones with you at all times If you can, open your own bank account
Stay in touch with friends. Get to know your neighbors. Don’t cut yourself off from people, even if you feel like you want to be alone Rehearse your escape plan until you know it by heart Leave a set of car keys, extra money, change of clothes and copies of important documents with a trusted friend or relative: your own and your children’s birth certificates, children’s school and medical records, bank books, welfare identification, passport/green card, immigration papers, social security card, lease agreements or mortgage payment books, insurance papers, important addresses and telephone numbers Devise a code word or sign (such as turning on a particular light) to use with your children, family, friends and neighbors when you need them to call 911 for help from the police.
Figure taken from MenWeb: CDC/DOJ Survey Men more often victims of intimate partner violence. http://www.batteredmen.com/NISVS.htm Philip Cook,”The Truth About Domestic Violence”. From the book Everything You Know is Wrong (Russ Kick, 2002). Published by The Disinformation Company. Domestic Abuse Hotline for Men and Women. http://dahmw.org/ http://dahmw.org/
Black, M.C. 2011. Intimate partner violence and adverse health consequences: implications for clinicians. Am J Lifestyle Med 5(5):428-439. Black, M.C., Basile, K.C., Breiding, M.J., Smith, S.G., Walters, M.L., Merrick, M.T., Chen, J., & Stevens, M.R. (2011). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
www.ncadv.org/files/MaleVictims.pdf www.ncadv.org/files/MaleVictims.pdf Mo-Yee Lee, PhD, 2007.Discovering Strengths and Competencies in Female Domestic Violence Survivors: An Application of Roberts' Continuum of the Duration and Severity of Woman Battering. Brief Treat Crisis Interv Oxford University Press. http://www.hotpeachpages.net/camerica/b elize/DomesticViolenceTrainingManual.pdf
National Domestic Violence Hotline at 1-800- 799-SAFE National Sexual Assault Hotline at 1-800-656- HOPE National Child Abuse Hotline at 1-800-4-A- CHILD