Presentation on theme: "BY: RAY ROBB ERIK ERIKSON. TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Slide 1 Theories Slide 2 Eight Stages of Development Slides 3 to 7 Eight Stages Graph Slide."— Presentation transcript:
TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Slide 1 Theories Slide 2 Eight Stages of Development Slides 3 to 7 Eight Stages Graph Slide 8 Why is Erikson Important? Slide 9 Conclusion Slide 10 Reference List Slide 11
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND Erik Erikson (Born June 15 th, 1902) was a German- born developmental psychologist, and a psychoanalyst. He is most famous for his theory on social development in human beings. He also created the term identity crisis. His son, Kai T. Erikson is an American sociologist. Erik Erikson died on May 12 th, 1994 in Cape Cod, Massachusetts.
THEORIES Erikson’s theory of personality outlined eight stages of conflict throughout a person’s life. It was also called the Eight Stages of Development. Favourable outcomes are known as virtues. Must know both sides of conflict, or you don’t have a positive outcome through that stage. For example, in trust vs. mistrust you must know both extremes or you will end up trusting everyone (negative) or not being able to trust anyone (negative).
EIGHT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT 1. Hope – Trust v. Mistrust – 0 to 1 year old. If needs are met by parents or caregivers, then the child will think the world will be trusting. If needs are not met or the child is abused, then the child will be mistrusting. 2. Will - Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt – 1 to 3 years. Child begins fostering interests. If the parents allow this the child will grow with the interests, likewise if the parents are restrictive the child will not blossom with their interests.
EIGHT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT 3. Purpose - Initiative vs. Guilt – 3 to 5 years old. The child begins to attempt independent activities; many of which include risk, such as crossing the street alone. If teachers and parents are supportive in their efforts they develop initiative, and if they are not, the child feels guilty and develops a strong sense of guilt. 4. Competence – Industry vs. Inferiority – 5 to 13 years old. Child becomes more independent and rebellious. Prime age to develop self-confidence. Child notices talents and may pursue them, and if not they develop a lack of motivation.
EIGHT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT 5. Fidelity – Identity vs. Role Confusion – 13 to 22 years old. Erikson stated that this was the most important stage, as it is the transition from childhood to adulthood. People develop their own sense of individuality. This is also where he used the term Identity Crisis because he stated, “Throughout infancy and childhood, a person forms many identifications. But the need for identity in youth is not met by these.” This is the pivotal stage in someone's life, because here you either discover what your role is or you remain confused and become a non- productive person.
EIGHT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT 6. Love – Intimacy vs. Isolation – 22 to 39 years old. This stage focuses on intimate relationships and the ability to form them. Some people fear rejection and their ego can’t take it so they isolate and are unable to form these intimate relationships. 7. Care - Generativity vs. Stagnation – 40 to 65 years old. This stage is about guiding the next generation. When a person raises a family, the have a sense of generativity, and if they do not, they have a sense of stagnation.
EIGHT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT 8. Wisdom – Ego Integrity vs. Despair – 78 years old and onwards. When becoming older and looking back people tend to evaluate their life and want to know if they lived a successful life. If the person feels validated by their accomplishments they feel a sense of integrity, and if not a sense of despair.
EIGHT STAGES GRAPH AgeVirtuesCrisis Significant Relationship Question 0 – 1 YearHopeTrust vs. MistrustMotherCan I trust the world? 1 – 3 YearsWill Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt ParentsIs it okay to be me? 3 – 5 YearsPurposeInitiative vs. GuiltFamilyIs it okay for me to do? 5 – 13 YearsCompetence Industry vs. Inferiority Neighbors, School Can I make it in a world of people and things? 13 – 22 YearsFidelity Identity vs. Role Confusion Peers, Role Model Who am I? What can I be? 22 – 39 YearsLove Intimacy vs. Isolation Friends, PartnersCan I love? 40 – 65 YearsCare Generativity vs. Stagnation Household, Workmates Can I make my life count? 78 + YearsWisdom Ego Integrity vs. Despair Mankind, My Kind Is it okay to have been me?
WHY IS ERIKSON IMPORTANT? Erikson was influenced greatly by Sigmund Freud. He took Freud’s idea of psychosexual stages and applied his own ideas and opinions on it. Also making a Freudian theory with social and psychological implications to it lead to a sizeable leap in Freudian thought. While many of his works have been challenged, his main theory continues to stand strong and provoke thought among sociologists and psychologists alike.
CONCLUSION Erik Erikson was certainly an enlightened thinker and provided a new outlook on Freudian thought. His theory is still valid today and helps many developmental psychologists.
REFERENCE LIST "Erik Erikson." NNDB: Tracking the entire world. Web. 4 Mar. 2012.. "Erik Erikson." Erikson Institute. Web. 4 Mar. 2012.. Erikson, Erik H.. Identity, youth, and crisis. New York: W. W. Norton, 1968. Print. Erikson, Erik H.. Identity and the life cycle. New York: Norton, 1980. Print. Wright, J. Eugene. Erikson, identity and religion. New York: Seabury Press, 1982. Print.