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Meeting Basic Human Needs Unit 9. Principles of Growth & Development There is a continuous movement from simple to more complexThere is a continuous movement.

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Presentation on theme: "Meeting Basic Human Needs Unit 9. Principles of Growth & Development There is a continuous movement from simple to more complexThere is a continuous movement."— Presentation transcript:

1 Meeting Basic Human Needs Unit 9

2 Principles of Growth & Development There is a continuous movement from simple to more complexThere is a continuous movement from simple to more complex Development and growth move from head to feet and from torso to extremitiesDevelopment and growth move from head to feet and from torso to extremities Each stage of development and growth has a specific set of tasks that the person must master before successfully moving to the next levelEach stage of development and growth has a specific set of tasks that the person must master before successfully moving to the next level Progression moves forward in an orderly manner, but the rate varies for each personProgression moves forward in an orderly manner, but the rate varies for each person Growth patterns progress at own rateGrowth patterns progress at own rate

3 Stages of Growth & Development Neonatal & Infant: birth to 2 yearsNeonatal & Infant: birth to 2 years Infant gradually learns to sit/crawl/stand/walkInfant gradually learns to sit/crawl/stand/walk Alertness increasesAlertness increases Teeth appearTeeth appear Food intake progressesFood intake progresses Verbal skills begin to developVerbal skills begin to develop

4 Stages of Growth & Development Toddler: ages 2-3Toddler: ages 2-3 Learns to control eliminationLearns to control elimination Begins awareness of right & wrongBegins awareness of right & wrong React with frustration & negative responsesReact with frustration & negative responses Tolerates brief periods of separation from motherTolerates brief periods of separation from mother May want to play with other childrenMay want to play with other children

5 Stages of Growth & Development Preschool: ages 3-5 yearsPreschool: ages 3-5 years Builds on motor & verbal skills already developedBuilds on motor & verbal skills already developed Develops rivalries with siblingsDevelops rivalries with siblings Gradually increases cooperative playGradually increases cooperative play Improves language skillsImproves language skills Develops more active imaginationDevelops more active imagination Becomes more sexually curiousBecomes more sexually curious

6 Stages of Growth & Development School age: 6-12 yearsSchool age: 6-12 years Able to communicateAble to communicate Develops more motor skills & increased sense of selfDevelops more motor skills & increased sense of self Establishes peer relationshipsEstablishes peer relationships Reinforces proper social behavior through gamesReinforces proper social behavior through games Chooses sex-differentiated friendsChooses sex-differentiated friends

7 Stages of Growth & Development Preadolescent: yearsPreadolescent: years Hormonal changes stimulate secondary sex characteristicsHormonal changes stimulate secondary sex characteristics Mood swings & feelings of insecurity are commonMood swings & feelings of insecurity are common Develops growing awareness of and interests in opposite sexDevelops growing awareness of and interests in opposite sex

8 Stages of Growth & Development Adolescent: yearsAdolescent: years Gradual development of sexual maturityGradual development of sexual maturity Greater appreciation of the individual’s own identityGreater appreciation of the individual’s own identity Conflicting desires for freedom & independence & the security of dependenceConflicting desires for freedom & independence & the security of dependence Establishes personal coping systemsEstablishes personal coping systems Displays gradual success in mastering the developmental tasks of the ageDisplays gradual success in mastering the developmental tasks of the age

9 Stages of Growth & Development Early adulthood: yearsEarly adulthood: years Independence & personal decision makingIndependence & personal decision making The choice of a mateThe choice of a mate Establishment of career & family lifeEstablishment of career & family life Optimal healthOptimal health The choice of friends to form support groupThe choice of friends to form support group

10 Stages of Growth & Development Middle age: 50-65Middle age: Final career advancement, ending in retirementFinal career advancement, ending in retirement Children who were raised during adulthood are leaving homeChildren who were raised during adulthood are leaving home Health still at good level but shows some slowing downHealth still at good level but shows some slowing down Future is less certain with more time spent on leisure activitiesFuture is less certain with more time spent on leisure activities Financial pressures may existFinancial pressures may exist

11 Stages of Growth & Development Later maturity: yearsLater maturity: years Gradual loss of vitality and staminaGradual loss of vitality and stamina Physical changes signal aging processPhysical changes signal aging process Chronic conditions may develop & persistChronic conditions may develop & persist Period of gradual losses of mate, friends and self-esteemPeriod of gradual losses of mate, friends and self-esteem Some independence and depressionSome independence and depression

12 Stages of Growth & Development Old age: 75 years +Old age: 75 years + Failing physical health and growing dependencyFailing physical health and growing dependency Realization of one’s own mortality through other lossesRealization of one’s own mortality through other losses

13 Basic Human Needs Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Physiological: food, water, air, sleep & sexPhysiological: food, water, air, sleep & sex Safety: security, stability, order, protection, freedom from fear and anxietySafety: security, stability, order, protection, freedom from fear and anxiety Psychological: love, and to be loved; feel respect for self and othersPsychological: love, and to be loved; feel respect for self and others Actualization: need for actualization through realizing individual potential to its fullestActualization: need for actualization through realizing individual potential to its fullest

14 Basic Human Needs Meeting the patient’s physical needs:Meeting the patient’s physical needs: ShelterShelter OxygenOxygen Food & nutritionFood & nutrition Rest & sleepRest & sleep EliminationElimination Physical activityPhysical activity SexualitySexuality

15 Basic Human Needs Meeting the patient’s emotional needs:Meeting the patient’s emotional needs: To feel loveTo feel love To be loved and give loveTo be loved and give love To be treated with respect & dignityTo be treated with respect & dignity To feel that their self-esteem is protectedTo feel that their self-esteem is protected

16 Basic Human Needs Meeting intimacy & sexuality needs:Meeting intimacy & sexuality needs: All humans are sexualAll humans are sexual Sexuality concerns the ability to develop relationships, to give of oneself to others, and to appreciate the giving of othersSexuality concerns the ability to develop relationships, to give of oneself to others, and to appreciate the giving of others Intimacy is one aspect of sexuality; intimacy may be expressed in many different waysIntimacy is one aspect of sexuality; intimacy may be expressed in many different ways Each intimate relationship has an element of commitmentEach intimate relationship has an element of commitment Age, illness, and disability do not diminish this needAge, illness, and disability do not diminish this need

17 Basic Human Needs Meeting the patient’s spiritual needs:Meeting the patient’s spiritual needs: Remember that each patient has a right to believe in any faith system or to deny the existence of any beliefsRemember that each patient has a right to believe in any faith system or to deny the existence of any beliefs Listen to a patient’s thoughts and keep them confidentialListen to a patient’s thoughts and keep them confidential The nursing assistant’s role is to reflect the patient’s ideas, not to try to convince the patient of your ownThe nursing assistant’s role is to reflect the patient’s ideas, not to try to convince the patient of your own

18 Basic Human Needs Meeting the patient’s need for human touch:Meeting the patient’s need for human touch: This need should NEVER be overlookedThis need should NEVER be overlooked Nonsexual touching can include a friendly hug and smile, a pat on the shoulder, a clasp of the hand, a backrubNonsexual touching can include a friendly hug and smile, a pat on the shoulder, a clasp of the hand, a backrub

19 Basic Human Needs Meeting the patient’s social needs:Meeting the patient’s social needs: Social needs and activities increase self- esteem and make one feel good as a personSocial needs and activities increase self- esteem and make one feel good as a person All people have the need to understand others and be understoodAll people have the need to understand others and be understood In addition to verbal communication, we also communicate by the way we say words, tone of voice, facial expression, form of touch, way we stand, and unhurried approachIn addition to verbal communication, we also communicate by the way we say words, tone of voice, facial expression, form of touch, way we stand, and unhurried approach

20 Basic Human Needs Cultural influences:Cultural influences: Culture affects personality development and the way that individuals express their basic needs; the nursing assistant should consider the patient’s culture when providing careCulture affects personality development and the way that individuals express their basic needs; the nursing assistant should consider the patient’s culture when providing care

21 Dealing With The Fearful Patient Recognize this patient is a person with individual likes and dislikesRecognize this patient is a person with individual likes and dislikes Give the quality of care that considers these likes and dislikesGive the quality of care that considers these likes and dislikes Help the patient find ways to occupy all the empty time while hospitalizedHelp the patient find ways to occupy all the empty time while hospitalized

22 Dealing With The Fearful Patient Do not take negative remarks or refusals of care personallyDo not take negative remarks or refusals of care personally Give the patient an opportunity to talk; assure the patient that you will not share the information with othersGive the patient an opportunity to talk; assure the patient that you will not share the information with others Explain the need for procedures and assist if help is neededExplain the need for procedures and assist if help is needed Respect the patient’s right to privacy at all timesRespect the patient’s right to privacy at all times Treat the patient courteouslyTreat the patient courteously

23 Dealing With The Fearful Patient Do not take negative remarks or refusals of care personallyDo not take negative remarks or refusals of care personally Give the patient choices and allow him as much control over his care as possibleGive the patient choices and allow him as much control over his care as possible Respect and treat the patient as a unique individualRespect and treat the patient as a unique individual

24 Dealing With Intimacy Intimacy: a feeling of closeness with another human beingIntimacy: a feeling of closeness with another human being Intimacy may be shared between friends and loversIntimacy may be shared between friends and lovers Intimate relationships may be sexual in nature and expressed in different waysIntimate relationships may be sexual in nature and expressed in different ways In each intimate relationship, there is an element of commitmentIn each intimate relationship, there is an element of commitment It is important to recognize that not everyone has preference, opportunities, or moral standardsIt is important to recognize that not everyone has preference, opportunities, or moral standards

25 Dealing With Intimacy Terms related to human sexual expression:Terms related to human sexual expression: Heterosexuality – sexual attraction between opposite sexesHeterosexuality – sexual attraction between opposite sexes Homosexuality – sexual attraction between persons of the same sexHomosexuality – sexual attraction between persons of the same sex Bisexuality – sexual attraction to members of both sexesBisexuality – sexual attraction to members of both sexes Masturbation – self-stimulation for sexual pleasureMasturbation – self-stimulation for sexual pleasure

26 Dealing With Intimacy Opportunities for patients to meet sexual and intimacy needs in a health care setting are not always easy; ways to assist the patients to meet these needs to include:Opportunities for patients to meet sexual and intimacy needs in a health care setting are not always easy; ways to assist the patients to meet these needs to include: Not invading a patient’s privacy; always knock and wait before enteringNot invading a patient’s privacy; always knock and wait before entering Speak before opening curtains drawn around bedSpeak before opening curtains drawn around bed Do not openly judge another’s behavior and preferences as wrongDo not openly judge another’s behavior and preferences as wrong

27 Dealing With Intimacy Do not discuss information about a patient’s sexual preferencesDo not discuss information about a patient’s sexual preferences Provide privacy if a patient is masturbatingProvide privacy if a patient is masturbating Discourage patients who make sexual advances toward youDiscourage patients who make sexual advances toward you Recognize the need for intimacy is a basic human need expressed in many formsRecognize the need for intimacy is a basic human need expressed in many forms

28 Discussion

29 End of Lecture


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