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Erikson’s Psychosocial theory

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Presentation on theme: "Erikson’s Psychosocial theory"— Presentation transcript:

1 Erikson’s Psychosocial theory
Psychosocial is a description of the relation between an individual’s emotional needs and the social environment around him or her. According to this theory, at critical ages, people experience developmental crises, specific conflicts whose resolution prepares the way for the next stage.

2 Erikson’s Psychosocial theory
Person First conflict: trust vs. mistrust. A baby in a supportive environment (where parents are dependable and responsive to the child), learns to trust people. A baby in a chaotic, non-supportive environment learns that people cannot be trusted. The baby learns this lesson because babies must depend on other people to survive. At no other time in our lives are we normally so dependent. This is why we learn this lesson at this stage of life. What we learn about trust at this early age influences how we deal with people for much of the rest of our lives. Environment

3 Erikson’s Psychosocial theory
Person Adolescents deal with “identity vs. role confusion.” At this point in their lives, adolescents have developed many of the cognitive skills they will use as adults and their bodies have become adult. Thus, they need to learn “who they are” in the world. Their environment (parents, teachers, etc.) can be supportive of this process or restrictive in some significant way. Adolescents who successfully resolve this conflict develop a strong sense of self. Adolescents who don’t will struggle with their identity for many years. Environment

4 Erikson’s Theory of Personal Development
Life events Born: helpless & dependent on others for survival Ages 1-3 Learn basic self care, including toilet training Ages 3-6 Beginning to learn about the world and how to operate in it. Initiative vs. Guilt Explorations are either supported by caregivers or thwarted. Trust vs. Mistrust Caregivers help (trust) or they don’t (mistrust) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Children’s mistakes in learning to care for self are either considered normal or they are excessively punished Erikson stages Initiative is willingness to begin new activities and explore new ideas. Autonomy means independence.

5 Erikson’s Theory of Personal Development, continued
Life events Ages 6-12 Begins school, develops academically and intellectually Ages 12-18 Adolescence, puberty, beginning to become adult Young adulthood Chooses permanent relationships Industry vs. Inferiority Learns how to work and succeed academically or else does not learn these skills Identity vs. Confusion Develops own identity separate from family or else fails to do this. Intimacy vs. Isolation Chooses to be in significant relationships or else may not be emotionally able to sustain intimate relationships Erikson stages Industry is eagerness to engage in productive work.

6 Erikson’s Theory of Personal Development, continued
Life events Old age Facing death, assessing one’s life Middle adulthood Working (either on a job or at home raising children) Generativity vs. Stagnation Feels like one’s work is a contribution or not Integrity vs. Despair Feels as if life has been well-lived—or not Erikson stages Generativity: sense of concern for future generations Integrity: sense of self-acceptance and fulfillment

7 Remembering Erikson’s stages
Remember the positive term and something about the age. Then connect the negative term. Baby, TRUST (when kids are born they have to trust that others will care for them) opposite is MISTRUST Toddler, AUTONOMY (toddlers are working at becoming independent. When they are scolded in potty training, they feel SHAME & DOUBT) Preschooler, INITIATIVE (preschoolers want to learn about the world. When they are held back, they feel GUILT). Elementary, INDUSTRY (kids learn how to work at school or else they feel INFERIORITY) Teens, IDENTITY (teens develop own identity or else confusion—IDENTITY CONFUSION) Twenties, INTIMACY (young adults choose relationships or become ISOLATED) Mid life, GENERATIVITY (middle adults feel their life work is worthwhile or feel STAGNATED) Old age, INTEGRITY (can be peaceful about death because life was well lived or else DESPAIR)

8 Resolutions to Erikson’s stages
This is the evidence you will see in a person’s life for how they resolved each of these stages. Resolutions to Erikson’s stages Negative Trust vs. Mistrust: see the world as inconsistent and threatening. See life as not predictable, and view good things as temporary. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt: fear being exposed as inadequate. Attempt to hide their feelings of powerlessness. Initiative vs. guilt: fear of being inadequate and of making mistakes. Self-restrictive and sometimes overconscientious. Positive Trust vs. Mistrust: trust in themselves and others. Relaxed positive attitude. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt: good sense and command of their will power. Feel free to be themselves. Initiative vs. guilt: believe they know how the world works. Clear sense of what they want in life. Continued, next slide

9 Resolutions to Erikson’s stages
Positive Industry vs. inferiority: relish achievement and like to tackle challenging tasks. Identity vs. confusion: know who they are, what their goals are, and where they’re going. Intimacy vs. isolation: commit to partnerships and have the ethics to abide by the commitments to friends and significant others. Negative Industry vs. inferiority: feel inadequate, incapable, and estranged. Lack ambition. Identity vs. confusion: see conflict in who they are and what they would like to be. Intimacy vs. isolation: self-absorbed. Identity is too fragile to maintain the uncertainties of intimacy. Continued, next slide How can you, as a teacher, help students to resolve these conflicts positively?

10 Resolutions to Erikson’s stages
Positive Generativity vs. stagnation: concern for creation of better world. Focus on service to others. Integrity vs. despair: feel their lives have meaning and significance Negative Generativity vs. stagnation: lack long-term goals and commitments. Live for short-term gratification. Integrity vs. despair: view life as filled with missed opportunities What should a person do when a conflict has been resolved negatively? This is where exploring the past through journaling and talking with a trusted person (friend, counselor, pastor, etc.) can help a whole lot. When we have information about our past and its effects, we can make decisions so that it no longer has as much influence on us.

11 Comparing Erikson & Piaget
Mechanism for growth Drive for equilibrium (assimilation & accommodation) Brain development Crises at critical ages (when a person’s social & emotional tasks change) Focus of theory Cognitive Development Emotional Development Infancy Sensorimotor Trust vs. Mistrust Toddler Preoperational Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (this stage begins a little earlier than preoperational) Pre-school Initiative vs. Guilt Elementary school Concrete Operational Industry vs. Inferiority Adolescence Formal Operations Identity vs. Confusion Young Adulthood Intimacy vs. Isolation Middle Adulthood Generativity vs. Stagnation Elderly Integrity vs. Despair

12 Erikson in the classroom
Be aware of the stage(s) your students are in. Offer opportunities to engage with aspects of that stage. Pre-schoolers need support for taking initiative. Elementary students need support for learning how to work effectively. Adolescents need opportunities to explore their own identities. Scaffold the opportunities you offer so students can experience success. For example, if a child has a hard time working independently for an hour, cut back on the time until the child can succeed and then start extending the time.

13 Erikson in the classroom
Encourage initiative in pre-school students. Give them choices, provide opportunities and support for them to succeed, and help them learn how to deal with their mistakes in a positive way. Encourage industry with elementary and middle school students. Help them to work independently by giving them short assignments and then longer ones. Give them opportunities to demonstrate and use their sense of responsibility. Provide extra support for students who seem to be struggling with this.

14 Vocabulary Autono-mous morality Crisis Identity achievement
Punish-ment-obedience stage Social conventions Vocabulary Anorexia nervosa Develop- mental crisis Identity Integrity Moral realism Parenting styles Racial and ethnic pride Social develop-ment Autonomy Distributive justice Identity diffusion Internalization Moral reasoning Personal develop-ment Relational aggression Social problem solving Bioecological model Empathy Identity foreclosure Inter-personal harmony stage Morality of cooperation Perspective taking Self-concept Theory of mind Blended families External morality Industry Law and order stage Moratorium Proactive aggression Self-esteem Universal principles stage Bulimia Generativity Initiative Market exchange stage Nigrescence Psychosocial Self-worth Collective self-esteem Hostile aggression Instrumental aggression Moral dilemma Overt aggression Puberty Social contract stage

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