Presentation on theme: "Erikson’s Psychosocial theory"— Presentation transcript:
1 Erikson’s Psychosocial theory Psychosocial is a description of the relation between an individual’s emotional needs and the social environment around him or her.According to this theory, at critical ages, people experience developmental crises, specific conflicts whose resolution prepares the way for the next stage.
2 Erikson’s Psychosocial theory PersonFirst conflict: trust vs. mistrust. A baby in a supportive environment (where parents are dependable and responsive to the child), learns to trust people. A baby in a chaotic, non-supportive environment learns that people cannot be trusted.The baby learns this lesson because babies must depend on other people to survive. At no other time in our lives are we normally so dependent. This is why we learn this lesson at this stage of life.What we learn about trust at this early age influences how we deal with people for much of the rest of our lives.Environment
3 Erikson’s Psychosocial theory PersonAdolescents deal with “identity vs. role confusion.” At this point in their lives, adolescents have developed many of the cognitive skills they will use as adults and their bodies have become adult. Thus, they need to learn “who they are” in the world. Their environment (parents, teachers, etc.) can be supportive of this process or restrictive in some significant way.Adolescents who successfully resolve this conflict develop a strong sense of self. Adolescents who don’t will struggle with their identity for many years.Environment
4 Erikson’s Theory of Personal Development Life eventsBorn: helpless & dependent on others for survivalAges 1-3Learn basic self care, including toilet trainingAges 3-6Beginning to learn about the world and how to operate in it.Initiative vs. GuiltExplorations are either supported by caregivers or thwarted.Trust vs. MistrustCaregivers help (trust) or they don’t (mistrust)Autonomy vs. Shame and DoubtChildren’s mistakes in learning to care for self are either considered normal or they are excessively punishedErikson stagesInitiative is willingness to begin new activities and explore new ideas.Autonomy means independence.
5 Erikson’s Theory of Personal Development, continued Life eventsAges 6-12Begins school, develops academically and intellectuallyAges 12-18Adolescence, puberty, beginning to become adultYoung adulthoodChooses permanent relationshipsIndustry vs. InferiorityLearns how to work and succeed academically or else does not learn these skillsIdentity vs. ConfusionDevelops own identity separate from family or else fails to do this.Intimacy vs. IsolationChooses to be in significant relationships or else may not be emotionally able to sustain intimate relationshipsErikson stagesIndustry is eagerness to engage in productive work.
6 Erikson’s Theory of Personal Development, continued Life eventsOld ageFacing death, assessing one’s lifeMiddle adulthoodWorking (either on a job or at home raising children)Generativity vs. StagnationFeels like one’s work is a contribution or notIntegrity vs. DespairFeels as if life has been well-lived—or notErikson stagesGenerativity: sense of concern for future generationsIntegrity: sense of self-acceptance and fulfillment
7 Remembering Erikson’s stages Remember the positive term and something about the age. Then connect the negative term.Baby, TRUST (when kids are born they have to trust that others will care for them) opposite is MISTRUSTToddler, AUTONOMY (toddlers are working at becoming independent. When they are scolded in potty training, they feel SHAME & DOUBT)Preschooler, INITIATIVE (preschoolers want to learn about the world. When they are held back, they feel GUILT).Elementary, INDUSTRY (kids learn how to work at school or else they feel INFERIORITY)Teens, IDENTITY (teens develop own identity or else confusion—IDENTITY CONFUSION)Twenties, INTIMACY (young adults choose relationships or become ISOLATED)Mid life, GENERATIVITY (middle adults feel their life work is worthwhile or feel STAGNATED)Old age, INTEGRITY (can be peaceful about death because life was well lived or else DESPAIR)
8 Resolutions to Erikson’s stages This is the evidence you will see in a person’s life for how they resolved each of these stages.Resolutions to Erikson’s stagesNegativeTrust vs. Mistrust: see the world as inconsistent and threatening. See life as not predictable, and view good things as temporary.Autonomy vs. shame and doubt: fear being exposed as inadequate. Attempt to hide their feelings of powerlessness.Initiative vs. guilt: fear of being inadequate and of making mistakes. Self-restrictive and sometimes overconscientious.PositiveTrust vs. Mistrust: trust in themselves and others. Relaxed positive attitude.Autonomy vs. shame and doubt: good sense and command of their will power. Feel free to be themselves.Initiative vs. guilt: believe they know how the world works. Clear sense of what they want in life.Continued, next slide
9 Resolutions to Erikson’s stages PositiveIndustry vs. inferiority: relish achievement and like to tackle challenging tasks.Identity vs. confusion: know who they are, what their goals are, and where they’re going.Intimacy vs. isolation: commit to partnerships and have the ethics to abide by the commitments to friends and significant others.NegativeIndustry vs. inferiority: feel inadequate, incapable, and estranged. Lack ambition.Identity vs. confusion: see conflict in who they are and what they would like to be.Intimacy vs. isolation: self-absorbed. Identity is too fragile to maintain the uncertainties of intimacy.Continued, next slideHow can you, as a teacher, help students to resolve these conflicts positively?
10 Resolutions to Erikson’s stages PositiveGenerativity vs. stagnation: concern for creation of better world. Focus on service to others.Integrity vs. despair: feel their lives have meaning and significanceNegativeGenerativity vs. stagnation: lack long-term goals and commitments. Live for short-term gratification.Integrity vs. despair: view life as filled with missed opportunitiesWhat should a person do when a conflict has been resolved negatively? This is where exploring the past through journaling and talking with a trusted person (friend, counselor, pastor, etc.) can help a whole lot. When we have information about our past and its effects, we can make decisions so that it no longer has as much influence on us.
11 Comparing Erikson & Piaget Mechanism for growthDrive for equilibrium(assimilation & accommodation)Brain developmentCrises at critical ages (when a person’s social & emotional tasks change)Focus of theoryCognitive DevelopmentEmotional DevelopmentInfancySensorimotorTrust vs. MistrustToddlerPreoperationalAutonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (this stage begins a little earlier than preoperational)Pre-schoolInitiative vs. GuiltElementary schoolConcrete OperationalIndustry vs. InferiorityAdolescenceFormal OperationsIdentity vs. ConfusionYoung AdulthoodIntimacy vs. IsolationMiddle AdulthoodGenerativity vs. StagnationElderlyIntegrity vs. Despair
12 Erikson in the classroom Be aware of the stage(s) your students are in.Offer opportunities to engage with aspects of that stage. Pre-schoolers need support for taking initiative. Elementary students need support for learning how to work effectively. Adolescents need opportunities to explore their own identities.Scaffold the opportunities you offer so students can experience success. For example, if a child has a hard time working independently for an hour, cut back on the time until the child can succeed and then start extending the time.
13 Erikson in the classroom Encourage initiative in pre-school students. Give them choices, provide opportunities and support for them to succeed, and help them learn how to deal with their mistakes in a positive way.Encourage industry with elementary and middle school students. Help them to work independently by giving them short assignments and then longer ones. Give them opportunities to demonstrate and use their sense of responsibility. Provide extra support for students who seem to be struggling with this.