Presentation on theme: "Psychology 1 Marina Sangkavichai"— Presentation transcript:
1 Psychology 1 Marina Sangkavichai Social Psychology
2 Social Psychology Interpersonal relationships Social psychology: scientific study of how individuals behave, think, and feel in social situationsEstablished values, expectations, and behavior patterns are present when we arrive
3 Social RolesSocial roles are patterns of behavior expected of persons in various social positions.In each group we occupy a position in the structure of the group.
4 Zimbardos Prison Experiment Video: Zimbardo shows how most evil comes from hierarchy ( Stanford Prison Experiment )
5 Social NormsA social norm is an accepted (but often unspoken) standard for appropriate behavior. Would you sing in your loudest voice at the supermarket line?What are the norms expected at a party?At a work meeting?When you’re hanging out with friends?When you’re at a job interview?
7 Fundamental Attribution Error is people's tendency to place an undue emphasis on internal characteristics to explain someone else's behavior in a given situation, rather than considering external factors.For example, if a person is late for class, we often assume it’s because they don’t care enough to make it on time instead of considering other factors such as traffic, a sick child at home, etc.
8 Fundamental Attribution Error In other words: When we see someone doing something, we tend to think it relates to their personality rather than the situation the person might be in.For example, if someone cuts in front of you in line, your immediate reaction is, "This person is a complete jerk!" But in reality, maybe he never cuts into lines and is doing it this time only because he is about to miss his plane, the one he’s taking to be with his great aunt, who is on the verge of death.
9 Attribution ErrorsWhen it comes to OUR own behavior, we usually attribute it to situational factors. I was late to class because I had a flat tire, or I only slept three hours last night, etc.We give ourselves the benefit the doubt and attribute our behavior to situational factors!For example, I didn’t do well in my math course because the teacher wasn’t very good.
10 Cognitive Dissonance Theory is used to describe the feelings of discomfort that result from holding two conflicting beliefs. When there is a discrepancy between beliefs and behaviors, something must change in order to eliminate or reduce the dissonance.For example, you know smoking is bad for you but you smoke anyway. You tell yourself that it’s too hard to quit, OR the effects are not that bad in order to reduce the tension you feel when your thoughts don’t match your actions.People who have a high need for consistency in their actions feel the effects more.
11 Interpersonal Attraction Social attraction to another person is called interpersonal attractionWhat makes us attracted to another person?Either as potential love partners or friends
12 Psychology QuestionAccording to the lecture, what are the key elements to interpersonal attraction?
13 Research Shows:Physical proximity: the closer people live to one another or have frequent contact with one another, the more likely they’ll be attracted to one another.Repeated exposure increases attraction
14 Interpersonal Attraction Similarity: we prefer people who are similar to us in some way. We enjoy being around people who share the same beliefs and outlook on lifeSimilarity helps couples stay together, not opposites
16 Three Components of Love Intimacy: feelings of closeness, emotional tiesPassion: emotional and sexual arousal person feels for anotherCommitment: decision one makes about relationship ( short-term vs long-term )
17 Types of Love Romantic love: intimacy and passion Companionate love: intimacy and commitmentConsummate love: intimacy, passion, and commitmentInfatuation: passion onlyEmpty love: commitment only
18 Attraction rulesPhysical attractiveness: persons degree of physical beauty, as defined by his or her cultureHas its advantages good looking people are less lonely, less socially anxious, more popular, more socially skilled and more sexually experienced than unattractive people
19 Gendered friendshipsFriends are similar in age, same sex, race, beliefs, etcMales friendships activity basedWomen friendships based on expressing feelings and shared concerns
21 Gendered Friendships“Two guys can become friends almost based on nothing. Two guys can be friends just because they’re two guys.” Jerry Seinfeld says, “women and sports are all we ever talk about. If there were no women and sports, we’d just say so what’s in the refrigerator?”
22 Mate SelectionStudies show that married and couples who are living together are very similar in age, education, race, religion, and ethnic background.Personality closely matched in stable marriages, differ in marriages that are not as stable
23 What people are looking for in relationships? Kindness and understandingIntelligenceExciting personalityGood healthPhysical attractivenessHomogamy: choosing partners most like usWomen look at status and ambition more than men do
24 Building Close Relationships Self-disclosure: the process of revealing private thoughts, feelings and one’s personal history. Essential for developing close relationshipsOverdisclosure: revealing too much too soon can turn people of or scare themLibrary example
25 Evolution and Mate Selection Evolutionary origins of human behavior that influence sexual attraction, infidelity, jealousy and divorce.Do you believe marriage is a natural state?
26 Study doneIn a study of 37 cultures on six continents, following patterns were found:Men are more interested in casual sexMen prefer younger, more physically attractive partnersMen are more jealous over sexual infidelities than emotional ones
27 For womenWomen prefer slightly older partners who are economically successfulWomen more upset by a partner who becomes emotionally involved with someone elseWomen want someone who will stick around and help raise childrenMen more interested in reproducing-looking for beautiful “trophy” wives
28 Personal Ad Personal ad placed in paper Beautiful waitress responsesAverage looking female lawyer responsesAverage looking male lawyer responsesHandsome cab driver responses
29 ConformityChanging ones own behavior to more closely match the actions of othersThe Asch Experiment ( video )
30 ObedienceChanging one’s behavior at the direct order of an authority figureThe Milgram Study ( Experiment on Obedience Part 3 of 3 ).
31 Bystander Effectreferring to the effect that the presence of other people has on the decision to help or not help, with help becoming less likely as the number of bystanders increase.Diffusion of responsibility: a person fails to take responsibility for either action or inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility.
33 Compliance-Sales Techniques Compliance-get you to honor their requests without really being in an authority positionFoot in the door technique: agree to a smaller request first, then commit to something bigger/test driving
34 ComplianceDoor in the face: describes a tendency for a person who has refused a major request to comply with a smaller request. Pick me up…yes…pick me up at 4:30 in the morning!Low ball: getting a person to commit to act and then making the terms of acting less desirableFor exampe: insurance ratesEnd of lecture