Intersexed individuals have ambiguous genital anatomy. Transsexual and transgendered individuals are uncomfortable with the gender that society has assigned them. Gendered Identities
Cultural Gender Expectations Gender differentiation is apparent in our cultural expectations about how men and women should behave. Masculine people are often thought to have instrumental (or agentic) character traits – Feminine people are thought to embody expressive (or communal) character traits –
Language is one of the most powerful tools people use both deliberately and inadvertently to establish and maintain rigid gender roles.
Traits of Males & Females from Gallup Poll TraitMore True of Men More True of Women Aggressive68%20% Courageous5027 Ambitious4433 Easygoing5548 Intelligent2136 Creative1565 Patient1972 Talkative1078 Affectionate586 Emotional390
New Cultural Models for Women The professional woman: The superwoman: The satisfied single:
Psychologist Janet Hyde (2005) found: males and females are similar on most psychological variables. virtually no difference on most traits, a few moderate differences, and very few large differences. To what extent do women and men follow cultural expectations?
Race/Ethnic Diversity and Gendered Expectations Traditional gender stereotypes were based on a white, middle-class, heterosexual experience. Different norms pervade according to immigration patterns and experiences as well as within different ethnic groups and social classes. Black men and women express preferences for egalitarian relationships.
Gender and Socialization Socialization Process by which people develop their human capacities and acquire a unique personality and identity and by which culture is passed from generation to generation
Theories of Socialization Classic Interactionist Constructionist Perspective Social Learning Theory
Theories of Socialization Self-identification theory Gender Schema Theory
Love and Commitment Love is viewed as the primary reason for getting and staying married. Loving involves the acceptance of partners for themselves. Loving requires empathy and commitment.
Love and Commitment Commitment is characterized by a willingness to work through problems and conflicts as opposed to calling it quits when problems arise; it involves consciously investing in the relationship.
Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love Three components develop at different times: Passion. Intimacy Commitment.
Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love Consummate Love
Attachment Theory and Loving Relationships A secure attachment style is associated with better prospects for a committed relationship. An insecure/anxious attachment style entails “fear of abandonment” with possible consequences such as jealousy or trying to control one’s partner. An avoidant attachment style leads one to pass up or shun closeness or intimacy.
Mate Selection: The Process of Selecting a Committed Partner Positive attitudes about the relationship, coupled with realistically positive assessments of a spouse’s personality traits, are important to marital stability. Supportive interaction results in greater marital satisfaction.
The Marriage Market Individuals enter the market armed with resources—personal and social characteristics—and then bargain for the best “buy” that they can get. Arranged Marriages Free-choice Culture
Limitations of Dating Dating leads to intimacy but not necessarily to commitment Dating tends to skip friendship, which should be the foundation of a stable relationship Dating focuses on romantic attraction Source: Harris, J. (2003). I kissed dating goodbye
Limitations of Dating Dating focuses on enjoying love and romance solely for their recreational value Dating often isolates a couple from other vital relationships Dating takes a lot of time and energy Dating creates an artificial environment Source: Harris, J. (2003). I kissed dating goodbye
Contemporary Trend: Hooking Up National study and in-depth interviews of more than 1000 college women Marriage is a major life goal for the majority of college women. 2.Most women would like to meet a spouse while at college. 3.Relationships between college women and college men are often characterized by either too little commitment or too much. Source: Glenn, N. & Marquardt, E. (2001). Hooking up, hanging out, and hoping for Mr. Right
Contemporary Trend: Hooking Up 4. “Hooking up” is a distinctive sex-without-commitment interaction between college students and has many levels ranging from only kissing to oral sex and intercourse. 5. The ambiguity of the phrase “hooking up” is part of the reason for its popular appeal. 6. “Hooking up” is widespread on most campuses. 7. Dating carries multiple meanings from hanging out (being together) to a high level of commitment. 8. It is rare for college men to ask women out on dates or to acknowledge when they have become a couple. 9. In areas such as marriage aspirations, getting advice from parents, and “hooking up,” college women from divorced families differ significantly from women who grew up in intact families. Source: Glenn, N. & Marquardt, E. (2001). Hooking up, hanging out, and hoping for Mr. Right
Internet Dating and Matchmaking Services Some services call themselves “relationship services” charge a fee; applicants fill out forms, describing their traits and the traits they want in a partner; some services videotape applicants’ responses
Choosing a Mate Age Birth Order Endogamy Exogamy