Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Concurrent Partnerships Debate: The Contribution of Historical-Ethnography Mark Hunter Social Science/Geography, University of Toronto

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Concurrent Partnerships Debate: The Contribution of Historical-Ethnography Mark Hunter Social Science/Geography, University of Toronto"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Concurrent Partnerships Debate: The Contribution of Historical-Ethnography Mark Hunter Social Science/Geography, University of Toronto

2 Concurrent Partners – Two opposing Views Kenyon & Zondo Academics “concoct complex socioeconomic explanations to avoid addressing cultural factors that they find awkward.” Sawers & Stillwaggon “It is customary to end the presentation of research with calls for still more research. This paper, however, calls for an end (or at least a moratorium) to research on sexual behaviour in Africa of the kind discussed in this article. The continued use of financial and human resources to prove Western preconceptions about African sexuality cannot be justified.”

3 Concurrent Partners – Two opposing Views Kenyon & Zondo Academics “concoct complex socioeconomic explanations to avoid addressing cultural factors that they find awkward.” Sawers & Stillwaggon “It is customary to end the presentation of research with calls for still more research. This paper, however, calls for an end (or at least a moratorium) to research on sexual behaviour in Africa of the kind discussed in this article. The continued use of financial and human resources to prove Western preconceptions about African sexuality cannot be justified.” BUT Commonalities 1.“Why Africa?” Question 2.Presentist Bias

4

5

6

7 History, gender, and AIDS ?????? AIDS Polygamy The Continuity Argument

8 History, Gender and AIDS ?????? AIDS Industrialization/apartheid The linear breakdown of sexuality argument

9 Concurrent Partners – Two opposing Views Kenyon & Zondo Academics “concoct complex socioeconomic explanations to avoid addressing cultural factors that they find awkward.” Sawers & Stillwaggon “It is customary to end the presentation of research with calls for still more research. This paper, however, calls for an end (or at least a moratorium) to research on sexual behaviour in Africa of the kind discussed in this article. The continued use of financial and human resources to prove Western preconceptions about African sexuality cannot be justified.” BUT Commonalities 1.“Why Africa?” Question 2.Presentist Bias Need to widen CP debate to periodize historical transformations in intimacy over the last century seeing the socioecononomic/cultural realms as co-constitutive

10 Historical-Ethnography BUT Commonalities 1.“Why Africa?” Question 2.Presentist Bias Need to widen CP debate to periodize historical transformations in intimacy over the last century seeing the socioecononomic/cultural realms as co-constitutive Must go beyond sex surveys which are inherently limited in scope. We need to use social science categories that cannot be easily quantified--e.g. gender/power/love/masculinities/feminin ities. This includes using ethnographic methods that are able to capture the complexity of sexuality, the disjuncture between stated and actual acts (e,g, transactional sex), and the processes in which changes in sexuality are embedded.

11 The Changing Political Economy and Geography of Intimacy Social Context 1940s--1950s (changes 20s/30s/40s)Today (changes post-mid 70s) Economy/Lab or A high demand for the labor of African men, some demand for the labor of African women. Very low wages. Chronic unemployment, especially among Africans. Rising class divisions. Household/g ender Marriage increasingly unstable but still common in both rural and urban areas. Wedlock seen as a joint but contested project of "building a home." Rural households largely dependent on remittances from married men. Very low marriage rates and great hostility between young men and women. Growth in the number of smaller households. Rural areas dependent on state pensions, child support grants, and remittances from both men and women. GeographyMen in circular migration patterns, some women moving to urban areas. Many informal settlements "removed" by apartheid planners. Both men and women in multiple migration patterns, including circular migration. Growth of informal settlements, typified by one-room imijondolo. Penetrative Sexual Relations Some migrant men have multiple partners. Some women dependent on men in extramarital relationships. Premarital relationships not generally characterized by the exchange of sex for money. Many women dependent on men, sometimes multiple men, in a situation where most people are not married. Money for sex exchanges are common although not defined as "prostitution" but as gifts from "boyfriends" to "girlfriends."

12 The Changing Political Economy of Intimacy Social Contex t 1940s--1950s (changes 20s/30s.40s) Today (changes post-mid 70s) Econo my/La bor A high demand for the labor of African men, some demand for the labor of African women. Very low wages. Chronic unemployment, especially among Africans. Rising class divisions. House hold Marriage increasingly unstable but still common in both rural and urban areas. Wedlock seen as a joint but contested project of "building a home." Rural households largely dependent on remittances from married men. Very low marriage rates and great hostility between young men and women. Growth in the number of smaller households. Rural areas dependent on state pensions, child support grants, and remittances from both men and women. Geogr aphy Men in circular migration patterns, some women moving to urban areas. Many informal settlements "removed" by apartheid planners. Both men and women in multiple migration patterns, including circular migration. Growth of informal settlements, typified by one-room imijondolo. Penetr ative Sexual Relatio ns Some migrant men have multiple partners. Some women dependent on men in extramarital relationships. Premarital relationships not generally characterized by the exchange of sex for money. Many women dependent on men, sometimes multiple men, in a situation where most people are not married. Money for sex exchanges are common although not defined as "prostitution" but as gifts from "boyfriends" to "girlfriends." 1.ISOKA (playboy) masculinity 2.Sex-gift/sex-money links

13 ISOKA 1. Late 19th Century masculinities: The umnumzana building an umuzi Agrarian economy - the importance of women’s labor Evidence that women could have more than one sexual partner—but non-penetrative sex Isoka - commencement of courting

14 Isoka 2. Early 20 th century: The Rise of Isoka Migrant Labour Reduction in polygamy Increase influence of Christianity (“the body is the temple of God”) Increased “double standard” in respect of multiple partners More penetrative sex

15 Isoka s-: Isoka remains unmarried Difficulty in working/marrying and obtaining umnumzana status Less limits to isoka masculinity Penetrative sex more common

16 Love and Money/gifts

17 Money and Sex-Links in premarital relations USSouth Africa Early 20 th century From “front porch to back seat.” Money and sex more linked. Rise of prostitution but money closely connected to ilobolo. Sex-money exchanges not common among those hoping to marry [umkhonzo/gwaza (gift, bribery)] 1970s-1970s: Feminist movement/sexual revolution: more ‘going Dutch’ as well as ‘hooking up’ Rise of the ‘materiality of everyday sex’

18 The Changing Political Economy and Geography of Intimacy: 1. Unemployment/inequalities

19 The Changing Political Economy and Geography of Intimacy 2. Reduced Marriage

20 The Changing Political Economy and Geography of Intimacy 3. Women’s increased movement

21 The Changing Political Economy and Geography of Intimacy 4. Heightened Gender Tensions "ministers of finance, transport, and entertainment" "one for money, one for food, and one for rent"

22 The Changing Political Economy and Geography of Intimacy Social Context 1940s--1950s (changes 20s/30s/40s)Today (changes post-mid 70s) Economy/Lab or A high demand for the labor of African men, some demand for the labor of African women. Very low wages. Chronic unemployment, especially among Africans. Rising class divisions. Household/g ender Marriage increasingly unstable but still common in both rural and urban areas. Wedlock seen as a joint but contested project of "building a home." Rural households largely dependent on remittances from married men. Very low marriage rates and great hostility between young men and women. Growth in the number of smaller households. Rural areas dependent on state pensions, child support grants, and remittances from both men and women. GeographyMen in circular migration patterns, some women moving to urban areas. Many informal settlements "removed" by apartheid planners. Both men and women in multiple migration patterns, including circular migration. Growth of informal settlements, typified by one-room imijondolo. Penetrative Sexual Relations Some migrant men have multiple partners. Some women dependent on men in extramarital relationships. Premarital relationships not generally characterized by the exchange of sex for money. Many women dependent on men, sometimes multiple men, in a situation where most people are not married. Money for sex exchanges are common although not defined as "prostitution" but as gifts from "boyfriends" to "girlfriends."

23 Isithebe: 1981

24 Isithebe: 1989

25 Isithebe: 1999

26 THANK YOU!!


Download ppt "The Concurrent Partnerships Debate: The Contribution of Historical-Ethnography Mark Hunter Social Science/Geography, University of Toronto"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google