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Social Development.  Sources: Family Family Work/school/activities Work/school/activities  Need for Affiliation: social convoy Establish relationships.

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Presentation on theme: "Social Development.  Sources: Family Family Work/school/activities Work/school/activities  Need for Affiliation: social convoy Establish relationships."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Development

2  Sources: Family Family Work/school/activities Work/school/activities  Need for Affiliation: social convoy Establish relationships Establish relationships Mate selection Mate selection Friendship Friendship

3  Benefits of affiliation Information, assistance, identify mates Information, assistance, identify mates Companionship, confidant Companionship, confidant Development, maintenance of sense of self, well-being (physical, psychological) Development, maintenance of sense of self, well-being (physical, psychological)  Costs Energy, emotional risk Energy, emotional risk  Carstensen (1992) Socio-Emotional Selectivity Socio-Emotional Selectivity

4 Social Convoy  Antonucci, 1990  Network of close relationships Accompany individual throughout life Accompany individual throughout life  2-5 close 2-5 close relationships Little change during adulthood Little change during adulthood change: death, illness, movechange: death, illness, move Quality more important than quantity Quality more important than quantity

5  Young, middle adulthood More likely to see size, emotional identity of convoys as inadequate compared to older adulthood More likely to see size, emotional identity of convoys as inadequate compared to older adulthood  Women Larger convoys than men Larger convoys than men Maintain friendships longer Maintain friendships longer More meaningful cross-gender friendships More meaningful cross-gender friendships

6 Perspectives on Psychosocial Development  Late adulthood

7 Disengagement Theory  late adulthood: mutual withdrawal of individual and society  shrinkage of life space social circle narrows social circle narrows  Increased individuality Anticipate, accept narrowing of social circle; give up roles Anticipate, accept narrowing of social circle; give up roles  Result of intrinsic changes in aging person

8  Interaction style becomes passive  Less likely to be chosen for new roles: further disengagement further disengagement  Predicts socially disengaged person has high satisfaction But: No evidence of disengagement But: No evidence of disengagement Justifies ageist stereotypes Justifies ageist stereotypes

9 Activity Theory  Disengagement in one area leads to engagement in other areas  Older people have same psychological/social needs as others  Older adults need to stay active and resist shrinkage of social world  Maintain high level of activity to experience satisfaction

10  Predicts: active older people have high satisfaction active older people have high satisfaction  But: Satisfaction measured by how close real and desired levels of activity are Satisfaction measured by how close real and desired levels of activity are high level of activity not necessary for satisfactionhigh level of activity not necessary for satisfaction Reverse Ageism? Reverse Ageism? Might force roles, activities on those who prefer to withdrawMight force roles, activities on those who prefer to withdraw

11 Continuity Theory  People cope with late adulthood much like the way they coped with earlier periods of life  Consistency of personality traits  Carstensen: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory Maximize social gain Maximize social gain Minimize social risks Minimize social risks

12 Social Relations: Affiliation  Satisfaction correlated with quality of contact with friends, family, others throughout lifespan (Social Convoy)  Size: generally similar throughout lifespan  Composition: proximity to family proximity to family marital status marital status gender (quantity, intimacy) gender (quantity, intimacy)

13 Long-Standing Friendships  Correlate with feelings of well-being, self- esteem  May account for choices in late adulthood: maintain established contacts friends, religious affiliations, social/ethnic clubs friends, religious affiliations, social/ethnic clubs

14 Friendship  Qualities Role present throughout lifespan (different qualities) Role present throughout lifespan (different qualities) Voluntary, less social regulation than other relationships Voluntary, less social regulation than other relationships Based on similarity (age, sex, background) Based on similarity (age, sex, background) Oriented towards enjoyment, personal satisfaction Oriented towards enjoyment, personal satisfaction Importance of trust Importance of trust

15  Functions Contribute to self-esteem Contribute to self-esteem Coping, support Coping, support Acceptance Acceptance Life satisfaction Life satisfaction “social capital” “social capital”

16  Gender differences?  Males Less emotional expressiveness Less emotional expressiveness Less self-disclosing Less self-disclosing Instrumental (activity oriented) Instrumental (activity oriented) More tolerant of conflict More tolerant of conflict  Females Closer, deeper, more intimate Closer, deeper, more intimate Communality, helping Communality, helping

17 Video Activity 3

18  Stereotypes  Research findings – consensus on quality of female vs. male friendships

19 Dating and Mate Selection  North America: Courtship, dating After WW1 After WW1  Emergence of dating resulted from Urbanization Urbanization Rise of secondary education Rise of secondary education Decreased parental supervision Decreased parental supervision Female equity movement of 1920s Female equity movement of 1920s

20  Changes in Dating Since 1950s Increase in adolescent dating Increase in adolescent dating Decrease in tendency for a pattern of progression of intimacy Decrease in tendency for a pattern of progression of intimacy From initial meeting to marriageFrom initial meeting to marriage  Qualities most valued in a date?  Men: Looks, personality, sex appeal  Women: Looks, personality, thoughtfulness

21 Choosing a Mate  What do you look for in a mate?  Filter theory Propinquity Propinquity Attractiveness Attractiveness Social background Social background Consensus (common views, values) Consensus (common views, values) Complimentarity Complimentarity Readiness for marriage Readiness for marriage  Mechanical – subjectivity, affection?

22  Adams (1979)  Focus on process – establish couple bond Not on eliminating sources of future friction Not on eliminating sources of future friction Propinquity Propinquity Early attraction Early attraction Perpetuation of attraction Perpetuation of attraction Commitment and intimacy Commitment and intimacy Deeper attraction Deeper attraction Decision: “right for me” Decision: “right for me” Marriage Marriage  Assumes marriage is ultimate goal: process may not end in marriage

23 Sexuality and Aging or: “Is there sex after 40?”  Myth: Older people are not sexually active  Reality: Yes they are!  Greeley (1992): “Sex after 60” Surveyed 5,700 people Surveyed 5,700 people  Results: All older people are sexual (identity) All older people are sexual (identity) Not all sexually active, but many older people enjoy an active sex life Not all sexually active, but many older people enjoy an active sex life

24 Sex after 60  No loss of competence, desire, interest  % active declines with age  37% married couples over 60 report being sexually active once a week or more  Often more satisfying than in early adulthood Satisfaction based on need for intimacy Satisfaction based on need for intimacy Experience Experience Time to develop relationship Time to develop relationship

25 Factors contributing to decline  Health Side effects of medications (blood pressure control, antihistamines, depression) Side effects of medications (blood pressure control, antihistamines, depression) Restriction of blood flow: Restriction of blood flow: Artherosclerosis (hardening of arteries)Artherosclerosis (hardening of arteries) Diabetes (fatty deposits in blood vessels)Diabetes (fatty deposits in blood vessels) Arthritis Arthritis Pain, stiffness of jointsPain, stiffness of joints Side effects of cancer Side effects of cancer Anemia, loss of appetite, weaknessAnemia, loss of appetite, weakness

26  Prolonged abstinence Can cause impotence Can cause impotence  Lifestyle choicese Poor diet (fitness), smoking, alcohol, obesity, AIDS/STDs Poor diet (fitness), smoking, alcohol, obesity, AIDS/STDs

27 Factors not necessarily contributing:  Coffee drinking (more likely to be sexually active)  Heart attack (recovered)  Prostate surgery (50% impotence if cancer)  Hysterectomy

28 Sexual Physiology Changes with Age  Women  Menopause does not mark end of sexuality does not mark end of sexuality Variable reactions: Bernice Neugarten Variable reactions: Bernice Neugarten Older women more likely than younger to see positive changes occurring following menopause Older women more likely than younger to see positive changes occurring following menopause “Best thing about menopause?” “Best thing about menopause?” Not worrying about pregnancyNot worrying about pregnancy Not having to bother with menstruationNot having to bother with menstruation

29 “Worst thing about menopause?” “Worst thing about menopause?” Not knowing what to expectNot knowing what to expect DiscomfortDiscomfort Indication of advancing ageIndication of advancing age Sexual responsiveness Sexual responsiveness Vaginal changes, possibly diminished orgasmVaginal changes, possibly diminished orgasm Slowed, quicker return to prearousal stateSlowed, quicker return to prearousal state

30  Men Male climacteric: loss of reproductive capacity Male climacteric: loss of reproductive capacity Later than womenLater than women Require more time, stimulation to achieve erection Require more time, stimulation to achieve erection Refractory period longer Refractory period longer Ejaculatory control increases Ejaculatory control increases Orgasm less intense Orgasm less intense

31 Reasons Males and Females Were No Longer Sexually Active (Masters & Johnson, 1966) MalesFemales Illness15%4% Loss of Interest 15%10% Loss of Potency 29%0% Death of Spouse 10%48%

32 Societal Attitudes  Infantilize elderly  Tendency to “castrate” dependent individuals Failure to recognize sexuality of elderly Failure to recognize sexuality of elderly Institutional lack of sensitivity, privacy Institutional lack of sensitivity, privacy

33 Conclusions  Older individuals should be encouraged to continue physical intimacy  Barriers to sexual expression by the elderly should be reduced  Older adults should have access to appropriate counseling for sexual difficulties

34 Sexuality and Institutionalized Elderly: Lichtenberg & Strzepek (1990) Guidelines to determine competencies in engaging in intimate relationships - Awareness of relationship -Know who is initiating contact, knowledge of comfort level in intimacy - Ability to avoid exploitation -Behaviour consistent with own values, capacity to refuse contact - Awareness of potential risks -Time limitations, end of relation


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