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Psychology 203 Human Development

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Presentation on theme: "Psychology 203 Human Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology 203 Human Development
Psychosocial Development In Young Adulthood Chapter 14 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

2 Young Adulthood Personality Development
Four Views Normative-stage models Typical sequence of age-related development that continues throughout adult life span Timing-of-events models Expected or unexpected occurrence and timing of important life events (not age) Trait models Mental, emotional, temperamental, and behavioral traits (cheerfulness, irritability) Typological models Identify broader personality types, or styles that represent how traits are organized within individuals 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

3 Young Adulthood Personality Development
Normative-stage models Erikson Personality changes throughout life Intimacy versus Isolation Vaillant (1977) Adaptive mechanisms Mature (using humor or helping others) Immature (developing aches and pains with no physical basis) Psychotic (distorting reality) Neurotic (repressing anxiety or developing irrational fears) Levinson (1986) Evolving life structure: People shape their life structures during overlapping eras of about 20 to 25 years each. Validity of studies is questionable Based on research using mostly men Based on small groups of all white middle-class to upper-middle-class men Most important message is adults continue to change, develop and grow 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

4 Young Adulthood Personality Development
Timing-of-Events Course of development depends on when certain events occur in people’s lives. Normative Life Events are commonly expected life experiences that occur at customary times Marriage Parenthood Grandparenthood Retirement Events are normative when they are “on time” People are aware of their won “social clock” Crises may result, not from reaching a certain age but from the unexpected occurrence and timing of life events. Model is limited because model only fits when cultures and historical periods in which norms of behavior are stable and widespread 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

5 Young Adulthood Trait Models (Costa and McCrae’s five Factors)
Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Agreeableness Conscientiousness 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

6 Young Adulthood Costa and McCrae’s
Continuity of personality Analysis is cross-sectional, longitudinal, and sequential from large sample sizes Critics of model Statistical and methodological problems Based largely on subjective ratings Model looks at only individual differences in trait groupings No theoretical framework for understanding how personality works within the person 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

7 Young Adulthood Typological Models
Personality as functioning whole that affects and reflects attitudes, values, behavior, and social interactions Ego-resilient Adaptability under stress Well adjusted self-confident, independent, articulate, attentive, helpful, cooperative, and task-focused Overcontrolled Shy, quiet, anxious, dependable, withdraw from conflict Undercontrolled Active, energetic, impulsive, stubborn, and easily distracted Traits established in childhood may predict trajectories (long term patterns) 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

8 Young Adulthood Integrating Approaches
10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

9 Young Adulthood Foundations of Intimate Relationships
Resolve conflicts with parents in wholesome way or may reenact similar conflicts in new relationships with friends, colleagues, and partners Seek emotional and physical intimacy in relationship with peers and romantic partners Gain skills in Self-awareness Empathy Communicate emotions Sexual decision making Conflict resolution Sustain commitments 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

10 Young Adulthood Foundations of Intimate Relationships
Intimate relationships are crucial task of young adulthood (Erikson) Shared disclosures (self-disclosure) Responsiveness to one another’s needs Mutual acceptance Respect Intimacy includes a sense of belonging Form strong, stable, close, caring relationships is powerful motivator of human behavior 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

11 Young Adulthood Friendship
Friendships center on Work Parenting activities Sharing of confidences and advice Young singles rely on friendships to fulfill social needs Women have more intimate friendships then men Women find friendships with other women more satisfying than those with men Men share information and activities, not confidences 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

12 Part taken from Human Development 9e
Young Adulthood Love Sternberg and Barnes elements Intimacy Self-disclosure leads to connection, warmth, and trust Passion Inner drives that translate physiological arousal into sexual desire Commitment Cognitive decision to love and to stay with the beloved 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

13 Young Adulthood Nonmarital and Marital lifestyles
Rules of acceptable behavior are more elastic then during the first half 20th century Norms no longer dictate People must get married Stay married Have children At what age 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

14 Young Adulthood Nonmarital and Marital lifestyles
Single Life 45% of year olds had never married Black, White, and Latina single women in LA have difficulty finding eligible men with similar educational and social backgrounds 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

15 Young Adulthood Gay and Lesbian Relationships
3% of US men and 1½% women call themselves homesual or bisexual Ingredients of long-term satisfaction are very similar in homosexual and heterosexual relationships 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

16 Young Adulthood Cohabitation
Consensual or informal union In US was against the law in 1970 Substitute for marriage or “trial marriage” Relationship tend to be less satisfying than marriages Half US couples who marry have lived together first Tend to have unconventional attitudes about family life Likely to have divorced parents Stepchildren Liberal attitudes toward divorce 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

17 Young Adulthood Marriage
Meets fundamental needs Intimacy Commitment Friendship Affection Sexual fulfillment Companionship Emotional growth Identity and self-esteem 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

18 Young Adulthood Entering Matrimony
Most common way of selecting a mate has been through arrangement Free choose of mates norm in western world Transition to married major changes in Sexual functioning Living arrangements Rights and responsibility Attachments Loyalties 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

19 Young Adulthood Sexual Activity After Marriage
Only one-third have intercourse two or more times a week More emotional satisfaction from sex then single or cohabiting couples Drops sharply after the early months and then declines as time goes on May seek sexual intimacy outside the marriage after few years 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

20 Young Adulthood Factors in Marital success or failure
One of the most important factors is sense of commitment Success closely associated with Communication Making decisions Dealing with conflict Good marriage Arguing and openly expressing anger Trouble marriage Whining Defensiveness Stubbornness withdrawal 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

21 Young Adulthood Factors in Marital success or failure
Major predictors of success Age better then teens Education - College grads better then non grads Cohabitation before marriage and having divorced parents are predictive of divorce No children better then pregnant or bearing children before marriage 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

22 Part taken from Human Development 9e
Domestic Violence Physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment of a spouse, a former spouse, or an intimate partner so as to gain or maintain power or control Nine out of ten victims in US are women Men profile Less than a high school education Unemployed or intermittently employed Low incomes Alcohol or drug problems Former or estranged husband or former boyfriends Men seeking control or dominance Boys taught by example to prevail though aggression and physical force 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

23 Part taken from Human Development 9e
Becoming Parents Preindustrial farming societies Large families were a necessity Helped with family work Care for aging parents Death rate in childhood was high Having lots of children many more would reach maturity 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

24 Parenthood Developmental Experience
First baby marks a major transition in parents’ lives Baby changes individuals and changes relationships As baby develop, so must parents Fathers today are more involved in children’s lives, and childcare and housework than ever before. 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

25 Parenthood Developmental Experience
Men with children living with them Less involved in outside social activities More likely to participate in School-related activities Church Groups Community services 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

26 Parenthood Marital Satisfaction
Satisfaction declines during the childraising years Both husbands and wives report sharp decline during the first four years 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

27 Part taken from Human Development 9e
Dual-Earner Families Two out of three US families with married couple and children under 18 years Positive outcomes Raises some families from poverty to middle-income Women more independent and share of economic power Reduces pressure on men to be providers Equal relationship between husband and wife Better health for both Greater self-esteem for the women Closer relationship between fathers and children 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

28 Part taken from Human Development 9e
Dual-Earner Families Downside Working couples face extra demands on them and energy Conflicts between work and family Rivalry between spouses Anxiety and guilt about meeting children’s needs 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

29 Division of Domestic Work
Almost all known societies women have primary responsibility for housework and child raising Psychological effects very based on how breadwinning and household work are divided Effects depend on how the husband and wife view their roles 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

30 Division of Domestic Work
Perception of unfairness contributes most to marital instability Fairness depend on the size of the wife’s financial contribution Co-provider Supplementing husband’s income Meaning and importance wife or husband place on wife’s work 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

31 Part taken from Human Development 9e
When Marriage Ends Average marriage ends in seven to eight years 43% of first marriages end in separation or divorce within 15 years 90% of separated couples go on to divorce within 5 years 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

32 When Marriage Ends Why the increase?
Possible causes More liberal divorce laws No-fault laws More women financially independent Greater damage to children if they stay together More childless couples Young couples expect too much from marriage Take place of their parents Take place of their friends Both confidantes and lovers Conflicts between what men want and what women want 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

33 When Marriage Ends Adjusting to Divorce
Divorce is a process not a single event. Some people adjust rather quickly but may tend to reduce long-term well-being Reasons Disruption of parent-child relationships Discord with a former spouse Economic hardship Loss of emotional support Moving out of family home Feelings of Failure Blame Hostility Self-recrimination Depression Illness Most important factor is emotional detachment from the former spouse (average time is three years) 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e

34 Remarriage and Stepparenthood
Remarriages are more likely than first marriages to end in divorce Greatest during the first five years and stepchildren Stepparent more challenging for women then men The more recent the current marriage and the older the stepchildren, the harder stepparenting seems Less able to separate feelings about the marriage from feelings about success as stepparents 10/27/2005 Part taken from Human Development 9e


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