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10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e1 Psychology 203 Human Development Psychosocial Development In Young Adulthood Chapter 14.

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Presentation on theme: "10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e1 Psychology 203 Human Development Psychosocial Development In Young Adulthood Chapter 14."— Presentation transcript:

1 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e1 Psychology 203 Human Development Psychosocial Development In Young Adulthood Chapter 14

2 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e2 Young Adulthood Personality Development Four Views Normative-stage models Typical sequence of age-related development that continues throughout adult life span Timing-of-events models Expected or unexpected occurrence and timing of important life events (not age) Trait models Mental, emotional, temperamental, and behavioral traits (cheerfulness, irritability) Typological models Identify broader personality types, or styles that represent how traits are organized within individuals

3 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e3 Young Adulthood Personality Development Normative-stage models Erikson Personality changes throughout life Intimacy versus Isolation Vaillant (1977) Adaptive mechanisms Mature (using humor or helping others) Immature (developing aches and pains with no physical basis) Psychotic (distorting reality) Neurotic (repressing anxiety or developing irrational fears) Levinson (1986) Evolving life structure: People shape their life structures during overlapping eras of about 20 to 25 years each. Validity of studies is questionable Based on research using mostly men Based on small groups of all white middle-class to upper-middle- class men Most important message is adults continue to change, develop and grow

4 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e4 Young Adulthood Personality Development Timing-of-Events Course of development depends on when certain events occur in people’s lives. Normative Life Events are commonly expected life experiences that occur at customary times Marriage Parenthood Grandparenthood Retirement Events are normative when they are “on time” People are aware of their won “social clock” Crises may result, not from reaching a certain age but from the unexpected occurrence and timing of life events. Model is limited because model only fits when cultures and historical periods in which norms of behavior are stable and widespread

5 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e5 Young Adulthood Trait Models (Costa and McCrae’s five Factors) Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Agreeableness Conscientiousness

6 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e6 Young Adulthood Costa and McCrae’s Continuity of personality Analysis is cross-sectional, longitudinal, and sequential from large sample sizes Critics of model Statistical and methodological problems Based largely on subjective ratings Model looks at only individual differences in trait groupings No theoretical framework for understanding how personality works within the person

7 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e7 Young Adulthood Typological Models Typological Models Personality as functioning whole that affects and reflects attitudes, values, behavior, and social interactions Ego-resilient Adaptability under stress Well adjusted self-confident, independent, articulate, attentive, helpful, cooperative, and task-focused Overcontrolled Shy, quiet, anxious, dependable, withdraw from conflict Undercontrolled Active, energetic, impulsive, stubborn, and easily distracted Traits established in childhood may predict trajectories (long term patterns)

8 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e8 Young Adulthood Integrating Approaches

9 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e9 Young Adulthood Foundations of Intimate Relationships Resolve conflicts with parents in wholesome way or may reenact similar conflicts in new relationships with friends, colleagues, and partners Seek emotional and physical intimacy in relationship with peers and romantic partners Gain skills in Self-awareness Empathy Communicate emotions Sexual decision making Conflict resolution Sustain commitments

10 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e10 Young Adulthood Foundations of Intimate Relationships Intimate relationships are crucial task of young adulthood (Erikson) Shared disclosures (self-disclosure) Responsiveness to one another’s needs Mutual acceptance Respect Intimacy includes a sense of belonging Form strong, stable, close, caring relationships is powerful motivator of human behavior

11 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e11 Young Adulthood Friendship Friendships center on Work Parenting activities Sharing of confidences and advice Young singles rely on friendships to fulfill social needs Women have more intimate friendships then men Women find friendships with other women more satisfying than those with men Men share information and activities, not confidences

12 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e12 Young Adulthood Love Sternberg and Barnes elements Intimacy Self-disclosure leads to connection, warmth, and trust Passion Inner drives that translate physiological arousal into sexual desire Commitment Cognitive decision to love and to stay with the beloved

13 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e13 Young Adulthood Nonmarital and Marital lifestyles Rules of acceptable behavior are more elastic then during the first half 20 th century Norms no longer dictate People must get married Stay married Have children At what age

14 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e14 Young Adulthood Nonmarital and Marital lifestyles Single Life 45% of year olds had never married Black, White, and Latina single women in LA have difficulty finding eligible men with similar educational and social backgrounds

15 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e15 Young Adulthood Gay and Lesbian Relationships 3% of US men and 1½% women call themselves homesual or bisexual Ingredients of long-term satisfaction are very similar in homosexual and heterosexual relationships

16 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e16 Young Adulthood Cohabitation Consensual or informal union In US was against the law in 1970 Substitute for marriage or “trial marriage” Relationship tend to be less satisfying than marriages Half US couples who marry have lived together first Tend to have unconventional attitudes about family life Likely to have divorced parents Stepchildren Liberal attitudes toward divorce

17 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e17 Young Adulthood Marriage Meets fundamental needs Intimacy Commitment Friendship Affection Sexual fulfillment Companionship Emotional growth Identity and self-esteem

18 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e18 Young Adulthood Entering Matrimony Most common way of selecting a mate has been through arrangement Free choose of mates norm in western world Transition to married major changes in Sexual functioning Living arrangements Rights and responsibility Attachments Loyalties

19 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e19 Young Adulthood Sexual Activity After Marriage Only one-third have intercourse two or more times a week More emotional satisfaction from sex then single or cohabiting couples Drops sharply after the early months and then declines as time goes on May seek sexual intimacy outside the marriage after few years

20 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e20 Young Adulthood Factors in Marital success or failure One of the most important factors is sense of commitment Success closely associated with Communication Making decisions Dealing with conflict Good marriage Arguing and openly expressing anger Trouble marriage Whining Defensiveness Stubbornness withdrawal

21 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e21 Young Adulthood Factors in Marital success or failure Major predictors of success Age better then teens Education - College grads better then non grads Cohabitation before marriage and having divorced parents are predictive of divorce No children better then pregnant or bearing children before marriage

22 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e22 Domestic Violence Physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment of a spouse, a former spouse, or an intimate partner so as to gain or maintain power or control Nine out of ten victims in US are women Men profile Less than a high school education Unemployed or intermittently employed Low incomes Alcohol or drug problems Former or estranged husband or former boyfriends Men seeking control or dominance Boys taught by example to prevail though aggression and physical force

23 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e23 Becoming Parents Preindustrial farming societies Large families were a necessity Helped with family work Care for aging parents Death rate in childhood was high Having lots of children many more would reach maturity

24 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e24 Parenthood Developmental Experience First baby marks a major transition in parents’ lives Baby changes individuals and changes relationships As baby develop, so must parents Fathers today are more involved in children’s lives, and childcare and housework than ever before.

25 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e25 Parenthood Developmental Experience Men with children living with them Less involved in outside social activities More likely to participate in School-related activities Church Groups Community services

26 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e26 Parenthood Marital Satisfaction Satisfaction declines during the childraising years Both husbands and wives report sharp decline during the first four years

27 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e27 Dual-Earner Families Two out of three US families with married couple and children under 18 years Positive outcomes Raises some families from poverty to middle-income Women more independent and share of economic power Reduces pressure on men to be providers Equal relationship between husband and wife Better health for both Greater self-esteem for the women Closer relationship between fathers and children

28 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e28 Dual-Earner Families Downside Working couples face extra demands on them and energy Conflicts between work and family Rivalry between spouses Anxiety and guilt about meeting children’s needs

29 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e29 Division of Domestic Work Almost all known societies women have primary responsibility for housework and child raising Psychological effects very based on how breadwinning and household work are divided Effects depend on how the husband and wife view their roles

30 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e30 Division of Domestic Work Perception of unfairness contributes most to marital instability Fairness depend on the size of the wife’s financial contribution Co-provider Supplementing husband’s income Meaning and importance wife or husband place on wife’s work

31 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e31 When Marriage Ends Average marriage ends in seven to eight years 43% of first marriages end in separation or divorce within 15 years 90% of separated couples go on to divorce within 5 years

32 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e32 When Marriage Ends Why the increase? Possible causes More liberal divorce laws No-fault laws More women financially independent Greater damage to children if they stay together More childless couples Young couples expect too much from marriage Take place of their parents Take place of their friends Both confidantes and lovers Conflicts between what men want and what women want

33 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e33 When Marriage Ends Adjusting to Divorce Divorce is a process not a single event. Some people adjust rather quickly but may tend to reduce long-term well-being Reasons Disruption of parent-child relationships Discord with a former spouse Economic hardship Loss of emotional support Moving out of family home Feelings of Failure Blame Hostility Self-recrimination Depression Illness Most important factor is emotional detachment from the former spouse (average time is three years)

34 10/27/2005Part taken from Human Development 9e34 Remarriage and Stepparenthood Remarriages are more likely than first marriages to end in divorce Greatest during the first five years and stepchildren Stepparent more challenging for women then men The more recent the current marriage and the older the stepchildren, the harder stepparenting seems Less able to separate feelings about the marriage from feelings about success as stepparents


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