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1 © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Psychosocial Development in Young Adulthood Chapter 14
2 Guideposts for Study What influences varied paths to adulthood, and how do emerging adults develop a sense of adult identity and autonomous relationships with their parents? Does personality change during adulthood, and if so, how? How is intimacy expressed in friendship and love? When and why do young adults choose to remain single, form gay or lesbian relationships, cohabit or marry, and how satisfying and stable are those lifestyles? © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
3 Guideposts for Study When do most adults become parents, and how does parenthood affect a marriage? What are the trends in divorce rates, and how do young adults adjust to divorce, remarriage and stepparenthood? © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
4 Influences on Paths to Adulthood Gender Academic ability Early attitudes toward education Expectations in late adolescence Social class Ego development © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
5 Recentering Stage 1 — Still embedded in family of origin Stage 2 — Connected to family, but moving toward serious commitments and gaining resources to support them Stage 3 — Independence from family of origin, with increased commitment to career, partner and possibly children © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
6 Identity Development Contemporary moratorium “Youthhood,” a permanent alternative to adulthood Racial/ethnic identity exploration © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
7 Developing Adult Relationships with Parents One measure of how successfully emerging adults handle becoming autonomous is their ability to remain connected with parents. Parents and children seem to get along best when normative life course is followed. Failure to launch—adult children who continue to live with parents © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
8 Personality Development: Four Views Normative stage models Timing of events model Trait models Typological models © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
9 Erikson’s Normative Stage Model Intimacy versus isolation Young adults must make commitments to others or face isolation and self- absorption Resolution of this stage results in virtue of ‘love’ © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
10 Valiant’s Four Patterns of Adaptation Adaptive Mechanisms: – Mature – Immature – Psychotic – Neurotic © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
11 Levinson’s Stage Model Life Structure – The underlying pattern of a person’s life at a given time – Eras and phases © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
12 Normative Studies of Women Women may face different psychological and environmental constraints in forming life structures than men do. Women’s transitions tend to take longer. © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
13 Criticisms of Normative-Stage Models Generalizability – Small and limited samples Effects of societal events specific to cohorts – Economic depression of the 1930s – Economic expansion after WWII Developmental tasks © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
14 Timing-of-Events Model The course of development depends on when events occur in people’s lives Normative life events ‘On time’ or ‘Off time’ Social Clock © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
15 Trait Models: Five Factors of Personality © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
16 Evaluating Five-Factor Model Research has found gradual, systematic change in personality throughout adulthood, not continuity. Five-factor model is based on subjective ratings – may lack validity. © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
17 Typological Models Personality affects and reflects: – Attitudes – Values – Beliefs – Social interactions Use interviews, self-reports, clinical assessments and behavior ratings © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
18 Typological Models: Three Personality Types Ego-resilient Overcontrolled Undercontrolled 3 Types differ in: Ego-resiliency: Adaptability under stress Ego-control: Self control © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
19 Foundations of Intimate Relationships Self-disclosure Self-awareness and empathy Ability to communicate emotions Conflict resolution Commitment Sexual decision making © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
20 Friendship in Young Adulthood Center on work and parenting activities Sharing of confidences and advice Young singles rely on friendship for social needs Women have social needs met by friends more than men © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
21 Sternberg’s Triangular Subtheory of Love Three Elements of Love: 1. Intimacy – Emotional element – Involves self-disclosure 2. Passion – Motivational element – Translates physiological arousal into sexual desire 3. Commitment – Cognitive element – Decision to love and stay with the beloved © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
22 Single Life Young adults who have not yet married: 32% women 43% men © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
23 Gay and Lesbian Relationships About 40-60% of gay men and 45-80% of lesbians are in romantic relationships Differences between gay/lesbian relationships and heterosexuals ones More likely to negotiate household choice Resolve conflicts in more positive atmosphere Less stable, due to lack of institutional supports © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
24 Legalizing Same-Sex Marriages World: – Netherlands first to legalize, 2001 – Belgium, 2003 – 16 European countries have recognized same-sex unions. U.S. – Vermont first state to recognize civil unions – Massachusetts first to legalize same-sex marriage 2003 – California Supreme Court strikes down gay marriage ban in 2008 – Legislation pending in several other states © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
25 Cohabitation Unmarried couples who are involved in a sexual relationship and live together Wide international variation – More than 83% of French women before age 45 years – Less than 5% of Polish women © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
26 Women’s Expected Cohabitation © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
27 Cohabitation in the USA Appears to be in transition 4 percent of U.S. households – Over half of U.S. couples who marry live together first Higher divorce rates among previous cohabiters – May reflect people’s traits, rather than the experience of cohabitation itself – Meaning of cohabitation is different for older couples © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
28 Benefits of Marriage Division of labor Economic security Commitment, friendship Opportunity for emotional growth New sources of identity and self-esteem © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
29 Entering Matrimony Historically mates chosen by matchmakers – Only in modern times do people choose mates based on love Typical marrying age has increased in industrialized countries – Men: 27 years – Women: 25 years © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
30 Living Arrangements © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
31 Marital Satisfaction Married people tend to be happier than unmarried people. Those in unhappy marriages are less happy than unmarried or divorced people. Factors affecting satisfaction: – Expectations – Economic resources – Equal decision-making – Non-traditional gender attitudes © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
32 Marriage: Four Theoretical Perspectives Companionate model Institutional model Equity model Gender model © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
33 Factors in Marital Success or Failure Partners’ happiness with the relationship Sensitivity to each other Validation of each other’s feelings Communication Conflict management skills Age at marriage College graduates © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
34 Having Children in Developing Countries Overpopulation and hunger are problems. – Important to recognize need to limit family size Division of labor has changed. – More mothers now work for pay Age at first child varies by ethnicity and race. © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
35 Average Age of Mothers at First Birth © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
36 Men & Women: Involvement in Parenthood Both have a mixture of feelings. – Excitement, anxiety, responsibility Mothers are more involved than fathers in children’s lives. – Married women complain of more housework and marital conflict Involved fathers tend to be more satisfied with their lives. © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
37 Marital Satisfaction & Parenthood Marital satisfaction declines during childrearing years, especially infanthood Mothers who saw themselves as unable to cope with demands of motherhood were dissatisfied Fathers most involved with children were more satisfied with their lives © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
38 Benefits of Dual-Earner Families Beneficial to mental and physical health Women have a greater share of economic power Reduces the economic pressure on men © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
39 Drawbacks of Dual-Earner Families Possible rivalry between spouses Extra demands on time and energy Anxiety and guilt about meeting children’s needs © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
40 Domestic Work: Effects on Marriage Dual-income families take diverse forms Wives’ earnings accounted for an average of 35% of family income Perception of inequality of roles contributes to marital instability © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
41 Divorce Average marriage that ends in divorce does so after 7-8 years. 1 in 5 U.S. adults has been divorced. Rates twice as high as 1960 Peak in early 1980s © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
42 Possible Reasons for Divorce Incompatibility and lack of emotional support Younger women said, lack of career support Spousal abuse © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
43 Box 14.1 Intimate Partner Violence Victims are predominantly young, poor, less educated, divorced or cohabiting Three types of violence – Situational couple violence – Emotional abuse – Intimate terrorism Shelters and law enforcement support © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
44 Adjusting to Divorce Divorce tends to reduce long-term well-being Men: Negative effects on health Disruption of parent-child relationships Loss of emotional support Discord with former spouse Economic hardship Women more likely to live in poverty post-divorce © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
45 Remarriage and Stepparenthood One-third of U.S. marriages are remarriages for both bride and groom. One-fourth of stepfamilies are formed by cohabitation. Many families adjust and create a nurturing atmosphere. © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
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