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Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Human Development A Cultural Approach Chapter Young Adulthood 10.

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Presentation on theme: "Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Human Development A Cultural Approach Chapter Young Adulthood 10."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Human Development A Cultural Approach Chapter Young Adulthood 10

2 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Physical Development

3 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Transition to Adulthood Accepting responsibility for oneself Making independent decisions Becoming financially independent Cultural variations include:  Israeli’s completing military service  Korean support parents financially  Traditional cultures focus on marriage

4 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Aging Begins Changes in aging:  Graying hair—begins in young adulthood  Thinning hair  Skin becomes looser, wrinkles appear  Cholesterol and fat begin to accumulate  Immune system ages, reduction of T cells and B cells

5 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Overweight and Obesity Weight gain caused by multiple factors:  Change in Basal metabolic rate  Genetics  Biology  Diet

6 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Overweight and Obesity Countries with highest rates of obesity are wealthiest Developing countries’ obesity rates are climbing  (Increase in Western type diet)

7 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Overweight and Obesity Developed countries have higher obesity rates in lower SES groups Obesity in developed countries impacted by diet and sedentary work

8 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Obesity Consequences Obesity risks and outcomes:  High blood pressure  Diabetes  Sleep disorders  Ridicule  Discrimination

9 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Importance of Exercise Exercise effects:  Healthy weight  Increased metabolic rate  Reduced risk of diseases and illness  Lower levels of anxiety Lack of exercise may be caused by busy pace of modern life

10 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Cognitive Development

11 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Adult Intelligence IQ scores and future success are moderately correlated  Lowest scores had work related problems  Highest scores did well in careers  Higher scores (140+) had fewer personal problems and greater occupation success Different cultures may emphasize different things

12 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Cultural Concepts of Intelligence Cultures vary on what constitutes intelligence  Chinese—intelligence includes humility  Zambia—emphasize cooperativeness Sternberg’s practical intelligence may be more inclusive cross-culturally

13 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Cognitive Changes Two aspects of cognitive development in young adulthood  Expertise—extensive knowledge and skill in a specific field -Exposure to a specific field allows problems to be addressed efficiently -Frontal lobe maturity promotes expertise

14 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Cognitive Changes Creativity—putting new ideas together in creative ways  With expertise, able to go from problem solving to problem finding  Some rigidity can develop causing creativity to peak in young adulthood

15 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Emotional and Social Development

16 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Erikson Intimacy versus isolation is central conflict May occur after, at the same or before identity development Gender differences in development

17 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Robert Sternberg Robert Sternberg proposed different types of love based on 3 specific qualities  Passion—physical attraction and sexual desire  Intimacy—closeness and emotional attachment  Commitment—pledge to love over the long run Combine to form 7 types of love

18 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Figure 10.1 Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love Three components, intimacy, passion, and commitment, are combined in various ways to form seven different types of love. Source: Sternberg (1988), p. 122

19 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Figure 10.2 Changes in Love The quality that makes up these different loves follows a predictable trajectory

20 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Marriage Marriage may exist for several reasons:  Uniting people to serve complementary gender roles  Reduces sexual competition  Necessary for the species Variation between cultures in choice of marriage partners, economics and number of marriage partners

21 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Table 10.2 The Importance of Various Traits in Mate Selection Throughout the World Source: Based on Hatfield & Rapson (2005)

22 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Arranged Marriages Romantic love may not be a basis for marriage for all cultures Arranged marriages are an alliance between families with love developing after marriage  Commitment first and attachment second Many traditional cultures are shifting from “arranged” to semi arranged

23 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Economics Marriage includes economic transactions in many cultures:  Bride price—substantial gift of money or property from groom and kin to bride and her kin  Bride service—groom is obligated to work for the bride’s family for a time  Dowry—transfer of money or property from bride’s family to the groom

24 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Western Marital Roles Western view of marriage strongly based on intimacy and sexual relationships Focus on ideal mate could lead to marital dissatisfaction

25 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Western Marital Roles Factors that predict marital satisfaction:  Realistic expectations  Shared interests  Shared roles and responsibilities  Shared power Necessary to continually adjust

26 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Divorce Marriage should provide emotional needs of love and intimacy Expressive divorce can occur if marriage doesn’t provide self-fulfillment Belief in self-fulfillment in marriage leads to high divorce rate in the U.S.

27 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Figure 10.3 Divorce Peaks in Young Adulthood Notice that the rise is steepest in the early years of marriage, reaching over 30% after 10 years, then continues at a less steep rate in the next 10 years to a cumulative risk of 50% after 20 years. Source: Based on Bramlett & Mosher (2001)

28 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Divorce Causes of divorce include  Age at marriage—younger than 25  Divorced parents  Socioeconomic status—conflict and stress over finances  Partner behavior—drinking or drug use, infidelity Adjustments after divorce hardest in first 1–2 years

29 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Single Adults Compared to married young adults it was thought being single led to  Increased mental health problems  Physical health problems  Substance abuse Thorough analysis has shown all these negative effects were overblown

30 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Single Adults Ethnic variations exist in singlehood  African Americans have higher rates of cohabitation than other groups  By age 40, 1/3 have never married  In Asian countries (urban) 1/3 of woman are single  In Japan, single young adults are the happiest group

31 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Gay and Lesbian Partnerships There are similarities between homosexual and heterosexual partnerships  Seek long term relationship  Seek out similar partners and have similar areas of conflict

32 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Gay and Lesbian Partnerships Differences include  Gay couples tolerate sexual episodes more than lesbian or heterosexual couples  Higher sexual activity Many differences are fading as acceptance increases

33 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Sexuality in Young Adulthood Sexual peak occurs  Social acceptance  Implied pressure to have children Western countries report sexual activity is less about children and more for intimacy Men report more sexually motivated behaviors than women

34 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Becoming a Parent Traditional countries  Becoming a parent is extremely important  Fertility is goal of a woman and men enjoy greater status Developed countries  Parenting is a choice and may not be extremely important  Parents more likely to be on their own although there are ethnic group differences

35 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Parenting and Marital Relationship Traditional cultures  Gender roles are well defined and parenting fits the roles Developing countries  Gender roles less defined but women more likely to have household and childcare duties

36 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Single Parent Single motherhood is higher now than 50 years ago In U.S. there are ethnic and education differences

37 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Single Parent

38 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Single Parenthood Many single mothers cohabitate with a father  May receive assistance from other family members In some cases gay and lesbian couples who adopt are considered “single” parents True single mothers may have lower income and increased stress

39 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Work Developing occupational goals can occur through 5 stages (Super)  Crystallization—Beyond fantasizing and begin to seek information  Specification—Choices become more focused  Implantation—Completing education that began in previous stage  Stabilization—Establish career  Consolidation—Gain expertise and experience

40 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Influences on Occupational Goals Choice of occupation is influenced by personality John Holland describes six personality characteristics

41 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Table 10.4 Holland’s Theory

42 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Influences on Occupational Goals Gender impacts occupational choices Women overrepresented in service sector Women also more likely to have lower status of a high status occupation

43 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Influences on Occupational Goals Gender socialization and balancing work and family roles play a part Women more likely to have to work and take time away to care for family than men

44 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Leisure Activities Civic involvement goes up as young adults have children and become concerned May also be impacted by business networking

45 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Leisure Activities Television plays a role in leisure activities in young adulthood There is a negative correlation between television watching and community involvement Since television is not demanding it is attractive to engage in


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