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10 Young Adulthood.

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Presentation on theme: "10 Young Adulthood."— Presentation transcript:

1 10 Young Adulthood

2 Physical Development

3 Transition to Adulthood
Accepting responsibility for oneself Making independent decisions Becoming financially independent Cultural variations include: Israeli’s completing military service Korean support parents financially Traditional cultures focus on marriage L.O and 10.2 Definition of adulthood

4 Aging Begins Changes in aging: Graying hair—begins in young adulthood
Thinning hair Skin becomes looser, wrinkles appear Cholesterol and fat begin to accumulate Immune system ages, reduction of T cells and B cells L.O. 10.3

5 Overweight and Obesity
Weight gain caused by multiple factors: Change in Basal metabolic rate Genetics Biology Diet

6 Overweight and Obesity
Countries with highest rates of obesity are wealthiest Developing countries’ obesity rates are climbing (Increase in Western type diet) Highlight

7 Overweight and Obesity
Developed countries have higher obesity rates in lower SES groups Obesity in developed countries impacted by diet and sedentary work

8 Obesity Consequences Obesity risks and outcomes: High blood pressure
Diabetes Sleep disorders Ridicule Discrimination L.O. 10.4

9 Importance of Exercise
Exercise effects: Healthy weight Increased metabolic rate Reduced risk of diseases and illness Lower levels of anxiety Lack of exercise may be caused by busy pace of modern life

10 Cognitive Development

11 Adult Intelligence IQ scores and future success are moderately correlated Lowest scores had work related problems Highest scores did well in careers Higher scores (140+) had fewer personal problems and greater occupation success Different cultures may emphasize different things

12 Cultural Concepts of Intelligence
Cultures vary on what constitutes intelligence Chinese—intelligence includes humility Zambia—emphasize cooperativeness Sternberg’s practical intelligence may be more inclusive cross-culturally Discuss research with Native Alaskan L.O. 10.9

13 Cognitive Changes Two aspects of cognitive development in young adulthood Expertise—extensive knowledge and skill in a specific field Exposure to a specific field allows problems to be addressed efficiently Frontal lobe maturity promotes expertise L.O What prompts expertise and impacts its development. and L.O. 10.9

14 Cognitive Changes Creativity—putting new ideas together in creative ways With expertise, able to go from problem solving to problem finding Some rigidity can develop causing creativity to peak in young adulthood L.O and L.O. 10.9

15 Emotional and Social Development

16 Erikson Intimacy versus isolation is central conflict
May occur after, at the same or before identity development Gender differences in development L.O Discuss the complexities of intimacy development and gender differences between girls and boys

17 Robert Sternberg Robert Sternberg proposed different types of love based on 3 specific qualities Passion—physical attraction and sexual desire Intimacy—closeness and emotional attachment Commitment—pledge to love over the long run Combine to form 7 types of love

18 Use the diagram to briefly explain each of the seven types of love
Figure Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love Three components, intimacy, passion, and commitment, are combined in various ways to form seven different types of love. Source: Sternberg (1988), p. 122

19 Figure Changes in Love The quality that makes up these different loves follows a predictable trajectory Use figure to talk about the passionate beginning of love and changes. L.O

20 Marriage Marriage may exist for several reasons:
Uniting people to serve complementary gender roles Reduces sexual competition Necessary for the species Variation between cultures in choice of marriage partners, economics and number of marriage partners

21 Use this table to explain the work of Buss and highlight the cross cultural similarities and differences Some gender as mentioned in text Table The Importance of Various Traits in Mate Selection Throughout the World Source: Based on Hatfield & Rapson (2005)

22 Arranged Marriages Romantic love may not be a basis for marriage for all cultures Arranged marriages are an alliance between families with love developing after marriage Commitment first and attachment second Many traditional cultures are shifting from “arranged” to semi arranged

23 Economics Marriage includes economic transactions in many cultures:
Bride price—substantial gift of money or property from groom and kin to bride and her kin Bride service—groom is obligated to work for the bride’s family for a time Dowry—transfer of money or property from bride’s family to the groom Seen in traditional cultures more than developed countries Bride’s family paying for wedding possible modern day example of dowry custom

24 Western Marital Roles Western view of marriage strongly based on intimacy and sexual relationships Focus on ideal mate could lead to marital dissatisfaction Use figure to spark discussion about other causes why such a decline

25 Western Marital Roles Factors that predict marital satisfaction:
Realistic expectations Shared interests Shared roles and responsibilities Shared power Necessary to continually adjust L.O

26 Divorce Marriage should provide emotional needs of love and intimacy
Expressive divorce can occur if marriage doesn’t provide self-fulfillment Belief in self-fulfillment in marriage leads to high divorce rate in the U.S.

27 Figure Divorce Peaks in Young Adulthood Notice that the rise is steepest in the early years of marriage, reaching over 30% after 10 years, then continues at a less steep rate in the next 10 years to a cumulative risk of 50% after 20 years. Source: Based on Bramlett & Mosher (2001)

28 Divorce Causes of divorce include
Age at marriage—younger than 25 Divorced parents Socioeconomic status—conflict and stress over finances Partner behavior—drinking or drug use, infidelity Adjustments after divorce hardest in first 1–2 years L.O

29 Single Adults Compared to married young adults it was thought being single led to Increased mental health problems Physical health problems Substance abuse Thorough analysis has shown all these negative effects were overblown

30 Single Adults Ethnic variations exist in singlehood
African Americans have higher rates of cohabitation than other groups By age 40, 1/3 have never married In Asian countries (urban) 1/3 of woman are single In Japan, single young adults are the happiest group L.O

31 Gay and Lesbian Partnerships
There are similarities between homosexual and heterosexual partnerships Seek long term relationship Seek out similar partners and have similar areas of conflict L.O

32 Gay and Lesbian Partnerships
Differences include Gay couples tolerate sexual episodes more than lesbian or heterosexual couples Higher sexual activity Many differences are fading as acceptance increases L.O

33 Sexuality in Young Adulthood
Sexual peak occurs Social acceptance Implied pressure to have children Western countries report sexual activity is less about children and more for intimacy Men report more sexually motivated behaviors than women L.O Men reporting of behavior includes masturbation, stimulation, and thoughts about sex more than women

34 Becoming a Parent Traditional countries Developed countries
Becoming a parent is extremely important Fertility is goal of a woman and men enjoy greater status Developed countries Parenting is a choice and may not be extremely important Parents more likely to be on their own although there are ethnic group differences Also highlight the extended family for traditional countries

35 Parenting and Marital Relationship
Traditional cultures Gender roles are well defined and parenting fits the roles Developing countries Gender roles less defined but women more likely to have household and childcare duties Mention buffers of marital satisfaction

36 Single Parent Single motherhood is higher now than 50 years ago
In U.S. there are ethnic and education differences Use map to talk about ethnic differences in single motherhood and educational attainment differences

37 Single Parent Use map to talk about ethnic differences in single motherhood and educational attainment differences

38 Single Parenthood Many single mothers cohabitate with a father
May receive assistance from other family members In some cases gay and lesbian couples who adopt are considered “single” parents True single mothers may have lower income and increased stress Highlight definition differences in “single” parenthood L.O

39 Work Developing occupational goals can occur through 5 stages (Super)
Crystallization—Beyond fantasizing and begin to seek information Specification—Choices become more focused Implantation—Completing education that began in previous stage Stabilization—Establish career Consolidation—Gain expertise and experience Mention limitations of theory and how education stretching can alter progression through the stages

40 Influences on Occupational Goals
Choice of occupation is influenced by personality John Holland describes six personality characteristics Use table to explain each category Mention limitations of using the system

41 Table 10.4 Holland’s Theory
Use table to explain each category Mention limitations of using the system Table Holland’s Theory

42 Influences on Occupational Goals
Gender impacts occupational choices Women overrepresented in service sector Women also more likely to have lower status of a high status occupation L.O

43 Influences on Occupational Goals
Gender socialization and balancing work and family roles play a part Women more likely to have to work and take time away to care for family than men L.O

44 Leisure Activities Civic involvement goes up as young adults have children and become concerned May also be impacted by business networking L.O

45 Leisure Activities Television plays a role in leisure activities in young adulthood There is a negative correlation between television watching and community involvement Since television is not demanding it is attractive to engage in L.O

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