2Man is a social animal, he can not live alone Man is a social animal, he can not live alone. His nature and needs compel him to live in one or the other form of the group.Basis of group is two or more than two persons having some type of interaction i.e. direct or in-direct.
3‘A group is an aggregate of individuals which persists in time, which has one or more interests and activities in common and which is organised’.Green Arnold
4‘Whenever two or more individuals come together and influence each other , they may be said to constitute a social group’ O Ogburn and Nimkoff
5Characteristics Two or more people Social Contact Social relationship Basis of group formationStructure of the groupSome form of controlVoluntary or non- Voluntary membershipDuration of the group
6Classification of the groups According to C.H.CooleyPrimary groupSecondary groupAccording to SummnerIn-groupOut-group
7Primary groupIn Cooley’s words, “By primary group I mean those characterised by intimate face to face association and co- operation. They are primary in many senses, but chiefly fundamental in forming the social nature and ideals of the individual”.
8Characteristics of Primary Group Small sizePhysical proximityComparatively StableSimilarty of backgroundUnspecialized characterPersonal relationsRelations are end in themselvesDirect contact
9Relations are comprehensive(include all aspects) Relations are spontaneous.Primary controlIntimate / Close relationsRelations are naturalSimilarity of aimLack of Specialisation
10Importance of Primary Group Helps in developing complete personality of the individualMaintains control over our functions and behaviourHelps in the formation of the Proper Standard of social behaviourHelps in developing good qualities in a individual
11Provides inner satisfaction to the individual Incouarages work efficiencyLeads the individual towards humanizationCulture is transmittedAgency osf SocializationSatisfy primary needs
12Centre of recreationStatus is provided to the childProvides security ( social, economic and psychology)
13Secondary GroupsSecondary Groups are of special signifance in the modern, complex society. A secondary group is one which is large in size, has a fomal organisation , has a specific aim or objective. These groups depict a cold world, where members may co-operate with one-another, but this co-operation is for achieving their selfish ends.
14‘Secondary Groups can be roughly defined as the opposite of every thing already said about primary group.’ Davis‘The groups which provide experience lacking in intimacy are called secondary groups.’ O Ogburn and Nimkoff
15Characteristis of Secondary Groups Big sizeIn-direct relationsContractual relationshipsImpersonal relationsPartial relationsSatisfy secondary needsMembership is voluntaryTemporary and permanent
16Active and inactive members Formal rules and regulationsLack of intimate relationsConscious formationHetrogenity in aimsSpecialised aim or objectiveStress on selfish interestsStress on competetion
17Importance of Secondary Groups Helps in the specialisation of the personalityEmphasis on efficiencyProvides channels of opportunityWider outlookCultural advancementHelpful in bringing fast social/cultural change
18Provides vast field of social exchange Helps in the development of civilizationSecondary control is exerted through secondary groups
19Difference between Primary and Secondary Groups SizeRelationsDurationMotiveIntimacyDevelopmentArea of workResponsibility
20ControlMeans of controlNature of association (universal/specific)MembershipNumberType of societyForm of association(formal/Informal)
22Reference GroupHymain gave the concept of reference group in 1942, which is found at mental level .One becomes a member of the reference group at psychological level.This is an ideal group for the individual.Infact there are two types of groups:Membership GroupReference Group
23‘Groups which serve as points of comparision are known as refrence groups’ Ogburn and NimkoffÁ refrence group is any group which we refer to when making any judgement – any group whose value judgement becomes our value judgement’ Horton and Hunt
24Elements/Characteristics of Reference Group Result of high aspirationsOne can be a member of one or more than one reference group at the same timeIts identity is based on the perceiverReference groups can changeReference group is always higher in status than the individual
25Its not necessary that all refrence groups are ideal in social perspective. They perform a comparision function by serving as a standard against which people can measure themselves and others.