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Presentation on theme: "SOCIAL GROUPS."— Presentation transcript:


2 Man is a social animal, he can not live alone
Man is a social animal, he can not live alone. His nature and needs compel him to live in one or the other form of the group.Basis of group is two or more than two persons having some type of interaction i.e. direct or in-direct.

3 ‘A group is an aggregate of individuals which persists in time, which has one or more interests and activities in common and which is organised’. Green Arnold

4 ‘Whenever two or more individuals come together and influence each other , they may be said to constitute a social group’ O Ogburn and Nimkoff

5 Characteristics Two or more people Social Contact Social relationship
Basis of group formation Structure of the group Some form of control Voluntary or non- Voluntary membership Duration of the group

6 Classification of the groups
According to C.H.Cooley Primary group Secondary group According to Summner In-group Out-group

7 Primary group In Cooley’s words, “By primary group I mean those characterised by intimate face to face association and co- operation. They are primary in many senses, but chiefly fundamental in forming the social nature and ideals of the individual”.

8 Characteristics of Primary Group
Small size Physical proximity Comparatively Stable Similarty of background Unspecialized character Personal relations Relations are end in themselves Direct contact

9 Relations are comprehensive(include all aspects)
Relations are spontaneous. Primary control Intimate / Close relations Relations are natural Similarity of aim Lack of Specialisation

10 Importance of Primary Group
Helps in developing complete personality of the individual Maintains control over our functions and behaviour Helps in the formation of the Proper Standard of social behaviour Helps in developing good qualities in a individual

11 Provides inner satisfaction to the individual
Incouarages work efficiency Leads the individual towards humanization Culture is transmitted Agency osf Socialization Satisfy primary needs

12 Centre of recreation Status is provided to the child Provides security ( social, economic and psychology)

13 Secondary Groups Secondary Groups are of special signifance in the modern, complex society. A secondary group is one which is large in size, has a fomal organisation , has a specific aim or objective. These groups depict a cold world, where members may co-operate with one-another, but this co-operation is for achieving their selfish ends.

14 ‘Secondary Groups can be roughly defined as the opposite of every thing already said about primary group.’ Davis ‘The groups which provide experience lacking in intimacy are called secondary groups.’ O Ogburn and Nimkoff

15 Characteristis of Secondary Groups
Big size In-direct relations Contractual relationships Impersonal relations Partial relations Satisfy secondary needs Membership is voluntary Temporary and permanent

16 Active and inactive members
Formal rules and regulations Lack of intimate relations Conscious formation Hetrogenity in aims Specialised aim or objective Stress on selfish interests Stress on competetion

17 Importance of Secondary Groups
Helps in the specialisation of the personality Emphasis on efficiency Provides channels of opportunity Wider outlook Cultural advancement Helpful in bringing fast social/cultural change

18 Provides vast field of social exchange
Helps in the development of civilization Secondary control is exerted through secondary groups

19 Difference between Primary and Secondary Groups
Size Relations Duration Motive Intimacy Development Area of work Responsibility

20 Control Means of control Nature of association (universal/specific) Membership Number Type of society Form of association(formal/Informal)

21 Examples Functions

22 Reference Group Hymain gave the concept of reference group in 1942, which is found at mental level .One becomes a member of the reference group at psychological level.This is an ideal group for the individual.Infact there are two types of groups: Membership Group Reference Group

23 ‘Groups which serve as points of comparision are known as refrence groups’
Ogburn and Nimkoff Á refrence group is any group which we refer to when making any judgement – any group whose value judgement becomes our value judgement’ Horton and Hunt

24 Elements/Characteristics of Reference Group
Result of high aspirations One can be a member of one or more than one reference group at the same time Its identity is based on the perceiver Reference groups can change Reference group is always higher in status than the individual

25 Its not necessary that all refrence groups are ideal in social perspective.
They perform a comparision function by serving as a standard against which people can measure themselves and others.


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