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8 Gay and Lesbian Partner Abuse.

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1 8 Gay and Lesbian Partner Abuse

2 Chapter Objectives Give examples of violence occurring in LGBT relationships specific to the population. Discuss why an understanding of intimate partner violence in the LGBT community is vital. Discuss theoretical explanations for abuse in the LGBT community. Explain the problems for the LGBT community in accessing criminal justice interventions. Describe how the Full Faith and Credit requirement impacts violence in same-gendered relationships.

3 Introduction Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) community Is made up of individuals from every ethnic and racial background residing in the U.S. Populations are particularly vulnerable to marginalization and devaluation in our society Unwillingness to acknowledge intimate partner violence comes from within the community as well as from outsiders

4 Definitions LGBT An acronym for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (or trans) individuals; sometimes written as GLBT. A demographic category, similar to race/ethnicity, sex, disability, and so on. Used for large numbers of people who have major characteristics in common, although they are certainly not “the same.”

5 Definitions Lesbian — A person who identifies as a woman and whose sexual orientation is primarily to other women. Gay — Refers to a person who identifies as a man and whose sexual orientation is primarily to other men. Gay and homosexual — Terms that are often used interchangeably to refer to either gay males or lesbian females.

6 Definitions Transgender — A term used to describe a group of individuals whose gender identity, and how it is expressed, is different from the sex assigned at birth. Queer — A controversial term that some LGBT people have reclaimed. The term is broadly inclusive and can refer either to gender identity, sexual orientation, or both. sometimes used as an umbrella term to describe LGBT communities.

7 Lesbian Intimate Partner Violence
Lesbian Intimate Partner Violence (LPV) Consists of a pattern of violent or coercive behaviors that are committed by a lesbian against her lesbian partner for the purpose of controlling the partner’s thoughts, beliefs, or conduct. May be physical, sexual, emotional, economic, or identity abuse, which is used to maintain or punish the partner for resisting the perpetrator’s control.

8 Gay Male Intimate Partner Violence
Any unwanted physical force, psychological abuse, or material or property damage inflicted by one man on another The abuse consists of a pattern of violent behaviors for the purpose of controlling the partner’s thoughts, beliefs, or conduct

9 Prevalence of Abuse Most of the reports on intimate partner violence come from small sample groups or convenience samples from the LGBT community. As a result, the prevalence figures must be viewed with caution. We do not know exactly how much LGBT intimate partner violence exists, in part because of the hidden nature of LGBT relationships.

10 Gay Male Survivors Intimate partner abuse is a leading health problem facing gay men. Gay and bisexual men: Must overcome social barriers that prevent others from seeing their abuse as legitimate. Tend not to report intimate partner abuse. Are likely to deny or minimize the abuse that is perpetrated against them.

11 Lesbian Survivors Intimate partner violence is epidemic in the lesbian community and remains largely hidden. The lesbian community clings to a utopian existence that fails to acknowledge that IPV is occurring. This reluctance to discuss IPV is harmful to its victims, leaving them isolated and rejected.

12 Forms of Abuse Physical Abuse
Physical violence that invokes fear of the abuser and causes the victim to modify his or her behavior in response to the assault or potential assault is physical abuse. Hitting, beating, pushing, slapping, kicking, pulling hair, biting, punching, burning, and arm twisting are examples of abusive physical assaults that may also rise to the level of criminal behavior. Dunn, P. (2012). Men as victims: “Victim” identities, gay identities, and masculinities. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27 (17), 3442–3467.

13 Forms of Abuse Sexual Abuse
Sexual partner abuse includes any forced behavior intended to demean or humiliate the partner and instigate feelings of shame or vulnerability. Demeaning remarks about the partner’s appearance or background, berating the partner, and withholding sex as a punishment are abusive in nature. Some forms of sexual abuse constitute criminal behavior. Dunn, P. (2012). Men as victims: “Victim” identities, gay identities, and masculinities. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27 (17), 3442–3467.

14 Forms of Abuse Emotional/Psychological Abuse
Making repeated hurtful exchanges with disregard for the partner’s feelings, which are meant to control the victim, is an abuse of the relationship. Intimacy is not an invitation for exploitation. Social isolation and manipulation are forms of emotional abuse often used as tactics to set up the relationship for further controlling behaviors.

15 Forms of Abuse Economic Abuse
Is the use or misuse of financial or other monetary resources of the partnership. Controlling a person’s employment by trying to get him/her fired, making excessive calls to work, or creating scenes are examples of efforts to control the victim’s financial situation and force dependence. Using the partner’s identity, credit cards, checks, or money without permission is economic abuse that may rise to the level of criminal behavior.

16 Forms of Abuse Identity Abuse
Is the threat of “outing” and exposure to homophobia. Outing is the act of exposing someone as a homosexual. Telling family, boss, or neighbors about a victim’s identity may jeopardize personal relationships and the person’s job. Threatening to “out” someone can cause anxiety and increase the person’s isolation. Messinger, A. M. (2011). Invisible victims: Same-sex IPV in the National Violence Against Women Survey. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26 (11), 2228–2243.

17 Theoretical Explanations
Feminist Approach Often used to describe the context of battering within LGBT relationships as well as heterosexual relationships. Two-pronged analysis of the abuse: Abuse is influenced by numerous sources of oppression that exist within the lives of gay and bisexual survivors. Oppression from society may cause stress in a relationship and lowered self-esteem. Hassouneh, D., & Gloss, N. (2008). The influence of gender role stereotyping on women’s experiences of female same-sex intimate partner violence. Violence Against Women, 14 (3), 15.

18 Theoretical Explanations
Psychological Model Suggests that the feminist approach is inadequate to fully explain same-sex partner abuse, since both men and women can be perpetrators. The sociopolitical context of homophobia and internalized homophobia create the environment that supports relationship abuse. Personal characteristics may also influence the choice to use abuse in relationships.

19 Theoretical Explanations
Psychological Model The primary focus is on the institution of family. Investigates stressors specifically related to the families, and how these stressors result in violence between partners. Such stressors could include socioeconomic status, race, sexuality, income, education, beliefs regarding traditional gender roles, and religion.

20 Theoretical Explanations
Internalized Homophobia Internalized stress due to homophobia Consists of condemnation, loathing, fear, societal disdain, and religious rejection of all things homosexual and of those who practice it. Sometimes called internalized homonegativity. Internalization of negative societal and environmental attitudes against the LGBT population.

21 Criminal Justice Interventions
Interventions vary based on the severity of the incident and whether or not the act is a crime. Emotional or psychological abuses may not be criminal, even though they may be considered abusive and cause mental anguish, loss of self-esteem, or loss of self-respect.

22 Criminal Justice Interventions
The criminal justice system is reactive rather than proactive. It reacts through police action and by court intervention when an act rises to the level of violating criminal law. For an act to be legally considered domestic violence, the individuals must fall within the state’s definition of a domestic relationship.

23 Factors in Reporting to the Police
Violence perpetrated by a same-sex partner can be confusing to law enforcement officers. Stereotypical responses by police can be devastating to the victims. Traditionally, police officers have looked at gender and physical size when determining who is at fault in a domestic dispute.

24 Factors in Reporting to the Police
A clearer picture of who is in need of protection must be made in same-sex violence. The primary aggressor is the person in a domestic dispute who is the most significant or principal aggressor.

25 Legal Issues Same-sex victims receive fewer legal protections.
Gay and lesbian victims may not have civil nor criminal protections from abuse unless the definition of “domestic” is recognized and attained. Support services are often unavailable to LGBT survivors. Very few shelters and hotlines exist for LGBT individuals.

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