2Chapter ObjectivesGive examples of violence occurring in LGBT relationships specific to the population.Discuss why an understanding of intimate partner violence in the LGBT community is vital.Discuss theoretical explanations for abuse in the LGBT community.Explain the problems for the LGBT community in accessing criminal justice interventions.Describe how the Full Faith and Credit requirement impacts violence in same-gendered relationships.
3IntroductionLesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) communityIs made up of individuals from every ethnic and racial background residing in the U.S.Populations are particularly vulnerable to marginalization and devaluation in our societyUnwillingness to acknowledge intimate partner violence comes from within the community as well as from outsiders
4DefinitionsLGBTAn acronym for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (or trans) individuals; sometimes written as GLBT.A demographic category, similar to race/ethnicity, sex, disability, and so on.Used for large numbers of people who have major characteristics in common, although they are certainly not “the same.”
5DefinitionsLesbian — A person who identifies as a woman and whose sexual orientation is primarily to other women.Gay — Refers to a person who identifies as a man and whose sexual orientation is primarily to other men.Gay and homosexual — Terms that are often used interchangeably to refer to either gay males or lesbian females.
6DefinitionsTransgender — A term used to describe a group of individuals whose gender identity, and how it is expressed, is different from the sex assigned at birth.Queer — A controversial term that some LGBT people have reclaimed.The term is broadly inclusive and can refer either to gender identity, sexual orientation, or both.sometimes used as an umbrella term to describe LGBT communities.
7Lesbian Intimate Partner Violence Lesbian Intimate Partner Violence (LPV)Consists of a pattern of violent or coercive behaviors that are committed by a lesbian against her lesbian partner for the purpose of controlling the partner’s thoughts, beliefs, or conduct.May be physical, sexual, emotional, economic, or identity abuse, which is used to maintain or punish the partner for resisting the perpetrator’s control.
8Gay Male Intimate Partner Violence Any unwanted physical force, psychological abuse, or material or property damage inflicted by one man on anotherThe abuse consists of a pattern of violent behaviors for the purpose of controlling the partner’s thoughts, beliefs, or conduct
9Prevalence of AbuseMost of the reports on intimate partner violence come from small sample groups or convenience samples from the LGBT community.As a result, the prevalence figures must be viewed with caution.We do not know exactly how much LGBT intimate partner violence exists, in part because of the hidden nature of LGBT relationships.
10Gay Male SurvivorsIntimate partner abuse is a leading health problem facing gay men.Gay and bisexual men:Must overcome social barriers that prevent others from seeing their abuse as legitimate.Tend not to report intimate partner abuse.Are likely to deny or minimize the abuse that is perpetrated against them.
11Lesbian SurvivorsIntimate partner violence is epidemic in the lesbian community and remains largely hidden.The lesbian community clings to a utopian existence that fails to acknowledge that IPV is occurring.This reluctance to discuss IPV is harmful to its victims, leaving them isolated and rejected.
12Forms of Abuse Physical Abuse Physical violence that invokes fear of the abuser and causes the victim to modify his or her behavior in response to the assault or potential assault is physical abuse.Hitting, beating, pushing, slapping, kicking, pulling hair, biting, punching, burning, and arm twisting are examples of abusive physical assaults that may also rise to the level of criminal behavior.Dunn, P. (2012). Men as victims: “Victim” identities, gay identities, and masculinities. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27 (17), 3442–3467.
13Forms of Abuse Sexual Abuse Sexual partner abuse includes any forced behavior intended to demean or humiliate the partner and instigate feelings of shame or vulnerability.Demeaning remarks about the partner’s appearance or background, berating the partner, and withholding sex as a punishment are abusive in nature.Some forms of sexual abuse constitute criminal behavior.Dunn, P. (2012). Men as victims: “Victim” identities, gay identities, and masculinities. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27 (17), 3442–3467.
14Forms of Abuse Emotional/Psychological Abuse Making repeated hurtful exchanges with disregard for the partner’s feelings, which are meant to control the victim, is an abuse of the relationship.Intimacy is not an invitation for exploitation.Social isolation and manipulation are forms of emotional abuse often used as tactics to set up the relationship for further controlling behaviors.
15Forms of Abuse Economic Abuse Is the use or misuse of financial or other monetary resources of the partnership.Controlling a person’s employment by trying to get him/her fired, making excessive calls to work, or creating scenes are examples of efforts to control the victim’s financial situation and force dependence.Using the partner’s identity, credit cards, checks, or money without permission is economic abuse that may rise to the level of criminal behavior.
16Forms of Abuse Identity Abuse Is the threat of “outing” and exposure to homophobia.Outing is the act of exposing someone as a homosexual.Telling family, boss, or neighbors about a victim’s identity may jeopardize personal relationships and the person’s job.Threatening to “out” someone can cause anxiety and increase the person’s isolation.Messinger, A. M. (2011). Invisible victims: Same-sex IPV in the National Violence Against Women Survey. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26 (11), 2228–2243.
17Theoretical Explanations Feminist ApproachOften used to describe the context of battering within LGBT relationships as well as heterosexual relationships.Two-pronged analysis of the abuse:Abuse is influenced by numerous sources of oppression that exist within the lives of gay and bisexual survivors.Oppression from society may cause stress in a relationship and lowered self-esteem.Hassouneh, D., & Gloss, N. (2008). The influence of gender role stereotyping on women’s experiences of female same-sex intimate partner violence. Violence Against Women, 14 (3), 15.
18Theoretical Explanations Psychological ModelSuggests that the feminist approach is inadequate to fully explain same-sex partner abuse, since both men and women can be perpetrators.The sociopolitical context of homophobia and internalized homophobia create the environment that supports relationship abuse.Personal characteristics may also influence the choice to use abuse in relationships.
19Theoretical Explanations Psychological ModelThe primary focus is on the institution of family.Investigates stressors specifically related to the families, and how these stressors result in violence between partners.Such stressors could include socioeconomic status, race, sexuality, income, education, beliefs regarding traditional gender roles, and religion.
20Theoretical Explanations Internalized HomophobiaInternalized stress due to homophobiaConsists of condemnation, loathing, fear, societal disdain, and religious rejection of all things homosexual and of those who practice it.Sometimes called internalized homonegativity.Internalization of negative societal and environmental attitudes against the LGBT population.
21Criminal Justice Interventions Interventions vary based on the severity of the incident and whether or not the act is a crime.Emotional or psychological abuses may not be criminal, even though they may be considered abusive and cause mental anguish, loss of self-esteem, or loss of self-respect.
22Criminal Justice Interventions The criminal justice system is reactive rather than proactive.It reacts through police action and by court intervention when an act rises to the level of violating criminal law.For an act to be legally considered domestic violence, the individuals must fall within the state’s definition of a domestic relationship.
23Factors in Reporting to the Police Violence perpetrated by a same-sex partner can be confusing to law enforcement officers.Stereotypical responses by police can be devastating to the victims.Traditionally, police officers have looked at gender and physical size when determining who is at fault in a domestic dispute.
24Factors in Reporting to the Police A clearer picture of who is in need of protection must be made in same-sex violence.The primary aggressor is the person in a domestic dispute who is the most significant or principal aggressor.
25Legal Issues Same-sex victims receive fewer legal protections. Gay and lesbian victims may not have civil nor criminal protections from abuse unless the definition of “domestic” is recognized and attained.Support services are often unavailable to LGBT survivors.Very few shelters and hotlines exist for LGBT individuals.