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Developmental Psychology Chapter 4 From Birth to Death Life Span Development.

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1 Developmental Psychology Chapter 4 From Birth to Death Life Span Development

2 IX. Developmental Psychology (7–9%)  Life-Span Approach  Research Methods (e.g., longitudinal, cross- sectional)  Heredity-Environment Issues- Nature vs. Nurture  Developmental Theories- Piaget, Freud, Erikson,  Dimensions of Development: Physical Physical Cognitive- Piaget Cognitive- Piaget Social Social Moral-Kohlberg, Gilligan Moral-Kohlberg, Gilligan  Sex Roles, Sex Differences

3 Postpartum Depression  /common/standard/transform.jsp?requestU RI=/healthatoz/Atoz/dc/caz/ment/depr/post part.jsp /common/standard/transform.jsp?requestU RI=/healthatoz/Atoz/dc/caz/ment/depr/post part.jsp /common/standard/transform.jsp?requestU RI=/healthatoz/Atoz/dc/caz/ment/depr/post part.jsp

4 Erik Erikson  Personality theorist  Student of Freud  Built on Freud, found that  Early childhood important for development of personality (Life Span approach)  Supported structure of the ID, Ego and Superego- unconscious drives  Believed that the main them in life was quest for identity

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6 Erikson and Identity Formation  Identity is the major core of personality  Identity is: a stable image of the relation between the self and the social world.  Major psychological events (Dilemmas) occur in typical life and can be anticipated. “We all face predictable psychological conflicts as we develop.”  Identity Formation is a life long process Has 8 stages Has 8 stages One built on the other One built on the other

7 Erikson 8 Stages  Each stage has a main a developmental task and some developmental milestones that must be accomplished to progress.  Crisis and conflicts are inherent in each stage  Each stage has demands and possibilities

8 Erikson Stages  Stage One: first year Trust vs. Mistrust (secure and insecure attachments)  Stage Two: 1-3 years Autonomy vs. shame + doubt  Stage three: 3-5 years Initiative vs. guilt  Stage four: years Industry vs. Inferiority or Adequacy vs. Inadequacy  Stage five: Adolescence: Identity vs. Role Confusion  Stage six: Young Adulthood: Intimacy vs. Isolation  Stage seven: Middle Adulthood: Generative vs. Stagnation  Stage 8: Late Adulthood: Intimacy vs. Despair

9 Adolescence Identity vs. Role Confusion  Turbulent period, culturally defined  Between childhood and Adulthood  Physical Development- Puberty Puberty Sexual Maturation Sexual Maturation  Developmentally- adolescents are questioning: AttitudesAttitudes “Who am I”“Who am I” Sometimes there is role confusionSometimes there is role confusion Conflicting roles: student, friend, athlete, worker, son…Conflicting roles: student, friend, athlete, worker, son…

10 Adolescent- high emotion “Romeo and Juliet syndrome”  Rousseau suggests three features: Instability and emotional conflict-caused by biological maturity Instability and emotional conflict-caused by biological maturity “He becomes deaf to the voice he used to obey…he is a lion in a fervor, “He becomes deaf to the voice he used to obey…he is a lion in a fervor, He distrusts his keeper and refuses to be controlled.” He distrusts his keeper and refuses to be controlled.”

11 Diversity of Identity: Adolescents have multiple identities.  Ethnic Identity

12 Puberty-Biological Event  Girls years old, begin  Boys years  Hormonal changes Cause rapid physical and sexual maturity Cause rapid physical and sexual maturity  Immature- social experience, intellectual and knowledge  Identity Formation- puberty- “Time to begin a new self image”

13 Adolescence transition  Adulthood transition- Responsibility for oneself Responsibility for oneself Independent decisions Independent decisions Financial independence Financial independence

14 Early and Late Maturation  Bodily awareness concerns  Timing of puberty  may cause dissatisfaction over body  Early maturation for boys is seen positive in society (seen as athletic, self assured…)  Girls seen as less prestige Poor self image.. (not in middle school) Poor self image.. (not in middle school)

15 Problems of Childhood  Normal Problems Overprotection Overprotection Sibling Rivalry Sibling Rivalry Childhood Rebellion Childhood Rebellion Divorce Divorce  Serious Problems Autism Autism Toilet Training disturbances Toilet Training disturbances Feeding Disturbances Feeding Disturbances OvereatingOvereating Anorexia NervousaAnorexia Nervousa PicaPica Speech Disturbances Delayed speech Telegraphic speech Stuttering Learning Disorders Dyslexia ADHD Conduct Disorders

16 Autism  Behaviors:  Temper tantrums-  Parroting back = Echolalia  Repetitive Actions- rocking, flapping arms  Sensory blocking- non responses  Sensory spinout- watching faucet drip

17 Causes of Autism  Congenital defects in brain  Symptoms occur before year 1 old  Brains are larger than normal  25% approach normalcy  Treatment helps- behavior modification  Ivar Lovaas is a pioneer in the field Shaped behavior through rewards and punishment Shaped behavior through rewards and punishment

18 Child Abuse: Defined- physical or emotional harm caused by violence mistreatment or neglect  Widespread % abused by parents- 2million children physically abused in US/year Parents have high level of stress- causes more abuse

19 Early Maturing Girls  May force premature identity formation  Treated as an adult too early  Creates distorted sense of self Date sooner Date sooner More independent More independent More active in school More active in school In trouble at school In trouble at school Early sex experiences Early sex experiences

20 Parents and Teens David Elkind (researcher)  Hurried Adulthood- parents push kids too much Causes too much stress Causes too much stress  Parents affect Identity Formation: sometimes creates- conflict Dating, sex, substance abuse, freedom Dating, sex, substance abuse, freedom  Parents should be authoritative- don’t give in or give up

21 Adolescent Perceptions Elkind  Imaginary Audiences: teens are preoccupied by imagining audiences- Concerned that they are being watched Concerned that they are being watched Affects behavior Affects behavior Kids try to control outside impressions Kids try to control outside impressions

22 Autism: “Rain Man”  Children in own thoughts  Fantasies  Private impulses  Extreme isolation  Affects 1 in 2500  4 times more boys than girls  No interest in other people  Not affectionate

23 Adolescents and Peer Group  Peer group- People who share similar People who share similar Status Status Security-identity Security-identity Social Network Social Network  During adolescence there is increased identification with peer group  Conformity peeks-  Group pressure can shut down personal growth

24 Foreclosure:  Close identification with a peer group and or conformity can Shut Down personal Growth = Foreclosure

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26 Is it ok to loot during a riot?

27 Kohlberg  Link to good web site Link to good web site Link to good web site   Kohlberg, who was born in 1927, grew up in Bronxville, New York, and attended the Andover Academy in Massachusetts, a private high school for bright and usually wealthy students. He did not go immediately to college, but instead went to help the Israeli cause, in which he was made the Second Engineer on an old freighter carrying refugees from parts of Europe to Israel.   After this, in 1948, he enrolled at the University of Chicago, where he scored so high on admission tests that he had to take only a few courses to earn his bachelor's degree. This he did in one year. He stayed on at Chicago for graduate work in psychology, at first thinking he would become a clinical psychologist.   However, he soon became interested in Piaget and began interviewing children and adolescents on moral issues. The result was his doctoral dissertation (1958a), the first rendition of his new stage theory.

28 Kohlberg Moral Development  Questions of conscience solidifies during adolescence  Kohlberg- said- we learn moral values through thinking and reasoning  He posed dilemmas to study kids  Found- 3 levels of moral development based on reasoning

29 3 levels of Kohlberg  Pre-Conventional- Moral thinking  result of consequences Punishments and rewards Punishments and rewards Exchange of favors Exchange of favors  Conventional Level- moral thinking -  based on desire to please others Or to follow accepted rules and values Or to follow accepted rules and values  Post-Conventional level- moral thinking  based on self accepted thinking (mature)

30 Kohlberg-6 Stages  People advance through stages differently many don’t reach the end.  Stage 1-2 (Pre-conventional) young children and delinquents  Stage 3-4 (Conventional) group oriented morals Older children and most adults Older children and most adults  Stage 5-6 (Post Conventional) Self directed morals- higher principles 20% of Adult population 20% of Adult population Higher principles Higher principles

31 Gilligan Moral Development  CAROL GILLIGAN Link 1936-Current Link  She is currently a Professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education and a principle investigator on numerous studies of girls' and women's development.  In 1970, Gilligan was a research assistant for Lawrence Kohlberg. In outrage and despair of the lack of attention given to women and girls in psychological research, she began to study and research women's development.  During the past 20 years, Gilligan has contributed to research on adolescence, moral reasoning, and conflict resolution. She is best known for her book called In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development.

32 Gilligan and Moral Development  Justice or caring  Found that caring about others or concern for others = moral development  Boys look for justice  Girls look for solution for all parties

33 Outline Both Gould and Levinson and compare to Erikson  Gould  Levinson

34 Roger Gould Development Patterns  “I started my academic psychiatric career as the head of the U.C.L.A. outpatient and community psychiatry department.  That’s where my lifelong focus on normal adult development began. I have written papers and textbook chapters as well as a book for the general public (Transformations, Growth and Change in Adult Life) based on research that I and my colleagues did on the predictable sequence of changing patterns and preoccupations during the adult years.”

35 Gould’s Adult Development Patterns  Age Escape from dominance Escape from parents Escape from parents  Age Leaving the family Finding substitutes for family- closer relationships Finding substitutes for family- closer relationships  Age Building a workable life Seeking competence Seeking competence Reaching out to others Reaching out to others Togetherness Togetherness  Ages Crisis of questions Minor life crisis Minor life crisis Serious questioning of what life is all about Serious questioning of what life is all about Is this it? Is this it? Confidence waivers Confidence waivers Extra marital affairs + divorce occur commonly Extra marital affairs + divorce occur commonly

36 Gould Continued  Age Crisis of Urgency Realization of reality of death Realization of reality of death Only limited years Only limited years More desire for success – goals/career More desire for success – goals/career Generativity- (the desire to leave a legacy) Generativity- (the desire to leave a legacy) Nurturing, teaching, serving others- helps alleviateNurturing, teaching, serving others- helps alleviate  Age Attaining Stability Calm acceptance of Fate Calm acceptance of Fate “The die is cast.” “The die is cast.” Appreciation of family Appreciation of family  Age 50 and up Mellowing Savor life Savor life Les concern for glamour, wealth, accomplishment, abstract growth Les concern for glamour, wealth, accomplishment, abstract growth

37 Levinson: Midlife Crisis  5 periods of transition  People in these periods express concerns about identity, work and relationships  Begins ages  Instability, anxiety, change  Last chance to achieve goals

38 Midlife Basics  Menopause  Hormone depletion Estrogen drops Estrogen drops Causes fatigue, hot flashes, anxiety, irritability, depression Causes fatigue, hot flashes, anxiety, irritability, depression  Andropause- reduction of testosterone  “Empty nest”

39 6 elements of Well-being during Adulthood  Self Acceptance  Positive Relations with others  Autonomy (personal freedom)  Environmental mastery  A purpose in life  Continued personal growth

40 Kubler-Ross Death and Dying  Web site: Web site: Web site:  Dr Elisabeth Kübler-Ross pioneered methods in the support and counseling of personal trauma, grief and grieving, associated with death and dying.  She also dramatically improved the understanding and practices in relation to bereavement and hospice care.  Her ideas, notably the five stages of grief model (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance), are also transferable to personal change and emotional upset resulting from factors other than death and dying. five stages of grief modelfive stages of grief model

41 Bereavement and Grieving


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