2ADOLESCENCE Puberty Physical changes Testosterone in males & estrogen & progesterone in females are responsible for changes that affect teens during puberty.Physical changesPrimary sex characteristicsGametes; male gametes = sperm, female gametes = ova (eggs)Production of sperm puberty.All eggs are birth, but don’t mature until puberty.Secondary sex characteristicsFemales; breasts develop, waistline narrows, hips widen, body fat increases.Males; facial hair, voice deepens, shoulders broaden, muscles develop.Both; body hair appears, permanent teeth grow in, perspiration increases.
3MENTAL CHANGES By the age of 6, brain is 95% of adult size. Cerebrum (thinking part of brain) continues to develop in adolescence.Continual develop increases memory & cognition.How does increases in memory & cognition help you in other ways during adolescence and into adulthood?Problem solving in more complex waysAnticipate consequences of particular actionsThink logicallyUnderstand different points of views.THE TEENAGE BRAIN
4EMOTIONAL CHANGES Social changes Adolescence associated w/ bursts of energy and waves of strong emotions.Why do you think the emotional changes during adolescence are difficult to control?Making friends & being accepted becomes important.Meeting new people in high school can lead to change in friends.How can meeting new friends and associated with different groups help your personal growth?Social changes
5DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS Establish emotional & psychological independence. Develop a personal sense of identity.Adopt a personal value system.Establish adult vocational goals.Develop control over your behavior.
6REFLECT & DISCUSSReflect on two moments on your life that you feel changed the way you think or act. “Ah ha moments”, epiphanies.What specific things about these moments changed your perceptions or actions?Now, think about the developmental tasks of adolescents.How did these moments help you reach your developmental tasks of adolescence?
7DO NOW What is adolescence? Describe and appraise the significance of two body changes that occur in males and two that occur in females during adolescence.What is cognition?
8STAGES OF ADULTHOOD YOUNG ADULTHOOD 19 – 40 years LATE ADULTHOOD 65 years - deathMIDDLE ADULTHOOD40 – 65 years
9YOUNG ADULTHOOD Developmental Tasks of young adults To develop personal independenceCan begin when an individual leaves home or works full-timeTransition moves from emotional support from family, to support from friends to becoming self sufficientMaking occupational choicesGoing to college and choosing a major area of studyEnlisting in the militaryEstablishing intimate relationshipsNeed for emotional intimacy; the ability to experience a caring, loving relationship w/ another person w/ whom you can share your innermost feelings.What are some developmental tasks a person should achieve before entering into an emotionally intimate relationship? Why?Contributing to societyHow do I fit into society?What are my political views and religious beliefs?What are some ways that individuals during young adulthood exercise their ability to contribute to society?
10MIDDLE ADULTHOOD Developmental tasks of middle adulthood Contributing to societyHelping guide future generationsDevelop a sense of unity w/ a mateReverse roles w/ aging parentsHelping growing & grown children to be responsible adultsGenerativity vs. StagnationBreak down the word generativity into two words…genera. & tivity. What other words have the letters “genera” in the word and what other words use the letters “tivity” as the suffix?What do you think these two words mean?
11GENERATIVITY vs. STAGNATION Generativity- a sense of productivity and accomplishment.Stagnation- A feeling that arises when a person is self-centered and unable or unwilling to help society, a dissatisfaction with the relative lack of productivity.
12LATE ADULTHOOD Developmental tasks of late adulthood Retrospective Looking back on one’s life & accomplishmentsIndividuals will either gain a sense of contentment & integrity if they feel a sense of accomplishment, or a sense of despair if they see a life of disappointments and unachieved goals.
13Most empirical research into Erikson has stemmed around his views on adolescence and attempts to establish identity. His theoretical approachwas studied and supported, particularly regarding adolescence, by JamesE. Marcia. Marcia's work has distinguished different forms of identity,and there is some empirical evidence that those people who form themost coherent self-concept in adolescence are those who are most able tomake intimate attachments in early adulthood. This supports Eriksoniantheory, in that it suggests that those best equipped to resolve the crisis ofearly adulthood are those who have most successfully resolved the crisisof adolescence.On the other hand, Erikson's theory may be questioned as to whetherhis stages must be regarded as sequential, and only occurring within the ageranges he suggests. There is debate as to whether people only search for identityduring the adolescent years or if one stage needs to happen before other stagescan be completed.Do you feel that every individual reaches each development task in the specific age range & in sequential order, or do you believe that individuals can reach certain tasks during different ages & in non-specific order?
14Do now When do most people reach physical maturity? What is the difference between emotional maturity and emotional intimacy?What are the four developmental tasks of adulthood?
16Choosing marriageWhat are the differences between a serious dating relationship and marriage?Relationship becomes more thoughtful.Make deeper commitments to each other.Consider long term consequences when making decisions.Commit to spend lives together & care for each other throughout lives.MARRIAGE STATS
17Successful marriages Good communication Emotional maturity Share feelings & express needs & concerns.Emotional maturityTry to understand partners’ needs & are willing to compromise.Don’t always think of themselves first. “What is best for the relationship?”Similar values & interestsShare attitudes about importance of good health, religious beliefs, cultural heritage, family & friendships.Do opposites attract?
18CONFLICTS IN MARRIAGE Differences in spending & saving habits. Conflicting loyalties involving family & friends.Lack of communication.Lack of intimacy.Jealously, infidelity, or lack of attention.Decisions about having children & arranging child care.Abusive tendencies or attitudes.
19RESPONSIBILITIES OF PARENTHOOD Providing guidanceIndividual responsibilityEncouraging children and helping develop a sense of pride.Instilling valuesPassing down strong commitment to value system & spirituality.Setting limitsClearly defined set of rules. Allows children to learn limits & become self-directed.How do you feel setting limits leads to becoming self-directed?Giving unconditional loveShowing love at all times, whether child is well-behaved, happy, sad, sick or afraid.
20DO NOWWhat commitment do two people make to each other when they marry?What are two communication skills that help determine a successful marital adjustment?Describe how parents, grandparents and others contribute to a healthy family.
21TRANSITIONS THROUGH MIDDLE ADULTHOOD PhysicalSkin loses elasticityFunctioning of body’s organs slowsBody’s immune system becomes less effectiveFemales experience menopause around 45-55Stopping of ovulation and menstruation (can no longer become pregnant).Hormonal changes during menopause associated w/ hot flashes.MentalMental activities such as solving puzzles, reading and playing board games provide mental stimulation.What are some changes that have occurred in our society that have caused older individuals to learn new things?
22Transitions cont. Emotional Social Similar to the “growing pains” of adolescence.Midlife crisis derives from…Questions and concerns about whether they have met their goalsFeel loved and valuedHave made positive difference in the lives of others.SocialDeath of a parent or need to adjust to children’s growing up and leaving home (empty nest syndrome).Many individuals pursue new interests and make new friends.
23DO NOW What transitions do people in middle adulthood face? What causes empty-nest syndrome?What is integrity?