Presentation on theme: "Human Motivation Chapter 4 Passion, Love, and Sexual Behavior."— Presentation transcript:
Human Motivation Chapter 4 Passion, Love, and Sexual Behavior
Human Sexual Arousal (Passion) The Biological Component: zHuman sexual behavior occurs in two major stages: yNontactile stage: becoming interested in person through visual, auditory, olfactory, or even cognitive cues. yTactile stage: involves tactile stimulation. zHuman sexual behavior is a sensory event ySex is rewarding because it provides a pleasurable sensory experience. zSexual response is organized much in the same way for both males/females. Four stages: y(1) the excitement phase, (2) the plateau phase, (3) the orgasmic phase, and (4) the resolution phase. o
Human Sexual Arousal (Passion) The Learned Component: zVisual stimulus may elicit sexual arousal. yPictures showing two persons engaged in sexual acts elicits more arousal than simple pictures of nudity. zVerbal descriptions of sexual behavior are sufficient to elicit sexual arousal in most volunteer subjects. zSexual Scripts: mental schemata of how an interpersonal sexual episode should be enacted. yFemale scripts tend to focus on falling in love, whereas male scripts tend to focus mainly on sexual activity. yEventually, the females begins to adjust her script to include sexual arousal, which lays groundwork for eventual orgasm. zSexual pleasure is interaction of biological (sensory) and learned factors. zReward value of sex depends on participating in a satisfying sexual script. yMales/females tend to react differently to same sexual behaviors.
Human Sexual Arousal (Passion) The Cognitive Component: zSexual scripts are influenced by the beliefs and attitudes they hold. yThey come from the society at large, from peer groups, and from internalized values/ideals. zMales and females tend to believe that the sex drive is stronger in males than females. zFemales tend to connect sex with feelings of affection and closeness. zMales tend to perceive sex as an achievement, an adventure, a demonstration of control and power, or a purely physical release. yAlthough, most men prefer that love and sex go together and value love far ahead of sex in overall importance in their lives. (These are statistical differences and do not reflect individual differences.)
Attraction, Passion, Love, and Reproduction The Biological Component: zEvolutionary perspective: purpose of sexual behavior is to produce offspring so that genes may survive future generations. yPleasure motivates us to engage in sexual behavior on a repeated basis. zPurpose of love- repeatedly engage in sex with mate and form long-term relationship. yLove produces euphoric state (linked to dopamine/norepinephrine) yLove linked to phenylethylanine (PEA)- levels begin to fall after two to three years. xDivorce rate peaks around the fourth year of marriage. yEndorphins mediate the attachment stage following the initial attraction. xProduce feelings of well-being, maintain the immune system. yOxytocin stimulates nerves/muscles- promotes cuddling and enhances orgasm. xProduces feelings of relaxed satisfaction and attachment.
Attraction, Passion, Love, and Reproduction Long-term female mating strategies: zWomen need a mate who (1) has resources to invest in raising the offspring, (2) will invest those resources, (3) has the capacity to physically protect both her/offspring, (4) has good parenting skills, (5) is compatible, and (6) is healthy. Long-term male mating strategies: zSociobiology theories suggest best strategies for males is to mate with as many females as possible. yThe problem with this is that females look for commitment, which limits the mating pool for men. yMen willing to commit are able to access a greater pool of women and have better chances of producing offspring that will survive. zMales prefer young, attractive women: tend to be healthier and have longer period of fertility.
Attraction, Passion, Love, and Reproduction The Learned Component: Wide range of factors play a role in sexual motivation and sexual attraction: zChance meeting, thoughts about the other person, dating frequency zArousal increases attraction to an attractive opposite-sex target and decreases attraction to an unattractive opposite-sex target. zIntimacy: feelings of closeness, connectedness, and being bonded. yLong-term commitment is defining characteristic. yEstablished through self-disclosure. yIs learned. zPositive self-schema: positive view of our ability to become attached and others are available/supportive.
Attraction, Passion, Love, and Reproduction The Cognitive Component: zStaying in love depends on making the decision that you love someone and are willing to invest the time and energy necessary to stay in the relationship. zCommitment involves: ySatisfying the needs of two distinct individuals. yAccepting that there are going to be differences or problems to be resolved to mutual satisfaction of both parties. yWillingness to invest time and energy. Passion: physical/emotional aspects of love Intimacy: feelings of closeness, connectedness Commitment: time/effort invested to make relationship work
Attraction, Passion, Love, and Reproduction Sternberg’s Interaction Model of Love: zPassion = infatuated love (attractions) yCharacterized by bodily sensations, warm sensuous feeling. zIntimacy = liking (friendships) yCharacterized by feeling close and connected zCommitment = sterile love yCharacterized by no physical attraction/emotional involvement zPassion + intimacy = romantic love yEnjoyment of being together, closeness, with no feeling of it lasting. zPassion + commitment = fatuous love yNo intimacy, therefore, true commitment never develops. zIntimacy + commitment = companionate love yLong-term committed friendship. zIntimacy + passion + commitment = consummate love yHard to attain and harder still to keep.
Biological Differences Between Men and Women Sex Hormones zMales and females have same sex hormones, but in different amounts yMale sexual behavior governed by: xAndrogens (testosterone) yFemale sexual behavior governed by: xEstrogen (estradiol) xProgestins (progesterone) zSex hormones are produced by the adrenal glands and the gonads (testes- male, ovaries- female) zAmount of sex hormone present at any time is governed by the pituitary gland, which is ultimately controlled by the hypothalamus.
Men and Women zMen and women do not differ in terms of intellectual function, but they do seem to differ in certain specific ways ySome of these differences can be linked to hormone levels xExample: Men tend to be superior on visual-spatial tasks. Women with high testosterone perform better on spatial task. zSex hormones cause differences in behavior yStrong evidence comes from research on play. xExample: Females who have had prenatal exposure to high androgen levels show a tomboy pattern- rough, active outdoor play, high interest in practical clothing, boy toys and playmates. zStructural differences in the brain are due, at least in part, to the effects of sex hormones. These differences are small. yCritical period of development occurs either shortly before/after birth.
Sexual Orientation The Biological Component: zEvolutionary considerations: Premise 1: Sexual desire and romantic love are functionally independent Premise 2: Romantic love is not intrinsically oriented to same-gender or other-gender partners. Premise 3: The links between love and desire are bidirectional. zHeritability estimates account for only about 50% of same-sex orientation. (Twin studies) ySeem through twin studies. yOther hormonal effects on human sexuality are difficulty to assess because studies are dependent on “experiment of nature” to determine effects.
Sexual Orientation The Learned Component: zIt is no longer self-evident that homosexuality is acquired or is the result of choice. zLearning plays an important role, but there is no clear explanation of how. The Kinsey Institute Study 1.Sexual orientation is determined before adolescence. 2.Homosexual behavior emerges from homosexual feelings. 3.History of heterosexual experiences are found unsatisfying. 4.Identification with either parent played no significant role. 5.No evidence of any particular type of mother that produces homosexual children.
Sexual Orientation The Cognitive Component: zThere is little or no evidence that homosexuality is actively chosen, except in unusual circumstances (prison) zExtensive evidence suggests cognitive factors play important role in how homosexuals come to think about/express themselves. Case’s Six Stages of Homosexuality Stage 1: Identity confusion. Stage 4: Identity acceptance. Stage 2: Identity comparisons. Stage 5: Identity pride. Stage 3: Identity tolerance. Stage 6: Identity synthesis.