Presentation on theme: "Transition to Adulthood"— Presentation transcript:
1 Transition to Adulthood BECOMING AN ADULTTransition to Adulthood
2 The Transition to Adulthood Becoming an adult is a processThis process begins in childhood and continues until you are an adult:in your own eyesin the eyes of your parentsby the lawby the society you live in
3 The Transition to Adulthood An individual’s development is a gradual processIt is marked by distinct and significant milestonesEx. Puberty, graduation, getting your driver’s licence, marriage and adulthoodRites of Passage: rituals that celebrate an individual’s passage from one stage of life to the nextStages of life are not the same in all societies
4 4 Stages of the Hindu Life Cycle Brahmacharyayouthbegins at about age 10 and lasts for about 10 yearsbefore this stage, a Hindu child is not considered to be fully formed yetprimary expectations of the individual is to remain celibate and become educated, particularly in religious matters
5 4 Stages of the Hindu Life Cycle Grihasthamarked by marriageHindu men and women are expected to raise and care for their family and do what is economically necessary to ensure their children prosper
6 4 Stages of the Hindu Life Cycle Vanaprasthameans serviceonce the children have reached the 2nd Stage, Hindu parents enter this 3rd Stageindividuals are expected to focus more on religious beliefs and rituals and begin to separate themselves from their familiesgradually give away their material wealth and possessions to prepare for the next stage
7 4 Stages of the Hindu Life Cycle Sannyasaretirementsome Hindus may live as religious sadhus (holy men) and sadhvi (holy women) depending on the charity of others in the communitylive without any personal attachment to family or friendsThis cycle repeats for their children generation after generation
8 Enmeshed FamilyEveryone speaks for everyone else.Outside boundaries are very tight & difficult to penetrate by outsiders.Information is difficult to get in or outBut boundaries inside are loose.Loyalty to that systems What will leaving home be like?Fear of having an emotional cut off therefore emotional ties are tightenedGuilt of abandonmentStressful, feel torn between family & new relationshipsMay connect with someone else before becoming an autonomous personSpouse will never get in, may go home for visits alone, feel torn.
9 Disengaged FamilyLoose boundary outside but clear boundaries insideMyth of self sufficiency & courage persistsLittle expression of feeling or concern or mutual sharingAnyone can penetrate but at a distinct distance What will leaving home be like?Wonderful ability to deal instrumentally with a crisis without mutual sharingDifficult in forming relationships, to express intimacy, to express feelingsDon’t know how to make good solid connectionsCan leave home without concern as to what will happen to mom & dad
10 Differentiated Family Distance regulatingAbility to express feelingsLove’s 2 functional componentsAbility to stand alone (requires courage)Ability to reach out (requires enough self esteem to risk disappointment)Creative responses in new situations
11 The Pace of Development Progress from one stage of life to another has been described as the interaction of several clocks, each ticking away at its own paceThe age of majority reflects the chronological clock and defines adulthood in terms of the number of years since birthThe physical changes that result in sexual maturity and the attainment of full adult size and strength are determined by the biological clock
12 The Pace of Development The psychological clock reflects how the brain is developing as individuals acquire new mental processes and more mature ways of understanding the worldThe social clock sets the timetable for society’s expectations concerning when certain events should occur in the lives of individualsBecoming an adult is probably determined more by the social clock than by any other
13 The Pace of Development In Canada, progress from one stage to another has been described as the interaction of several clocks:Changes with social normsTimetable for society’s expectations for events to occurSocialClockSetNumber of years since birthChronological ClockChanges in nutrition & health improvesPhysical changesBiological ClockChanges, but difficult to detectedBrain development, mature
14 Erik Erikson1st psychologist to describe predictable stages of human development from childhood through adulthoodDeveloped 8 stages in which an individual’s identity emerges and maturesEach stage represents a conflict, in which the person is challenged by new situations and circumstances in life
15 Erik EriksonIndividuals are pushed through the stages by their biological clock and by the social clock of the society in which they liveIdentity development reflects the progress of the psychological clockBy resolving each conflict at each stage, the individual acquires the basic strength needed to meet the challenges of the next stage in lifeFailure to resolve the conflict results in difficulties the individual will face later in life
16 Erik Erikson’s 8 Psychosocial Stages of Development Stage 1 Ages: Infancy (birth – 18 months) Basic Conflict: Trust vs. Mistrust Important Event: Feeding Outcome: Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust.
17 Erik Erikson’s 8 Psychosocial Stages of Development Stage 2 Ages: Early childhood (18 months – 3 years) Basic Conflict: Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Important Event: Toilet Training Outcome: Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt.
18 Erik Erikson’s 8 Psychosocial Stages of Development Stage 3 Ages: Preschool (3 – 6 years) Basic Conflict: Initiative vs. Guilt Important Event: Exploration Outcome: Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.
19 Erik Erikson’s 8 Psychosocial Stages of Development Stage 4 Ages: School age (6 – 12 years) Basic Conflict: Industry vs. Inferiority Important Event: School Outcome: Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.
20 Erik Erikson’s 8 Psychosocial Stages of Development Stage 5 Ages: Adolescence (12 – 18 years) Basic Conflict: Identity vs. Role Confusion Important Event: Social Relationships Outcome: Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.
21 Erik Erikson’s 8 Psychosocial Stages of Development Stage 6 Ages: Young Adulthood (18 – 40 years) Basic Conflict: Intimacy vs. Isolation Important Event: Relationships Outcome: Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation.
22 Erik Erikson’s 8 Psychosocial Stages of Development Stage 7 Ages: Middle Adulthood (40 – 65 years) Basic Conflict: Generativity vs. Stagnation Important Event: Work and Parenthood Outcome: Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world.
23 Erik Erikson’s 8 Psychosocial Stages of Development Stage 8 Ages: Maturity (65 years – death) Basic Conflict: Ego Integrity vs. Despair Important Event: Reflection on Life Outcome: Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.
24 Jane Loevinger’s Theory of Ego Development Identified 10 stages in the formation ofthe egoEgo = a term introduced by Freud meaning the understanding of selfBegins in infancy with the understanding that you are an individual separate from your motherFull ego development = autonomous self
25 Loevinger’s Ego Development Autonomous Self = Being a self-reliant person who accepts oneself and others as multifaceted and uniqueUnderstanding of self is the centre of human developmentFew individuals ever achieve full ego development, however we all strive for itProgress from one stage to another is determined by psychological clock
26 Loevinger’s Ego Development Young adults between conformist stage & conscientious stageConformist stage – view life in stereotypical ways in an attempt to classify human experience so they can belongSelf-aware – understand & accept individual differences ; distinguish variation in feelings and opinions that make us uniqueConscientious stage – able to appreciate others as individuals in reciprocal relationships
27 The Family Life Cycle Framework Early adulthood is a stage in which individuals are launched from their families of originParents and children must separate from one another so that young adults can be self-sufficient for themselves prior to forming a new family
28 The Family Life Cycle Framework Young adults must master 3 tasks to become self-sufficient adultsIndividuation – forming an identity separate from that of their family originDevelop new intimate relationships with peers outside the family to provide the social and emotional support they needCommit to a career or workplace role
29 The Family Life Cycle Framework How do parents help their children become self-sufficient?Relationship between parent and child must become less hierarchical so the young adult can accept responsibility for their decisionsParents must accept differences in opinion and decisions the young adult makesParents must accept that the child is forming new intimate relationships with others which will become the new primary relationship
30 The Family Life Cycle Framework Limitation:Focuses on early adulthood in relation to marriage and parenthoodIn the mid-20th century, when the theory was developed, most Canadians married and had childrenAlthough this is not the trend today, research shows it is still the expectation for most Canadians
31 Daniel Levinson’s Theory of the Seasons of Life PsychologistProposed that the life course evolves through seasons lasting about 25 years eachThe era of early adulthood lasts 25 years, begins near the end of high school at 17 years old until middle age in the early 40’s
32 Daniel Levinson’s Theory of the Seasons of Life Early Adult Transition - 17 to 22 years oldan individual must leave behind adolescent life and begin to prepare an adult life structure (the plan or design of an individual’s life)separation from the family of origin, emotional not physical separationmodify or end relationships associated with an adolescent life to make way for new adult relationshipscomplete education and/or start workmake some preliminary plans for adult life
33 Daniel Levinson’s Theory of the Seasons of Life Entering The Adult World - 22 to 28 years oldtime for building one’s life structure4 Major Tasks of this periodForming a Dream and giving it a place in the life structureForming mentor relationshipsForming an occupationForming love relationships, marriage and family
34 Daniel Levinson’s Theory of the Seasons of Life Entering The Adult WorldDream: the individual’s sense of self in the adult world and is the core of the life structureNature of the Dream will vary, but most describe some combination of occupational, family and community rolesA Dream can be precise or mythical
35 Daniel Levinson’s Theory of the Seasons of Life Entering The Adult WorldChoices of occupation, love relationships and peer relationships may support the DreamMany individuals develop relationships with mentors who support their Dreams and facilitate their progress
36 Daniel Levinson’s Theory of the Seasons of Life Entering The Adult WorldYoung adults build and test a preliminary life structure that integrates work, love and community to attain their DreamsThe challenge is to balance the creative exploration of various options for their life structure with a desire to make a commitment to a life structure that supports their Dream
37 Daniel Levinson’s Theory of the Seasons of Life Entering The Adult WorldThe problem is that until individuals begin to live out the life structure, they do not know all of the possibilitiesYet without some commitment to the choices they have made, it is not possible to determine whether the life structure might be realistic or satisfying
38 Daniel Levinson’s Theory of the Seasons of Life Age 30 Transition - 28 to 33 years oldIndividuals re-evaluate the life structures that they formed in their early twenties to determine whether they are living out their dreamsInner voice: “If I am to change my life-if there are things in it that I want to modify or exclude, or things missing I want to add-I must now make a start, for soon it will be too late”
39 Daniel Levinson’s Theory of the Seasons of Life Age 30 TransitionAs individuals adjust their life structures, individuals might choose to marry or to get a divorce, to have children, or to change jobs at this timeTime to “get real,” after testing their early choices for a few years before settling down in their s