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STUDIEDAG WANNEER LIEFDE UITMONDT IN EEN GEVECHT… DETERMINANTEN, SCREENING & INTERDISCIPLINAIRE AANPAK Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid Zeger van Hee - Tiensestraat.

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Presentation on theme: "STUDIEDAG WANNEER LIEFDE UITMONDT IN EEN GEVECHT… DETERMINANTEN, SCREENING & INTERDISCIPLINAIRE AANPAK Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid Zeger van Hee - Tiensestraat."— Presentation transcript:

1 STUDIEDAG WANNEER LIEFDE UITMONDT IN EEN GEVECHT… DETERMINANTEN, SCREENING & INTERDISCIPLINAIRE AANPAK Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid Zeger van Hee - Tiensestraat Leuven Dinsdag 2 juni 2009

2 1/1 Descriptive meta-analysis based on 240 studies, representing  265,000 cases/persons Meta-Analysis: “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 2

3 1/1 Descriptive meta-analysis based on 247 studies, representing  265,000 cases/persons The State of the Art of Stalking And Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory Brian H. Spitzberg, Ph.D., School of Communication San Diego State University “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 3

4 1/1 Stalking Versus ORI:  Stalking : An unwanted and fear-inducing [intentional] pattern of intrusions or communication imposed on another (Mullen et al., 2000)  Obsessive Relational Intrusion : Unwanted pursuit of intimacy through repeated intrusions of privacy (Spitzberg & Cupach, 2001, 2002) INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS ORI STALKING IPV Stalking need not seek intimacy ORI need not cause fear or threat “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 4

5 1/1 META-ANALYSIS Clinical/ ForensicSD General Population SD College SamplesSD %SAMPLE STALKED*** %FEMALE VICTIMS** %MALE VICTIMS %THREAT USE** %PHYSICAL VIOLENCE ** %SEXUAL VIOLENCE DURATION (Mos.) %KNOWN TO VICTIM %MALE PERPETRATOR* Stalking Prevalence: “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 5

6 1/1 Cyber-Stalking Prevalence: “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 6 AllStalkingHarassment Any cyber-stalking or monitoring Cyber-stalking26.6%26.1%27.4% Electronic monitoring % of cyber-stalking involving: a 82.6%82.5%82.7% Instant messaging Blogs or bulletin boards Internet sites re: victim Chat rooms % of monitoring involving: b Computer spyware44.1%33.6%81.0% Video/digital cameras Listening devices GPS

7 1/1 Females are 78% of victims (n=82); Males are 76% of pursuers (n=72). Perhaps males are…?:  Pigs?  less fearful of stalking,  less likely to define stalking as stalking,  more embarrassed to report,  more pursuer, & females more ‘gatekeeper’ Sex Differences: (Bjerregaard, ’00; Cupach & Spitzberg, ‘00; Davis et al., 2002; Sinclair & Frieze, ’00; Tjaden & Thoennes, ’00; Tjaden et al., ’00) “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 7

8 1/1 Sex Differences: A meta-analysis of 25 college samples (n > 7,000) mostly SDSU college students, found: Females find ORI more threatening than males do; Females find male pursuers as more threatening than males find female pursuers; Pursuers report perpetrating “unwanted pursuit” on females more than on males; But female victims do not report more ORI or self-labeled “stalking” than males victims report; And females and males do not differ in self-attributions of having engaged in “stalking” “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 8

9 1/1 Interactional Profile Intimacy‘Normal’ORI/Stalking DimensionRelationshipsRelationships Self- Disclosure Cautiously progressive Unregulated & Unreciprocated ‘torrent’ Liking & Loving Displays caring & empathy consistent with stage Excess gifts, notes, calls, tokens, & professions of love Expressions of Commitment Mutual negotiation of exclusivity Early & unilateral insistence on exclusivity; ‘fated future,’ jealousy “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 9

10 1/1 Interactional Profile Intimacy‘Normal’ORI/Stalking DimensionRelationshipsRelationships Interests/ Activities Gradual & mutual interpenetration Increasingly non-mutual Physical Interaction Escalation of comfort intimacy, rapport, rituals, & synchrony P expresses desire & graphic scenarios, increasing ‘strain’ Closeness & Proximity Progressive but punctuated Hyperactive possessiveness “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 10

11 1/1 ORI/Stalking Topography: (> 250 tactic labels, study N = 40, Spitzberg, 2002) I. HYPER-INTIMACY TACTICS II. MEDIATED CONTACTS III. INTERACTIONAL CONTACT TACTICS IV. SURVEILLANCE TACTICS V. INVASION TACTICS VI. HARASSMENT & INTIMIDATION VII. COERCION & THREAT TACTICS VIII. AGGRESSION/VIOLENCE TACTICS IX. p PUR OS XU YI T “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 11

12 1/1 Violence & Threats:  Threat use: 44% (n=91)  Sexual aggression: 12% (n=47)  Violence: 34% (n=98)  > 50% with prior sexual relationship (Meloy, 2000; Rosenfeld, 2006)  Threats predict violence (r =.37) (n=73, p<.001)  However:  false positive rates = 62% (n = 12)  false negative rates = 16% (n = 10) (C&S, 2004) “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 12

13 1/1 INSTRUMENTAL (persecutory 1, predatory 2, revenge 3 ): Agenda (issue-based, disputes) Control (intimidation, isolation, possession) Instrumental Affect (attention-seeking, harass, humiliate, revenge, jealousy possessiveness, scare) EXPRESSIVE (amorous 1, affective 2, love 3 ): Affective (love, infatuation, jealousy, envy) Affective (anger, rage, betrayal, grief) Relational Bid (friendship, escalation, reconciliation) Sexual Attraction “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 13 Motives: “The desires of the heart are as crooked as corkscrews” (W.H. Auden, 1937) 1=Harmon et al. ‘98; 2=Meloy ‘01; 3=*Rosenfeld ‘00

14 1/1 PERSONALOGICAL: Incompetence: mental disorder, social incompetence CONTEXTUAL: Break-up/separation/divorce Incidental Interactional Interdependence Nostalgia Rival Motives: “The desires of the heart are as crooked as corkscrews” (W.H. Auden, 1937) 1=Harmon et al. ‘98; 2=Meloy ‘01; 3=*Rosenfeld ‘00 “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 14

15 1/1 Relational Goals Theory GOAL LINKING IDENTITY THREAT RUMIN- ATION RELATIONAL ENTITLEMENT & PROPRIETARINESS SELF- EFFICACY DETERM- INATION ORI SENSI- TIVITY BLAME COGNITIVEAFFECTIVE HYPER- INTIMACY SURVEIL- LANCE AGGRES- SION “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 15

16 1/1 Relational Goals Theory Kam & Spitzberg (2005): GOAL LINKAGE (Investment Size, Commitment, Inclusion, Dependence, Relationship Thinking, Goal Linkage) predicted: REJECTION-BASED AROUSAL (Perceived Rejection, Face Threat, Negative Arousal), which predicted: RUMINATION ESCALATION (Thought Intrusion, Paradoxical Rebound), which predicted : OBSESSION (Low CL ALT, Obsession), which we hoped would predict: ORI PERPETRATION RESULTS: Optimal scaling regression (due to restricted variance of DV) accounted for 28% of the variance in ORI perpetration “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 16

17 1/1 Relational Goals Theory Cupach, Spitzberg, Younghans, & Gibbons (2006): GOAL LINKAGE RUMINATION & ANTICIPATORY EMOTIONS SELF-EFFICACY EMOTIONAL FLOODING RECONCILIATION PERSISTENCE ORI PERPETRATION MODERATOR: Who initiated the breakup RESULTS: 59% reconciliation persistence accounted for by linking, rumination, and self-efficacy for those whose partner wanted out (vs. 32% for Ss who wanted out) 16% ORI accounted for by linking, rumination, and self-efficacy, with no moderation “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 17

18 1/1 Effects/Symptoms: 1 st ORDER EFFECTS: Physical Psychological Emotional Social Resource 2 nd ORDER EFFECTS: Relations-Children Relations-Family Relations-Friends Relations-Colleagues 3 rd ORDER EFFECTS: ‘Direct’ Impacts on Children Family Friends Colleagues 4 th ORDER EFFECTS: Law Enforcement Moral Panic Societal Costs “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 18

19 1/1 Effects/Symptoms: GENERAL DISTURBANCE: e.g., injured emotionally or psychologically; personality changed; PTSD; quality of life costs; etc. AFFECTIVE HEALTH: e.g., anger; anxiety, depression, fear, frustration, feeling imprisoned, intimidated, jealousy, paranoia, stress, etc.; COGNITIVE HEALTH: e.g., confusion; distrust, loss of self-esteem, suspiciousness, helplessness/powerlessness; suicide ideation;, etc. BEHAVIORAL DISTURBANCE: e.g., changing behavioral routines, change work/school/residence, etc.; PHYSICAL HEALTH: e.g., alcohol problems; appetite disturbance; cigarette smoking; insomnia; nausea; physical illness; suicide; etc. SOCIAL HEALTH: e.g., avoid certain places/people; cautiousness; relationship deterioration; lifestyle disruption; etc. RESOURCE HEALTH: e.g., disruption of work or school; financial costs; lost time from work; etc. SPIRITUAL HEALTH: e.g., loss of faith, loss of religion, loss of belief in social institutions; etc. RESILIENCE: e.g., develop stronger relationships with family or friends, develop greater self- efficacy/self-concept, etc. “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 19

20 1/1 Moving With B A “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 20

21 1/1 Moving Inward B A “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 21

22 1/1 Moving Against B A B “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 22

23 1/1 Moving Away B A “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 23

24 1/1 Moving Outward B A D E C “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 24

25 1/1  Moving Against: Attempting to deter/punish pursuer 33%  Moving With: Attempting to negotiate/redirect relationship 25%  Moving Away: Attempting to avoid pursuer 25%  Moving Outward: Mobilizing assistance/input of others 32%  Moving Inward: Working on oneself 17% RELATIONAL RESPONSES: Prevalence EXTRA-RELATIONAL RESPONSES: Mean Coping—Prevalence: (> 18 studies, Spitzberg, 2002) “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 25

26 1/1 Law Enforcement: ContactsMNSD % Friends/family contact % Contact someone75822 % Contact police % Police “helpful”47730 % Police “NOT helpful” † †Reason for not reporting: 8% “attacker was a police officer” (NVAW, Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000, “Extent…” Ex. 17, n = 16,000) †Reason why police didn’t take action: 6% “offender was police officer” (Suppl. Victimization Survey, Baum et al., 2009, App. 12, n = 65,000) “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 26

27 1/1 Law Enforcement: * Study of DV PO’s in Arizona indicates even when violated, most women FEEL better for obtaining a protective order (Johnson, Luna & Stein, 2003). Protective Orders (PO)MNSD % Sought PO % POs Violated* % POs “Made Worse”1755 “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 27

28 1/1 Brian H. Spitzberg, Ph.D., SDSU Senate Distinguished Professor To contribute to the meta-analytic data-base: Further Information: “The State of the Art of Stalking and Special Focus on the Relational Goal Pursuit Theory” BRIAN H. SPITZBERG, Ph.D. 28


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