2Family: love, private, safe haven, let your hair down? IntroductionFamily: love, private, safe haven, let your hair down?
3Sociology Constructs the Family Ernest Burgess the founder of family sociologyTalcott Parsons shaped this subfield of sociology with his isolated nuclear family model:-family members live apart from other relatives- financially independent of other relatives-the role of the family is to1. socialize the children and2. to stabilize the adults
4Sociology Constructs the Family Isolated Nuclear Family Model:Instrumental family role: father economic provider, decision maker, leaderExpressive family role: mother housework, child care, meets emotional needsBasis for this theory is biological differences
5Evaluating the functionalist Perspective Is the contemporary family really isolated from other kin?Preindustrial families were not extendedDo families give advice, support, and money to relatives?Roles rigidly define men and women and push women into a private sphere vs. public domainAssignment of roles based on sex -> roles are normal and unchanging and mutually exclusive
6Married couple households with children 23.5% (2000) (45% 1960) Evaluating the functionalist Perspective Contemporary Families are DiverseMarried couple households with children 23.5% (2000) (45% 1960)51% of these families have dual earnersSingle parent families (only 1 finacial supporter) mostly headed by women (have grown 5 times faster that married couples since 1960)More childless and post rearing housholdsIncrease of cohabitation (1/3) have childrenDomestic partnerships heterosexual/homosexualChosen families: non family households based on wanting to be together by choice
7Accordion family: Kin moves in and out a family unit as needed Evaluating the functionalist Perspective Contemporary Families are DiverseBlended familiesAccordion family: Kin moves in and out a family unit as neededDefining character of family emotional and financial ties and sexual behavior
8Sexuality, Sexual Orientation, and Reproductive Freedom Chastity plegesCourtship and betrothal, commitment to marriage before a relationships develops and courtship, a getting to know each other over a long period of time without sex1998 first intercourse for both boys and girls was 15Many teens engaging in oral sex and they believe it is not sex, or they can’t contract and STIGender differences: women more guilt and less pleasure vs menWomen’s motivations affection for their partner and approvalMen’s motivation: status seeking, curiosity, feeling ready for the experience.Sexual double standard still alive despite both boys and girls feel pressure to have sex. Males/studs Females/sluts (sex only in a romantic committed relationship)
9Homosexuality often studied as a deviation from the norm SexualitiesHomosexuality often studied as a deviation from the normSexual orientation seen as dichotomous -> bisexuality not seen as a separate identityMany individuals clearly identify homosexuality as always being wrong ( 56%, study in 2000, down from 70% 70/80)Civil unions in some statesThe right to legally marry is still hotly debated
10Contraception and Abortion Reproductive FreedomDef: an individual's ability to freely choose whether or not to have a childContraception and AbortionBy 1850 contraceptives and abortion illegal in USUntil 1970 abortion and certain contraceptives remained illegal71 legal for married people72 legal for adults77 legal for minors73 Roe v. Wade legalized abortion
111st trimester: between woman and doctor AbortionWomen have the constitutional right to choose abortion and that the state cannot unduly interfere with or prohibit that right.1st trimester: between woman and doctor2nd trimester: restrictions to safeguard the woman’s health3rd trimester: state may prohibit 3rd trimester abortions unless the woman’s life is at stakeYet, Doe v Bolton: the court ruled that any restrictions imposed by the state must be reasonable and cannot inhibit a physician's duty to provide medical care according to his or her professional judgment2000 RU 486 approved / first 7 weeks of pg
13Varieties of Intimate Relationships Heterosexual marriagesHistorically: contract specified a wife’s obligations housework, comply with husband’s requests for sex.Husband to support his wife – how much was up to himHusband had all decision making authority
14Men retain the right to decide domicile Today: rules in most states still imply a lesser status for women in marriageMen retain the right to decide domicilePower in marriage hinges on incomeThe more she contributes in income the more power she will haveThose who embrace traditional roles will let him have the power/decision makingSome women became more powerful in marriage when they were able to quit low paying jobs and have husbands that respected houseworkEven in equal marriages, she will avoid offending, or upsetting her spouse, accommodate his needs and desires, and adjust her schedule to his.Marriage cont.
15Gender and housework: Who does what? Women still do at least twice as much housework as men (2000) even if she works outside the homeWomen’s second shift (Hochschild)Housework devaluedEven the most egalitarian couples will not do equal housework when they have children.
16Birth of a child increases stress and lowers marital satisfaction caregivingBirth of a child increases stress and lowers marital satisfactionWomen still do most of the caretakingNew fathers who share equally are still relatively rarelowest involvement is under 18 months, greatest involvement 5 -15Men mainly focused on recreation and academicsSome men claim to do tasks equally, but the wife has to askWomen also do more mental work, seeking advise and information/worrying
17caregivingMen argue that they are immersed in breadwinning and cannot fully participateCompanies expect men to stay on the job despite the family and medical leave act.In lower socioeconomic strata, men and women share childcare as she must work and they can work out a schedule (opposite shifts)Professional jobs he has little shift flexibility and they have money for childcare
18Women as kinkeepers: taking care of kids and relatives caregivingWomen as kinkeepers: taking care of kids and relativesWomen are denied personal autonomyHousework can wait, but children’s needs are immediateMidlife opportunities may not be exercised due to grandchildren, parentsMost studies show that women take care of elderly parents (1 study showed men and women requested time off from work to take care of elderly parentBrother’s of sister’s do less caretaking than brother’s of brothers
19Single parent families: 82% of children in single parent households live with their mothers79% W, 90% B, 84% L28% of families with dependent childrenSingle childbearing, divorce, death of spouseToday 50% of couples divorce within 7.2 years of pronouncing their wedding vows
20Pre industrial revolution: children awarded legal custody of kids divorcePre industrial revolution: children awarded legal custody of kidsPost ir: tender years presumption: young children need to be with motherToday: joint legal custody: equal decision making authorityJoint physical custody: live in both homes, equal responsibility for child care and financial supportAll in the best interest of the childWomen experience downward social mobilityLower wages, welfare cuts, only 52% of father’s pay child support-> feminization of povertyBane: Often new poor, driven by the event (divorce)
21Other find 2 parent families have the same problems divorceUpper middle class/wealthy women experience a drop in income but may not become poor (education, wealth, income)Bane: Reshuffled poverty is when low income families break up and the women and kids form a new poor familySome claim the female headed family more pathological (crime, abuse, dysfunctional)Other find 2 parent families have the same problems
22divorceEmotional consequences: women higher stress before dissolution/men lower level of awareness, but women seem to adjust betterWomen with dependent children, especially with kids under age 6, express higher rates of depression due to financial issues.Asian females experience depression and isolation as a divorce is seen as her failure and in sharp contrast to traditional expectations. Isolated as she is feared to seduce married men, or as she is feared a bad influence on other women.Men are about 1.5 time more likely to remarry – benefit more from marriage than women and it is easier to get back into circulation as they are not constrained by kids,
23The majority marry, only they are marrying later Singles and Domestic Partnerships Heterosexual singles and domestic partnersStereotypesSwinging bachelorOld maidThe majority marry, only they are marrying laterWhy delay marriage? Single hood seen as more positive, hi divorce rates, DV, birth control, financial constraints-want financial security before they commit.Today, contrary to the past, women with education and socioeconomic status are more likely to marry
24Some can’t find suitable partner due to disability Singles and Domestic Partnerships Heterosexual singles and domestic partnersSome can’t find suitable partner due to disabilityMore black women unmarried due to mortality rates of black men, high imprisonment rate, low economic status of black men
251999 about 4.5 mill = 9% of all couples Singles and Domestic Partnerships Heterosexual singles and domestic partnersDomestic partnership=cohabiting relationship between intimate partners not married to each other1999 about 4.5 mill = 9% of all couplesMost dp are relatively short-half end in a year or lessMost are childless or do not have children under 15 (currently 33.5% have kids under 15)Most who want kids will marry firstThose who conceive unintentionally are more likely to get marriedWhy the increase: economic constraints, more liberal view, divorced parentsSome state allow a registration process, may dp have difficulties when they break up or when one dies.
26Gay and Lesbian Singles and Domestic Partners There is no uniform homosexual lifestyleHave enduring intimate relationshipsAre as happy in their relationships as heterosexualsWomen typically place a higher value on emotional expressivenessGays and lesbians value equalityGays men less supportive of monogamyBreak up rates 10+ 6% L, 4 %G, 4% married HOften a homosexual relationship that beaks up becomes life-long friendship
27Gay and Lesbian Singles and Domestic Partners Many can officially registerCourts have ruled for the family of affinity rather that for the family of origin (Thompson and Kowalski)Many states will not give a homosexual parent custody of a child, or will not allow adoption (90% of pedophiles are heterosexual)Children of gays and lesbians are well adjusted, more accepting of other lifestyles, and no more likely to become homosexual than other kidsMany lesbian families have less conflict and more agreement about parenting issuesElder care for homosexuals can be problematic due to neglect or abuse in facilities. Many have no kids and were rejected by families. Care facilities in some large cities just for homosexuals-but cost prohibitive
28Violence in Families and Intimate Relationships Human Options