Presentation on theme: "Ch 11/12 moving into Ch 13/14 Adolescence/Early Adulthood Psyc311 Developmental Dr. Wright."— Presentation transcript:
Ch 11/12 moving into Ch 13/14 Adolescence/Early Adulthood Psyc311 Developmental Dr. Wright
Identity development Adolescence identity crisis Identity –Sense of individual self –Selection of commitments, beliefs, values Interpersonal process –Taking their place in the adult community
cognitive changes Piaget’s – Formal Operational Thought –Logical, abstract thinking Thinking about possibilities –“If-then” thinking –Connection between how things are and how they could be. (Also, relatedly, how things should be). Thinking about thinking –Understanding knowledge (how/when gained) –Monitoring one’s own mental states
relativism Not everything is “black and white” –Recognition of importance of perspective –Death of childish “realism/absolutism” Can result in extreme skepticism Rejection of authority Rejection of cultural/social norms Everything is “ok” – no right/wrong Tolerance for different beliefs Though less tolerance for actual interaction/helping
Increased introspection, self- consciousness, rationalization Responsible for adolescent version of egocentrism. –Imaginary audience –Personal fable –Importance of personal individuality
Identity Status Crisis never begins: diffusion Crisis begins –> ends with foreclosure Crisis begins –> ends with achievement Requires period of psychosocial moratorium –Period of exploration Importance in contemporary society?
What are some of the grounds of identity? Gender –Sexual orientation Ethnicity/culture Age group Vocation Political ideology Religious/moral values
What is gender identity? –Function of gender roles Adolescence – Early adulthood –Gender intensification Social/cultural pressures Peer pressures Parental pressures Biological pressures
Sexual identity Developing a Sexual Identity Involves: Learning to manage sexual feelings Developing new forms of intimacy Learning skills to regulate sexual behavior Sexual Identity Includes: Activities Interests Styles of behavior Indication of sexual orientation
What is ethnic identity? –Identification Physical/psychological characteristics Cultural practices/beliefs –Racial socialization Majority vs. minority status Dislocation from native lands Cultural heritage –Positive vs. negative identity Assimilation vs. marginality Bi-culturalism
Religious identity Aspect of identity associated with religious belief system. –Being a Christian or Buddhist –Being an atheist
Downtrend in religious interest among adolescents has occurred in the 21 st century Adolescents higher in religiosity are: Less likely to smoke, drink, use marijuana Less likely to be truant from school and engage in delinquent activities Less likely to be depressed
Vocational identity –Aspect of identity associated with career. Being a lawyer Being a janitor Age identity –Aspects of identity associated with age group. Being a teenager Being an elderly person
Identity and stereotypes Identities commonly incorporate/activate stereotypes –Common characteristics associated with Being female Being Native American Being a plumber Being a liberal Some characteristics positive, others negative. Stereotype activation makes these characteristics salient. –This can have incredibly powerful effects on behavior.
Gender and ethnicity stereotypes –Influence on academic performance When gender made salient –Females under-perform on math exams When ethnicity made salient –Blacks under-perform on academic tests –Whites over-perform on academic tests –Can be activated by something as simple as asking ethnicity on demographic form!
Clash of multiple identities Asian females –Baseline math performance –When gender made salient, perform less well –When ethnicity made salient, perform better
Other effects When primed with racial stereotypes people were more likely to perceive a power tool as a gun. People primed with elderly stereotype will perceive hills to be steeper and distances longer. –They’ll also walk more slowly when leaving the room! People primed with stereotype of obesity perceived people to be less intelligent, more lazy. Priming with gender influences perception of artistic pieces and writing. Priming of identity stereotypes facilitate specific interpretations of behavior.
Becoming an adult What makes the transition into adulthood go smoothly? Assets linked to well-being during transition to adulthood: –Intellectual: academic success, ability to plan, good decision-making skills –Psychological: mental health, mastery motivation, confidence, identity, values, community contributions –Social: connectedness to others through friendship and positive peer relations
Negative aspects of high school to college transition: –Top-dog phenomenon –Movement to a larger, more impersonal school structure –Increased focus on achievement and assessment Positive aspects of transition: –More likely to feel grown up –More subjects from which to select –More time to spend with peers –More opportunities to explore different lifestyles and values –Greater independence from parental monitoring –Intellectual challenges
Few chronic health problems –Yet, young adults have more than twice the mortality rate of adolescents Best time to develop good health habits Easy time to develop poor health habits –Effects of bad habits not felt for long time
As obesity rises, dieting is an obsession for many –1/3 to 2/3 of dieters regain more weight than they lost on their diets Eating disorders emerge
What causes eating disorders? Influence of family environment Influence of peer norms/behavior Influence of media (fashion industry)
Many factors predispose women (and men) towards eating disorders –Stressful family environment –Competitive involvement in athletics –Personality traits Nonetheless, norm of beauty/health portrayed by media sets the standard that activates the disorder.
Current social norms are unattainable –Achieving it is harmful –Not achieving it is harmful Consequences of having unattainable norm? –depression, anxiety, obsession, low self-esteem If our norms are unreasonable, why do we have them? Are other social norms equally unreasonable?
Young adults in college are less likely to use drugs than young adults not in college –Exception: alcohol Alcohol: –Binge drinking: Drinking with intention of getting drunk –5 standard drinks (male)/4 (female) in one hour –anytime one reaches a peak BAC of 0.08% or higher –rapid consumption (shots, chugging, drinking games) Often increases in college More common among men than women Peaks at about 21 to 22 years of age and then declines Increases risk of having unprotected sex, injuries/death due to accidents/drunk driving, falling behind in school, losing jobs.
Attractiveness Most emerging adults look vital and attractive because of overall health, strength, and activity –oily hair, pimpled faces, and awkward limbs of adolescence are gone –wrinkles and hair loss of adulthood have not yet appeared –muscles are stronger and obesity is less common in emerging adulthood than earlier or later in life
During emerging adulthood, most individuals are both sexually active and unmarried Patterns of Heterosexual Behavior: –60% emerging adults have had sexual intercourse with only 1 individual in the last year –25% report having sexual intercourse only a couple of times a year or not at all Casual sex is most common in emerging adulthood –Males have more casual sex partners, while females report being more selective Males think about sex more –54% males: several times/day –67% females: few times/week or month
Key Findings from 1994 Sex in America Survey Americans tend to fall into three categories 1/3 have sex twice a week or more 1/3 a few times a month 1/3 a few times a year or not at all Married (and cohabiting) couples have sex more often than non-cohabiting couples Most do not engage in kinky sexual acts –unusual, abnormal, or deviant sexual practices Adultery reported to be the exception rather than the rule –Really??
Rape: forcible sexual intercourse without consent Date or Acquaintance Rape: coercive sexual activity directed at someone with whom the victim is at least casually acquainted –2/3 of college freshmen report having been date-raped or having experienced an attempted date rape
Identity -> Intimacy Intimacy: Self-disclosure and the sharing of private thoughts are hallmarks of intimacy Identity serves as foundation for next psychosocial development: intimacy. Erikson: Intimacy vs. Isolation –Intimacy should occur after one is well into establishing a stable and successful identity –Failure to achieve intimacy results in social isolation
intimacy Desire to share life with someone –Goes beyond desire for physical intimacy –Need for sharing of values, experiences psychological/emotional intimacy Need for enduring, self-sacrificing commitment –Something larger than oneself Lack of which can lead to profound loneliness and depression
Adult Attachment Styles: –Secure Adults: Have a positive view of relationships and find it easy to get close to others Are not overly concerned with or stressed out about romantic relationships Tend to enjoy sexuality in the context of a committed relationship Romantic partners fulfill some of the same needs for adults as parents do for children –Adults may count on their romantic partners to be a secure base
Attachment-related anxiety –Insecurity about whether someone else will be responsive, available, attentive. Demand closeness; are less trusting Are more emotional, jealous, and possessive Attachment-related avoidance –Insecurity about relying on others, opening up to them, achieving intimacy. Are hesitant about getting involved in romantic relationships Tend to distance themselves from their partner Securely attached adults are low in both anxiety and avoidance.
Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love: –Triangle with three main dimensions: Passion: physical and sexual attraction to another Intimacy: emotional feelings of warmth, closeness, and sharing Commitment: cognitive appraisal of the relationship and the intent to maintain the relationship even in the face of problems
Types of Love –Romantic love: also called passionate love, or eros Strong components of sexuality and infatuation Different emotions: anger, fear, passion, sexual desire, joy, jealousy –Affectionate love: also called companionate love Based on a deep and caring affection Passion tends to give way to affection –Consummate love: the strongest form of love
Intimacy Passion Commitment Absent or low Present Types of LovePassionIntimacyCommitment Infatuation Affectionate Fatuous Consummate