3Characterizing and Forming Intimate Relationships Behavioral interdependenceMutual impactNeed fulfillmentSocial approval and reassuranceEmotional attachmentFeelings of loveEmotional availabilityAbility to give and receive
9Forming Intimate Relationships Theories of loveIntimacyPassionCommitmentThere are many different definitions of love. How would you define it?
10Forming Intimate Relationships Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of LoveIntimacy – closeness, sharing, emotional supportPassion – lust, attraction, sexual arousal, sharingCompassion – decision to be open to love, commitment to relationship
11Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love Figure 5.3
12ABC News: Healthy Interpersonal Relationships PlayVideo| Healthy Interpersonal RelationshipsDiscussion QuestionsWere you surprised at how many people are involved in Internet dating? Why or why not?Discuss both the advantages and disadvantages of Internet dating.Are there certain types of individuals that may benefit the most from joining an Internet dating web site?
13Communicating: A Key to Good Relationships People communicate differentlyNo two people communicate in the exact same wayCommunicating how you feelThe ability to communicate assertively is an important relationship skill.Past communication styles may be different in relationships and a couple may have a difficult time communicating.
14Communicating: A Key to Good Relationships Improving your communication skillsLearn to share and self-discloseGet to know yourselfBecome more accepting of yourselfBe willing to discuss your sexual historyChoose a safe context for self-disclosureLearn to listen
15Gender Issues in Relationships GenderlectCoined by Deborah Tannen to categorize the differences in men’s and women’s language patternsStyles in Decision MakingPicking PartnersSimilaritiesReciprocityAttractionWhat do you look for when picking a partner?
16Overcoming Barriers to Intimacy Dysfunctional familiesInhibits psychological growth and/or self-loveObstacles to emotional/mental healthJealousy in relationshipsOverdependence on the relationshipHigh value placed on sexual exclusivitySeverity of the threatLow self-esteemFear of losing control
17Committed Relationships MarriageMonogamySerial monogamyOpen relationshipsCohabitationCommon-law marriage
18Committed Relationships Gay and lesbian partnershipsSignificant increase in 2000 census – three times the reported number than in 1990 censusProbably much higher than reportedStaying single86% of American men75% of American women
19Staying single Increasingly common to marry later or remain single 75% of American women, 86% of American men, aged never been marriedMany new social groups support single lifestyleSexual intimacy may not be present, but other interactions with loved ones fulfill many needs for intimacy
20Success in Relationships Partnering scriptsMost children are raised with a strong script of what is expected of them as adultsSociety provides constant reinforcement for traditional couplesPeople who have not chosen an “traditional” partner may experience a great deal of stress
21Success in Relationships Being self-nurturantLove yourselfAccountabilityAccepting responsibility for personal decisions, choices, actionsSelf-nurturanceDeveloping individual potential through a balanced and realistic appreciation of self-worth and ability
22Having Children…or Not? Many factors to considerRelationships change when a couple decides to have childrenResources and attention are splitExisting stressors in a relationship further accentuated when parenting added to responsibilitiesHaving a child is not a cure for a bad relationship, and may actually increase stressors on the relationshipBlended families more commonThose other than heterosexual couples now parentingOver 25% of school-aged children living in families headed by single parents
23When Relationships Falter Communication breakdownWhen and why relationships endDivorce rate is 41%IllnessFinancesUnmet expectations
24When Relationships Falter Coping with failed relationshipsRecognize and acknowledge your feelingsFind healthful ways to express your emotionsSpend time with friends, both old and newDon’t rush into the “rebound” relationship
25Building Better Relationships Elements of Healthy RelationshipsGood communicationIntimacyFriendshipTrustPredictabilityDependabilityFaith
27Your Sexual Identity Facts All eggs carry an X chromosome Sperm carry an X or a Y chromosomeSex hormones play a major role in pubertyMale – testosteroneFemale – estrogen, progesteronePituitary gland- gonadotropinsSecondary sex characteristics
28Your Sexual Identity Sex Biological condition of being male or female GenderPsychosocial conditionGender rolesGender identityGender-role stereotypingAndrogynySocialization
29Your Sexual Identity Sexual orientation Best understood by using a multifactorial model, which incorporates biological, psychological, and socioenvironmental factors.HeterosexualHomosexualBisexualHomophobiaIrrational fear or hatred of homosexualityWhy is sexual orientation controversial in our society?
32Female Sexual Anatomy and Physiology External female genitalsMons pubis – pad of fatty tissue covering the pubic boneLabia minora – folds of mucous membraneLabia majora – folds of skin and erectile tissue that enclose openingsClitoris – female sexual organ, only known function is pleasureUrethral opening – urine leaves the bodyVaginal opening – opening to the vaginaHymen – a thin membrane that may cover the vagina in some womenPerineum – the area between the vulva and anus
34Female Sexual Anatomy and Physiology Internal female genitalsVagina – a tubular organ that serves as a passageway from the uterus to the outside of the female bodyUterus (womb) – hollow, muscular, pear-shapedEndometrium – inner lining of the uterus, either prepares the uterus for implantation or menstrual flowFallopian tubes – extending from the uterus, two thin tubes where sperm and egg meetOvaries – almond-sized structures suspended on either side of the uterus that produce the female hormones
35Side View of the Female Reproductive Organs Figure 5.5
36Female Sexual Anatomy and Physiology Puberty and the menstrual cycleEndocrine systemHypothalamusGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)Luteinizing hormone (LH)Ovaries produce estrogens and progesterone
37Female Sexual Anatomy and Physiology Menarche – first menstrual periodGenerally starts between ages 9 to 17Body fat influences onset of pubertyMenstrual cycle28 days longProliferative phase, secretory phase, menstrual phaseMenopause – permanent cessation of menstruationGenerally between ages 41 and 60Onset symptoms aided by hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
38The Three Phases of the Menstrual Cycle Figure 5.6
39Hormonal Control and Phases of the Menstrual Cycle Figure 5.7
40Male Sexual Anatomy and Physiology External genitalsScrotum – protects the testesPenis – deposits semenInternal genitalsTestes – manufacture testosteroneEpididymis – sperm ripen here in a comma shaped structure at the back of the testes
41Male Sexual Anatomy and Physiology Internal genitalsVas deferens – stores and transfers spermUrethra – passes sperm and urineSeminal vesicles – provides fluids to semenProstate gland – provides fluids to semenCowper’s glands – secretes fluid that lubricates the urethra
42Side View of the Male Reproductive Organs Figure 5.8
43Human Sexual Response Process Excitement/arousal – vasocongestion Plateau phase – nipples and penis erectOrgasmic phase – muscles contractResolution phase – profound relaxationRefractory period – most men unable to become aroused following resolution
44Expressing Your Sexuality “Normal” sexual behaviorHeterosexual standardCoital standardThe orgasmic standardTwo-person standardRomantic standardSafer sex standard
45Expressing Your Sexuality Sexual expressionCelibacy – avoidance or abstention from sexAutoerotic behaviors – sexual fantasy & masturbationKissing and erotic touching – nonverbal sexual communicationManual stimulation – use of sex toysOral-genital stimulationCunnilingus – oral stimulation of the female’s genitalsFellatio – oral stimulation of the male’s genitalsVaginal intercourse – penis into the vaginaAnal intercourse – insertion of the penis into the anus
46ABC News: Love and Sexuality PlayVideo| Love and SexualityDiscussion QuestionsAre you surprised by the high percentage of women who say that they are sexually unsatisfied? Why or why not?Why do you think so many women have difficulty expressing their needs and desires during sexual intercourse?Discuss some of the statements that women shared as to what they thought the opposite sex should know about them.
47Expressing Your Sexuality Variant sexual expressionGroup sexTransvestismFetishismExhibitionismVoyeurismSadomasochismPedophiliaAutoerotic asphyxiationHow many of these variant behaviors have you heard of?
48Difficulties That Can Hinder Sexual Functioning Sexual desire disorderInhibited sexual desire (ISD)Sexual aversion disorderSexual arousal disorderErectile dysfunction or impotenceOrgasmic disordersPremature ejaculationFemale orgasmic disorder
49Difficulties That Can Hinder Sexual Functioning Sexual performance anxietySexual pain disorderDyspareuniaVaginismusSeeking help for sexual dysfunctionChose a qualified sex therapist or counselor
50Difficulties That Can Hinder Sexual Functioning Drugs and sexAlcohol can inhibit sexual responseTendency to blame the drug for bad behavior“Date Rape Drugs”Rohypnol (“roofies”)Gamma-hydroxybutrane (GHB)