Presentation on theme: "Psychosocial Development in Young Adulthood"— Presentation transcript:
1Psychosocial Development in Young Adulthood Chapter 14Psychosocial Development in Young Adulthood
2Four approaches to adult psychosocial development: These models find considerable stability in personalityNormative Stage Modelsage-related development that continues through the lifespan
3Erikson- Intimacy vs. Isolation (early adulthood) If cannot make deep personal commitments to others, risk becoming overly isolated and self-absorbed.Prepared and willing to unite their identity with othersSeek relationships of intimacy, partnerships, and affiliations.Prepared to develop necessary strengths to fulfill these commitments despite the sacrifices that may have to make
4Erikson- Intimacy vs. Isolation (early adulthood) For first time in life, can develop true sexual genitality in mutuality with a loved partner.Sex life in previous stages was restricted to a searching for sexual identity and a striving for transitory intimacies.From genitality to be of lasting social significance it requires someone to love and to have sexual relations with, and with whom one can share in a trusting relationship.Hazard of this stage is isolation, which is the avoidance of relationships because one is unwilling to commit oneself to intimacy.
5Erikson- Intimacy vs. Isolation (early adulthood) A transitory sense of isolation, too, is a necessary condition for making choices, but of course, can also result in severe personality problemsVirtue of Love comes into being.Dominant virtue of the universes, love, appears in many forms beginning with infant’s love for its mother, then adolescents infatuations, and finally the love one exhibits in caring for others as an adultThe development of true intimacy transpires only AFTER the age of adolescence.
6Erikson- Intimacy vs. Isolation (early adulthood) Young adults are capable of committing themselves to a joint relationship in which their mode of life is mutually shared with an intimate partner.“Love, then is mutuality of devotion forever subduing the antagonisms inherent in divided function”Although ones identity is maintained in a joint relationship, one’s Ego-strength is dependent upon the mutual partner who is prepared to share in the rearing of children, the productivity, and the ideology of their relationship.
7Erikson- Intimacy vs. Isolation (early adulthood) Corresponding ritualization of this stage is the Affiliative: a sharing together of work, friendship, and love.The corresponding ritualism is mainly Elitism: expressed by formation of exclusive groups that are a form of communal narcissism.Genital Stage****The formation of close friendships and relationships with the opposite sex/partner is vital to healthy development.
8Timing-of-events models Change is not related to age as much as to the expected or unexpected occurrence and timing of important life events.Marriage, parenthood, grandparenthood, retirementAware of own social clock: their societies norms for life events
9Trait modelsFocus on mental, emotional, temperamental and behavioral traits. Typically change through emerging adulthood and more slowly after that.Five-factor modelsPersonality factors that seem to underlie five groups of associated traits (Big Five)
11Five-factor modelsNeuroticism (emotional stability- anxiety, hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness, vulnerability)Extraversion (warmth, gregariousness, assertiveness, activity, excitement-seeking, positive emotions)Openness to experience (willing to try new things and embrace new ideas)Conscientiousness (achievers, competent, orderly, dutiful, deliberate, disciplined)Agreeableness (trusting, straightforward, altruistic, compliant, modest, easily swayed)
12Summary of Big Five:Continuity in all five domains40-66% heredity of these factorsAgreeableness- identified in childhoodNo noticeable changes between adolescence and age 30, slower changes thereafterAge-related and universalWomen score higher on neuroticism and agreeableness; certain facets of extraversion and openness to experience- warmth, openness to aesthetic experience.Men score higher on assertiveness and openness to ideas
13Summary of Big Five:The Big Five are associated with feelings of health and well-beingMajor limitation: based on subjective ratings. Simply assigns traits, not explaining personality or development
14Typology modelsBroader personality types/styles, that represent how personality traits are organizedPersonality types:Ego-resilient: adaptability under stress; well adjusted, self-confident, confident, helpful.Ego-control- self-control; Overcontrolled people: shy, anxious, dependable, withdrawnUndercontrolled people: active, energetic, impulsive, stubborn.
15Intimate Relationships Friendships during young and middle adulthood tend to center on work and parenting activities- sharing confidence and advice.Women typically have more intimate friendships than men and may find relationships with other women more satisfying than with men.LoveMay be addictive, a game for some, abusive, journey.
16Sternberg’s Triangular subtheory of Love There elements:Intimacy: the emotional element, involves self-disclosure, leads to connection, warmth, trust.Passion: the motivational element; based on inner drives that translate into physiological arousal into sexual desire.Commitment: the cognitive element; decision to love and stay with someone.Similarities or differences in personality traits had little to no correlation with marital satisfaction or choice of partner.
17Sexuality4 differences between mens/womens sexual appetites:men tend to show greater sexual desire than women; want sex more, more likely to masturbate.Men seek primarily physical pleasure; women want sex with intimate, committed relationships.Aggression more strongly linked to sexuality for men.Women’s sexuality tends to show more plasticity.
18SexualityThree main attitudes about sex:Reproductive (30%): sex permissible only for reproductive purposes within marriageRecreational (25%): whatever feels good and doesn’t hurt anyone is fineRelational (45%): sex accompanied by love/affection, not necessarily marriageMen more permissive about sexDate rape a problem, high on college campuses.
19LifestylesSingle lifeSome choose to be single; others seek to marrySexual preference had no impact on quality of relationships, marriages, or raising children.Factors predictive of quality and stability of relationships:Psychological adjustmentPersonality traitsPerceptions of equality between partnersProblem solving techniquesSatisfaction with social support
20CohabitationLiving together without legal commitment of marriage½ married couples lived together prior to marriageCohabitating tends to be less satisfying and less stable than marriage50% end within first year
21Cohabitationcohabitating couples who marry tend to have unhappier marriages and greater likelihood of divorce than those who wait until marriage to live togethercouples who cohabitate after engagement have less problems than those who cohabitated prior to the engagementcouples who conceive during cohabitation are more likely to marry and remain togethercouples who bear a child during cohabitation are more likely to break-up after marriage
22Cohabitationcohabitants tend to have unconventional attitudes which tend to interfere with committed relationships;the cohabitating itself is probably less the issue; also more likely to have family backgrounds positive for divorce and problematic relationships- which predict unstable marriages.
23MarriageOffers division of labor, intimacy, commitment, friendship, affection, sexual fulfillment, companionship, emotional growth opportunities, new sources for self-esteem and identity.Average age for first marriage: mid to late 20’sSexual activity tends to occur far less than media depicts; but more emotional satisfaction from sex
24Marital satisfactionMarried people tend to be happier than unmarried or divorcedMarital satisfaction related to: increased economic resources, equal decision making, nontraditional gender attitudes, support for norm of long marriage, husband sharing of housework; negatively affected by premarital cohabitation, extramarital affairs, wife’s job demands, wife’s long working hours.Cohesiveness of marriage based on rewards- lasted longer: love, respect, trust, communication, compatibility, commitment to partner
251/5 women abused by partner- probably much higher DivorceTop three reasons cited:Incompatibility and lack of emotional supportLack of career support for the womenSpousal abuseSpousal Abuse1/5 women abused by partner- probably much highersee Box 14-2 (page )
26ParenthoodPositive and negative impact. Marital satisfaction typically declines during child raising years.New stressorsBudgetingSacrificesMaking time for intimacyAdaptive
27DivorceApproximately 20-50%.Later age of marriage and higher education helps marriages lastReasons for divorce:Lack of perception of marriage as a sacred unionLoss of families traditional function as producer/teamSexual infidelityValues for autonomyFree choiceRomantic love
28Staying together for the sake of the child does far more harm than divorce could ever cause!