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Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 Adolescence 9th edition By Laurence Steinberg, Ph.D. Chapter Ten: Intimacy.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 Adolescence 9th edition By Laurence Steinberg, Ph.D. Chapter Ten: Intimacy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 Adolescence 9th edition By Laurence Steinberg, Ph.D. Chapter Ten: Intimacy

2 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 Chapter 10 Overview What are the major theoretical perspectives on the development of intimacy?What are the major theoretical perspectives on the development of intimacy? –Sullivan’s Interpersonal Theory How does intimacy develop in adolescence?How does intimacy develop in adolescence? How does dating and romantic relationships relate to intimacy?How does dating and romantic relationships relate to intimacy? How does intimacy impact psychosocial development during adolescence?How does intimacy impact psychosocial development during adolescence?

3 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 Why Is Intimacy An Adolescent Issue? Not necessarily sexualNot necessarily sexual –True intimacy is characterized by openness, honesty, self- disclosure, and trust Intimacy becomes an important concern because of changes including puberty, cognitive changes, and social changesIntimacy becomes an important concern because of changes including puberty, cognitive changes, and social changes Not until adolescence do truly intimate relationships first emergeNot until adolescence do truly intimate relationships first emerge Insert DAL photo

4 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 Theoretical Perspectives on Adolescent Intimacy Sullivan’s theory of interpersonal development –Emphasized the social aspects of growth –Psychological development can be best understood in interpersonal terms –Theory focuses on transformations in relationships with others –Four stages of interpersonal needs over the course of adolescence

5 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 Theoretical Perspectives on Adolescent Intimacy Sullivan’s developmental progressionSullivan’s developmental progression –Infancy: need for contact and for tenderness –Early childhood: need for adult participation –Middle childhood: need for peers and peer acceptance –Preadolescence: need for intimacy –Early adolescence: need for sexual contact and intimacy with opposite-sex peer –Late adolescence: need for integration into adult society

6 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 6 Attachment in Adolescence Attachment is defined as a strong and enduring emotional bond (usually formed first in infancy)Attachment is defined as a strong and enduring emotional bond (usually formed first in infancy) Three types of attachment based on securityThree types of attachment based on security –Secure – characterized by trust –Anxious-avoidant – characterized by indifference –Anxious-resistant – characterized by ambivalence

7 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 Attachment in Adolescence An “internal working model” of relationships develops during childhoodAn “internal working model” of relationships develops during childhood –Do we feel trusting or apprehensive in relationships with others? –Do we see ourselves as worthy of others’ affection? –Working models provide a set of expectations we draw from when forming close (intimate) relationships

8 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Attachment in Adolescence 8

9 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 How Does Intimacy Develop in Adolescence? Changes in the nature of friendshipChanges in the nature of friendship –Companionship appears before adolescence –Intimacy emerges later Early adolescenceEarly adolescence –Self-disclosure and trust emerge as dimensions of friendship

10 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 How Does Intimacy Develop in Adolescence? Changes in the nature of friendshipChanges in the nature of friendship –Conflicts that adolescents have with friends –Older adolescents typically have conflicts over private matters –Younger adolescents typically have conflicts over public disrespect

11 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 How Does Intimacy Develop in Adolescence? Changes in the display of intimacyChanges in the display of intimacy –Adolescents become more knowledgeable about their friends –Adolescents become more responsive to close friends and less controlling –Friends become more interpersonally sensitive and show more empathy –Friends resolve conflicts more frequently by negotiation or disengagement, not coercion

12 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 Sex Differences in Intimacy Girls’ relationships are more intimate than boys’Girls’ relationships are more intimate than boys’ –Carries some liabilities (e.g., co-rumination) –Both sexes have equivalent degrees of intimate knowledge about their best friends Girls disclose more to their friendsGirls disclose more to their friends –BUT when boys are with their friends, they are just as likely to share each other’s emotional state Girls are more sensitive and empathic to friendsGirls are more sensitive and empathic to friends –BUT sex differences in helpfulness are very small Girls are more concerned with trust and loyaltyGirls are more concerned with trust and loyalty Boys and girls express intimacy in different waysBoys and girls express intimacy in different ways

13 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sex Differences in the Nature of Conflicts Between Close Friends During Adolescence BoysBoys –Conflicts persist for shorter periods of time –Typically over issues of power and control –More likely to escalate into physical aggression –Usually resolved without any explicit effort GirlsGirls –Conflicts persist for longer periods of time –Typically about betrayal in the relationship –Only resolved when one of the friends apologizes 13

14 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sex Differences in Friendships 14

15 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 Changes in the “Targets” of Intimacy Sullivan hypothesized thatSullivan hypothesized that –intimacy with peers replaced intimacy with parents –Intimacy with peers of the opposite sex replaced intimacy with same-sex friends However, research shows that new targets of intimacy are added to old onesHowever, research shows that new targets of intimacy are added to old ones

16 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 16 How Does Intimacy Develop in Adolescence? Changes in the “targets” of intimacyChanges in the “targets” of intimacy –Teens experience different types of intimate relationships with parents and peers –Parent-adolescent relationships Imbalance of power, teens receive adviceImbalance of power, teens receive advice –Adolescent peer relationships Mutual, balanced, equal exchangesMutual, balanced, equal exchanges

17 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Parents and Peers as Targets of Intimacy 17

18 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adolescents’ Relationships with Mothers versus Fathers 18

19 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 19 Dating and Romantic Relationships in Adolescence High school dating no longer functions as mate selection, now recreationalHigh school dating no longer functions as mate selection, now recreational Romantic relationships are very common, in the past 18 months:Romantic relationships are very common, in the past 18 months: –25% of 12-year-olds reported having one –50% of 15-year-olds reported having one –70% of 18-year-olds reported having one

20 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Dating and the Development of Intimacy Sullivan’s theory of interpersonal developmentSullivan’s theory of interpersonal development Attachment theoryAttachment theory Ecological perspectiveEcological perspective GirlsGirls –Cross-sex relationships may provide a context for further expression of intimacy BoysBoys –Cross-sex relationships may provide a context for further development of intimacy 20

21 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 21 Dating and the Development of Intimacy Dating can mean a variety of thingsDating can mean a variety of things –Group activities involving boys and girls –Casual dating in couples –Serious involvement in a steady relationship Transitions into and out of romantic relationships can be difficult for adolescentsTransitions into and out of romantic relationships can be difficult for adolescents –Breakups are the leading cause of depression

22 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Patterns of Dating 22

23 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 23 Dating and Romantic Relationships in Adolescence Three phases of adolescent romanceThree phases of adolescent romance –1) discover an interest in socializing with potential romantic and sexual partners Relationships last a few weeksRelationships last a few weeks –2) move toward more meaningful dyadic relationships Relationships last about 6 monthsRelationships last about 6 months –3) begin to think about the long-term survival and growth of romantic relationships Average relationship is over a yearAverage relationship is over a year

24 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 24 The Impact of Dating on Adolescent Development Positive impact of participating in mixed-sex activity in group situationsPositive impact of participating in mixed-sex activity in group situations Impact of more serious dating is complicatedImpact of more serious dating is complicated –Early starters (before age 15) True for both sexes, but research has focused on girlsTrue for both sexes, but research has focused on girls Less socially mature, less imaginative, less oriented toward achievement, less happy with who they are and how they lookLess socially mature, less imaginative, less oriented toward achievement, less happy with who they are and how they look –Late bloomers Adolescents who do not date at all show signs of retarded social development and feelings of insecurityAdolescents who do not date at all show signs of retarded social development and feelings of insecurity

25 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Impact of Dating on Adolescent Development Romance has a powerful impact on adolescents’ emotional statesRomance has a powerful impact on adolescents’ emotional states Adolescents’ real and fantasized relationships trigger strong emotionsAdolescents’ real and fantasized relationships trigger strong emotions 25

26 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Violence in Dating Relationships Between 1/5 and 2/3 of adolescents experience violence in a romantic relationshipBetween 1/5 and 2/3 of adolescents experience violence in a romantic relationship –Males and females are equally likely to be the victim –Victims are more likely to be depressed, contemplate suicide, use illegal drugs, become pregnant during adolescence, and drop out of school 26

27 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Impact of Dating on Adolescent Development Qualities of adolescents’ relationships with others are correlatedQualities of adolescents’ relationships with others are correlated –Example: –Adolescents who have supportive and satisfying relationships at home are more likely to have high- quality friendships and romantic relationships 27

28 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 28 Intimacy and Adolescent Psychosocial Development During adolescence, friends:During adolescence, friends: –serve as sounding boards for future plans –provide advice on a range of identity-related matters –contribute to adolescents’ self-esteem Individuals with satisfying close friendships do better than those without them, in adolescence and in adulthoodIndividuals with satisfying close friendships do better than those without them, in adolescence and in adulthood Psychologically healthy adolescents are better able to make and maintain close relationships with othersPsychologically healthy adolescents are better able to make and maintain close relationships with others


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