Temperate Viruses Also called lysogenic viruses are those that reproduce without killing their host cell.
Common Lysogenic Virus Herpes (genital and cold sore) Papilloma HPV (cervical cancer) Retrovirus Hepatitis B Chicken Pox
Retroviruses Retroviruses use RNA instead of DNA as their nucleic acid core. also contain the enzyme reverse transcriptase
Retrovirus Examples HIV Rous sarcoma (first one discovered) Leukemia viruses
Viroids Viroids are naked circular RNA (no protein coat) molecules that are several hundred nucleotides long. Infect plants
Viroid Attack on Potatoes Used to make varieties in flowers
Prions a form of a normal protein that is not folded correctly. Cause degenerative brain disease
Mad Cow Disease BSE = bovine spongiform encephalitis It's...BSE You Tube Can cause CJD in humans
CJD Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a form of brain damage that leads to a rapid decrease of mental function and movement. You Tube The BSE Prion and Variant CJD You Tube The BSE Prion and Variant CJD
Vaccines “Harmless” variants or derivatives of pathogenic microbes that stimulate the immune system to make antibodies against the pathogen.
Edward Jenner First Vaccine (for smallpox) Gave cowpox to his son first Lots of people were getting smallpox
BACTERIA Prokaryotes Most of its DNA is in a single chromosome
Bacteria Can Transfer DNA in 3 Ways 1. Transformation – uptake of foreign DNA from the surrounding environment 2. Transduction – transfer of bacterial genes by a bacteriophage 3. Conjugation – physical union of two bacterial cells as they “mate”
Bacterial Plasmids F Factor = fertility plasmid
F Plasmid Resistance Plasmid Carry genes to destroy antibiotics
Identifying Bacteria McGraw Hill Prokaryotic Cell Shapes
Can you name these shapes?
A Bacilli with and without flagella B Streptococci C Staphylococci D Diplococci E Spirochete F Club rod G Filamentous H Streptobacilli
Spores dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by certain bacteria