Presentation on theme: "Weather and Climate Words. An air-conditioner is an appliance which cools down the ambient air. An air-conditioner keeps the car cool and comfortable."— Presentation transcript:
Weather and Climate Words
An air-conditioner is an appliance which cools down the ambient air. An air-conditioner keeps the car cool and comfortable even when it is very hot outside. An avalanche is a dangerous slide of snow down a mountain-side. The skiers were warned about a possible avalanche. A blizzard is a snow-storm with strong winds behind it. The aeroplane could not take off from Heathrow, due to a serious blizzard.
Describing something as ‘boiling hot’, is a common expression for describing a hot environment (exaggeration). It was boiling hot, so we all jumped in the lake. A breeze is a light wind. You will not need a hat; there is always a nice breeze coming off the ocean. To say that it is chilly is to say that it is a bit cold. It’s a bit chilly today, so I think you should wear a coat.
Clear denotes a cloud-free sky. On a clear night you can see thousands of stars over Brittany. Clouds are masses of tiny water droplets in the sky, they are the same as fog and mist at ground level. Water vapour is not the same, it is an invisible gas. The clouds were cirrus, indicating an approaching front.
A cold spell is a period of colder than average weather. They are forecasting a cold spell so we put off our camping trip. Cool is a temperature in between warm and cold. The days were boiling hot, but the nights were cool and comfortable. A drizzle is a light rain. I think I will take the dog for a walk, the rain has eased and it is only drizzling now.
A drought is a long period with no rain. Forest fires are a serious danger during a drought Fahrenheit is an obsolescent temperature scale which goes from 32 to 212 whilst Centigrade goes from 0 to 100. A flood is an overflow of rain water. The flood last summer was very bad, flooding happened over a wide area.
A flurry of snow is a light snowfall. There might be a few flurries but the roads should remain clear. Fog consists of masses of micro-droplets of water, the same as steam and clouds in the sky. Not to be confused with water vapour, a colourless gas. We ran into fog at the top of the mountain, or maybe it was low cloud. The forecast is the expected weather in the future. The 5-day forecast suggests we can expect some rain on Tuesday.
Freezing cold is an expression suggesting very cold ambient temperatures. It may still be above freezing but the expression may still be used in conversation (exaggeration). It was freezing cold when I woke up this morning. A front is the boundary between two air masses, one colder than the other. One talks of a cold front when the movement of the front will bring the colder air mass and a warm front when the front will bring warmer air. A cold front is bringing arctic maritime air down from Iceland.
Frost is the precipitation of ice crystals on a frozen surface. Some flowers are so strong that they can resist frost. Frostbite can damage the skin when exposed too long to the cold. It begins with reddened skin with white spots. I lost my hat skiing, and I ended up with frostbite on my ears.
Hail happens when raindrops freeze during their fall, especially when they collect into large lumps. Suddenly, it began to hail with hail-stones as big as tennis balls! A heat-wave is when unusually hot weather persists. During the heat-wave we had the aircon on all day. A hurricane, also known as a typhoon or cyclone depending on where you are. The names relate to the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans areas. They are violent circular wind and water systems reaching high into the sky and over very wide areas.
Lightning happens when two clouds touch. The clouds become electrostatically charged to different voltages. The water in the clouds allow the passage of vast currents of electrically charged particles. The thunder and lightning last night were stupendous! Mild temperatures suggest warmish temperatures, especially in a cold season. It is quite mild out so I didn’t bother with my gloves.
A meteorologist is a person who studies weather patterns. The meteorologist predicted that the cold spell would be over by now The sky is overcast when no sun is visible. The sky was overcast this morning but the sun should come out in the late afternoon. A puddle is a small pool of water, typically on an otherwise flat surface such as the road or pavement. One of the cars passing in the road soaked me when he drove straight through a puddle on the road.
Rain occurs when the a bunch of micro-droplets coagulate around a microscopic particle such as dust, soot or smoke. The raindrop so formed is too heavy to remain floating in the sky. The particles mean that rain always brings dirt to the surface it falls on. It rained this morning and ruined my ‘whites’ wash. A Rainbow occurs when the sunlight behind a person is reflected, with refraction, in the raindrops, back to the eye. It is seen as an arc in the sky with colours going from red to blue. It rained this morning and I saw two rainbows; one was inside the other, and the colours were reversed!
It was raining cats and dogs is an idiom, meaning that it was raining very heavily. They cancelled the football match because it was raining cats and dogs. A scorcher is used to describe a really hot day. It was a scorcher, so the whole family camped out in the garden. The seasons are the times of the year characterised by different weather and vegetation conditions. (Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter.) My favourite time of the year is Autumn, when the leaves go from green to gold and red.
A shower is a quick, light, interval of rainfall. They have been forecasting showers for today, but so far it has been dry. Sleet is similar to hail, but the ice particles are very small. All-weather tyres are best in the winter if you have to drive in sleet Slush is snow on the ground somewhere between frozen and melted. The snow turned to slush as soon as it began to rain.
Smog is a dense mixture of smoke and fog caused by excessive pollution. Smog has been unknown in London since the 1940’s; before the second war, London was called ‘The Smoke’ and smog was quite regular. Snow is rain which has fallen and turned into ice in crystalline shapes, it is light and feathery. It is already snowing high up in the mountains and we can expect avalanches later this month.
Sunburn is when the skin turns a painful red or pink, caused by being in the sun for too long. The bald man who was on the beach yesterday lunch- time looked very sore with sunburn when we saw him at breakfast. Temperature is a measure of how warm or cold the air or other substance is. Can you check the temperature before we get dressed for our walk this afternoon, please, darling.
A thermometer is an instrument for measuring the temperature of a substance, generally air temperature in matters of weather or climate. Thermometers will rise this afternoon if it is anything like yesterday’s scorcher. Thunder is the sound made by lightning when two electrostatically charged masses touch. Let’s close all of the windows – it looks like there is a thunderstorm coming.
An umbrella is held over one’s head to prevent getting wet in the rain. I always keep an umbrella in the care, just in case. UV or Ultra-violet rays are that part of the sunlight which we cannot see as they are beyond blue and violet UV light can cause damage to your eyes if you don’t wear sunglasses. Wind is the movement of air which is flowing from a higher pressure air mass to one at lower pressure. It was too windy yesterday to play golf.
The wind-chill factor Is a measure of how much colder the apparent temperature is, relative to the actual temperature. It’s minus two today, but with the wind-chill factor, it feels like minus 15