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Medical Terminology and Disease

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2 Medical Terminology and Disease
8 Medical Terminology and Disease

3 Word Elements for Medical Terms
word root—the body of the word (cardi, arthr, mast) prefix—before word root (intra-, trans-) suffix—after word root (-logy, -gram) combining vowel—joins two word roots (electr-o-cardi-o-gram) combining form—word root plus combining vowel (osteo, electro)

4 Combining Word Elements
Once you are familiar with word elements, you can combine them to build medical terms. Most singular and plural endings follow Greek and Latin rules.

5 Discuss Break the following words into their word elements, and then derive their meaning: polycystic poly/cyst/ic—having many cysts mastectomy mast/ectomy–removal of breast transurethral trans/urethr/al—through the urethra

6 Medical Terms pronunciation
ch often sounds like k g sounds like j when g comes before e, i, and y pn sounds like n ps sounds like s correct spelling—utmost importance in medical terminology medical abbreviations vary by facility

7 Body Cavities spaces in body that house internal organs
two main cavities dorsal ventral

8 Body Cavities

9 Anatomical Position

10 Other Body Positions Prone Supine

11 Other Body Positions Fowler’s Lateral

12 Body Directions and Movements
proximal abduction adduction flexion extension anterior/ventral posterior/dorsal superior inferior distal

13 Discuss What are some examples of abduction and adduction? Demonstrate.

14 Body Planes sagittal midsagittal/median coronal transverse

15 Medical Specialties areas of focus practiced by medical professionals, named according to a body system

16 What Is Disease? a disorder or abnormal condition in some part of the body’s structure or function an important purpose of medicine is to treat disease

17 What Is Diagnosis? made by studying medical history and symptoms, performing physical exam, and analyzing results involves diagnostic testing, identifying treatment options, and classifying disease Alexander Raths/

18 Types of Disease hereditary disease (abnormalities in genes)
congenital disease (birth defects) environmental disease (exposure to harmful factors in environment) nutritional disease (inability or failure to consume proper nutrients)

19 Types of Disease infectious disease (pathogenic microorganisms)
degenerative disease (deterioration of tissue/organs over time) trauma (physical injury by accident or violence)

20 Discuss Write the first three diseases that come to your mind. What types of diseases are they?

21 Cancer abnormal growth of cells multiplying rapidly in the body
metastasis—spread of cancerous cells malignant—used to describe an active, life-threatening tumor

22 Signs and Symptoms of Cancer
change in bowel or bladder habits a sore that doesn’t heal unusual bleeding or discharge thickening or lump in breast, testicles, or elsewhere indigestion or difficulty swallowing obvious change in size, color, shape or thickness of wart, mole, or mouth sore nagging cough or hoarseness

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