2 Medical Terminology and Disease 8Medical Terminology and Disease
3 Word Elements for Medical Terms word root—the body of the word (cardi, arthr, mast)prefix—before word root (intra-, trans-)suffix—after word root (-logy, -gram)combining vowel—joins two word roots (electr-o-cardi-o-gram)combining form—word root plus combining vowel (osteo, electro)
4 Combining Word Elements Once you are familiar with word elements, you can combine them to build medical terms.Most singular and plural endings follow Greek and Latin rules.
5 DiscussBreak the following words into their word elements, and then derive their meaning:polycysticpoly/cyst/ic—having many cystsmastectomymast/ectomy–removal of breasttransurethraltrans/urethr/al—through the urethra
6 Medical Terms pronunciation ch often sounds like kg sounds like j when g comes before e, i, and ypn sounds like nps sounds like scorrect spelling—utmost importance in medical terminologymedical abbreviations vary by facility
7 Body Cavities spaces in body that house internal organs two main cavitiesdorsalventral
12 Body Directions and Movements proximalabductionadductionflexionextensionanterior/ventralposterior/dorsalsuperiorinferiordistal
13 DiscussWhat are some examples of abduction and adduction? Demonstrate.
14 Body Planessagittalmidsagittal/mediancoronaltransverse
15 Medical Specialtiesareas of focus practiced by medical professionals, named according to a body system
16 What Is Disease?a disorder or abnormal condition in some part of the body’s structure or functionan important purpose of medicine is to treat disease
17 What Is Diagnosis?made by studying medical history and symptoms, performing physical exam, and analyzing resultsinvolves diagnostic testing, identifying treatment options, and classifying diseaseAlexander Raths/Shutterstock.com
18 Types of Disease hereditary disease (abnormalities in genes) congenital disease (birth defects)environmental disease (exposure to harmful factors in environment)nutritional disease (inability or failure to consume proper nutrients)
19 Types of Disease infectious disease (pathogenic microorganisms) degenerative disease (deterioration of tissue/organs over time)trauma (physical injury by accident or violence)
20 DiscussWrite the first three diseases that come to your mind. What types of diseases are they?
21 Cancer abnormal growth of cells multiplying rapidly in the body metastasis—spread of cancerous cellsmalignant—used to describe an active, life-threatening tumor
22 Signs and Symptoms of Cancer change in bowel or bladder habitsa sore that doesn’t healunusual bleeding or dischargethickening or lump in breast, testicles, or elsewhereindigestion or difficulty swallowingobvious change in size, color, shape or thickness of wart, mole, or mouth sorenagging cough or hoarseness