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©2006 Landmark College 1 Universal Design for Online Instruction: A Work In Progress Annesa Hartman Instructional Designer & Computer Graphics Instructor Landmark College Institute for Research & Training
©2006 Landmark College 2 What’s Universal Design? “the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design” -Ron Mace from Trace Research and Development Center
©2006 Landmark College 3 Which design is more universal? Stairs or a ramp?
©2006 Landmark College 4 Which button design is more universal?
©2006 Landmark College 5 UD can benefit learning and teaching (Universal Design for Instruction), and meet the needs required by federal legislation: Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 The Education for Handicapped Children Act of 1975 Individuals with Disabilities Act or IDEA The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) The Telecommunications Act of 1996
©2006 Landmark College 6 At Landmark College all our students have been diagnosed with a learning difference. Language-based (difficulty with reading, writing, and spelling) Attention based (inattentive, hyperactive, executive functions) Memory based (short term, long term, active working)
©2006 Landmark College 7 Our focus is how UDI can meet the needs of students with LD. Learners that have : Difficulty organizing thoughts Difficulty with language processing Inconsistency in academic performance Mental effort depletion Difficulty with time management and organization Difficulty staying on-task
©2006 Landmark College 8 How does a student with a learning disability potentially feel in a non UDI classroom? Take 1 minute to read the following passage and describe the moral of the story…
©2006 Landmark College 9 Ladle Rat Rotten Hut Soda wicket woof tucker shirt court, and whinny retched a cordage offer groin ‑ murder, picked inner windrow, an sore debtor pore oil worming worse lion inner bet. Inner flesh, disk abdominal woof lipped honor bet, pauched honor pore oil worming, an barbled erupt. Den dis rachet ammonol pot honor groin ‑ murder's nut" cup and gnat ‑ gun, any crudled ope inner bet. Inner ladle wile, Ladle Rat Rotten Hut a raft attar cordage, an ranker dough ball. "Comb ink, sweat hard," setter wicket woof, disgracing is verse. Ladle Rat Rotten Hut entity bet rumj an stud buyer groin ‑ murder's bet. "0 Grammar" crater ladle gull historically, "Water bag icer gut! A nervous sausage bad ice!" "Battered lucky chew whiff, weat hard," setter bloat ‑ Thursday woof, wetter wicket small honors phase. "0 Grammar, water bag noise! A nervous sore suture anomalous prognosis!" "Battered small your whiff, doling," whishered dole woof, anta mouse worse waddling. "0 Grammar, water bag mouse gut! A nervous sore suture bag mouse!" Daze worry on ‑ forger ‑ nut ladle gull's lest warts. Oil offer sodden, caking offer carvers an sprinkling otter bet, disk hoard ‑ hoarded woof lipped own pore Ladle Rat Rotten Hut and garbled erupt. Mural: Yonder nor sorghum stenches shut ladle gulls stopper torque wet strainers.
©2006 Landmark College 10 Learning is a skill. Our competence at learning, like any skill, varies widely. UDI attempts to reach the widest range of learners through use of the Principles of UDI. We all have difficulties with learning…
©2006 Landmark College 11 Principles of UDI Shaw, McGuire, Scott UCONN, Equitable use 2.Flexibility in use 3.Simple and intuitive 4.Perceptible information 5.Tolerance for error 6.Low physical effort 7.Size and space for approach and use 8.A community of learners 9.Instructional climate
©2006 Landmark College 12 UDI Principles are not Learning Styles Learning styles are divided into 3 general categories: visual learners, auditory learners, and tactual learners. They are individual preferences (choosing to eat with a fork, chopsticks or your hand, for instance). UDI principles address what all people have in common (all place food in their mouths, all chew food, all swallow food.) UDI addresses learning styles and much more…
©2006 Landmark College 13 How does UDI apply to Online Learning? Little study has been done in this area. Particularly studies of online learning environments with students with LD. We do know what qualities of online instruction might hinder or enhance a learner’s experience…
©2006 Landmark College 14 Online Instruction … Acquired through technology Highly planned Reviewable Content is digital / accessible Available 24/7 Structured or unstructured Timed or not-timed Multi-modal Available to a wide audience
©2006 Landmark College 15 How can the online learning environment be best utilized with UDI Principles in mind?
©2006 Landmark College 16 Principle 1: Equitable Use
©2006 Landmark College 17 Principle 1: Equitable Use
©2006 Landmark College 18 Principle 2: Flexibility in Use
©2006 Landmark College 19 Principle 3: Simple & Intuitive
©2006 Landmark College 20 Principle 3: Simple & Intuitive
©2006 Landmark College 21 Principle 4: Perceptible Information
©2006 Landmark College 22 Principle 5: Tolerance for Error
©2006 Landmark College 23 Principle 6: Low Physical Effort #2 #1
©2006 Landmark College 24 Principle 7: Size & Space for Approach & Use
©2006 Landmark College 25 Principle 8: A Community of Learners
©2006 Landmark College 26 Principle 9: Instructional Climate
©2006 Landmark College 27 Practical Application Exercise When designing new activities or modifying existing ones, consider ways in which you can “mix up” your educational approach. Scenarios / Simulations Puzzles/Games Surveys Debates Web Quests Journals / Blogs Music / Arts
©2006 Landmark College 28 Practical Application Example Lesson (online): The Historical Significance of Polka Dancing Outcomes (based on grading rubric provided to student): rubric to demonstrate the polka dance to describe it’s significance in the history of dance Brainstorm: multiple ways of learning the material to reach the intended outcome. “Make the invisible, visible”.
©2006 Landmark College 29 How do we know what works? Usability Testing…
©2006 Landmark College 30 The Usability Testing Process Create user profiles Identify usability metrics (effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction) Develop task script Conduct evaluation in UDI Lab Analyze results Apply lessons learned
©2006 Landmark College 31 Example User Profiles
©2006 Landmark College 32 The Usability Testing Experience Participant goes through a task script (facilitated by a moderator). Feedback is provided through: Audio Video Mouse and/or eye tracking
©2006 Landmark College 33 Example Experience Task: Follow the instructions for doing a practice post to the Discussion Board in WebCT.
©2006 Landmark College 34
©2006 Landmark College 35 In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists." -Eric Hoffer Annesa Hartman Instructional Designer Landmark College
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