Presentation on theme: "Home Food Safety Home Food Safety"— Presentation transcript:
1Home Food Safety Home Food Safety Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association)Consumer program addresses critical steps to safely prepare food in the homeProvides easy, actionable tips, quizzes, a free app and moreThe Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the nation’s largest organization of food and nutrition professionals, presents Home Food Safety – a program in collaboration with ConAgra Foods that teaches simple but critical steps that consumers can take to prepare food safely in their own homes.Please note: This presentation was designed to provide registered dietitians who do not have specific food safety training or certification with the basic information they need to educate their clients about home food safety. It does not constitute additional training, continuing education credits or certification. Additional resources and training opportunities are outlined at the end of this presentation.
2Why Food Safety Is Important Home Food SafetyWhy Food Safety Is ImportantAccording to estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:48 million people (1 in 6 Americans) get foodborne illness each year128,000 people are hospitalized each year3,000 deaths each yearIncidents of foodborne illness often go unreported, making it difficult to determine the true number of cases and costs of treatment in any given year. Yet we do have some compelling information based on cases of foodborne illness that receive medical treatment.These are estimates from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention; the numbers seem to be decreasing as more data is collected, but foodborne illness is still a major health problem in the United States.
3Consumers and Food Safety Home Food SafetyConsumers and Food SafetyIn 2011, 89% use different plates for handling raw meat and cooked meat, compared to 85% in 2002In 2011, 20% use a food thermometer to check the doneness for read meat, pork or poultry, compared to 25% in 2002In 2011, 91% wash utensils used to handle raw food before they are used for cooked food, compared to 82% in 2002From 2002 – 2011, consumers have improved in some areas but still have a ways to go in others when it comes to practicing food safety at home according to a survey* conducted by ADA:In 2011, eighty-nine percent use different plates for handling raw meat and cooked meat. This is an improvement from the eighty-five percent in 2002.In 2011, twenty percent use a food thermometer to check the doneness for read meat, pork or poultry. This is down from twenty-five percent in 2002.In 2011, a whopping 91% wash utensils used to handle raw food before they are used for cooked food. This is an improvement from 82% in 2002.*Source: ADA Benchmark Survey 2002 and 2011
4Common Foodborne Illnesses Home Food SafetyCommon Foodborne IllnessesIllnessPotential SourcesSalmonella andCampylobacterPoultryMeatEggsUnpasteurized milk/dairy productsRaw produceListeriaRaw milkSoft cheeseLuncheon meats/hot dogsE. ColiRaw/undercooked meatUnpasteurized milkThis chart shows some of the major foodborne illnesses and their potential sources.Please note that un-opened, pasteurized milk is rarely a problem. Raw (unpasteurized) milk, however, can pose a significant risk of Salmonella and Campylobacter.Cross-contamination can occur when raw or undercooked meats, poultry, seafood, or eggs come into contact with ready-to-eat foods.Raw produce – especially sprouts, raw leafy greens, raw herbs and other vegetables that grow in soil – may contain E. Coli, Salmonella, or Listeria. In addition, rinds of melons can contain pathogens. The outside of cantaloupes, honey dew, and watermelon, for example, should be thoroughly washed before slicing, to prevent contamination when cutting the fruit.Ways to avoid this problem will be addressed later in the presentation.
5Infections and its Symptoms Home Food SafetyInfections and its SymptomsHow does foodborne illness occur?Contaminated foods carry microbes into the bodySome microbes can overcome the body’s defenses and cause infectionsWhat are its typical primary symptoms?NauseaVomitingAbdominal crampsDiarrheaMore than 250 different infections and intoxications are associated with foodborne illness.Contaminated foods carry microbes into the body; some of these microbes can overcome the body’s defenses and cause infections.Symptoms of foodborne illness include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and diarrhea.If you think you and/or a family member have contracted a foodborne illness, contact your health care provider.
6Home Food Safety Who’s at Risk? Everyone is at risk. Groups with an increased risk include:Young childrenPregnant womenElderly men and womenIndividuals with autoimmune disorders, liver disease or decreased stomach acidityAlcoholics – because of possible liver damage/diseaseIndividuals with reduced immune function due to chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and those taking steroids or antibiotics to treat immune deficienciesIndividuals who are malnourishedIndividuals with virusesIndividuals in institutionalized settingsEveryone has the potential to contract foodborne illness.Certain populations, however, can be at far greater risk of developing serious illness, due to underdeveloped or impaired immune systems.These groups include:Young childrenPregnant womenElderly men and womenIndividuals with autoimmune disorders, liver disease or decreased stomach acidity (due to gastric surgery or antacid use)Alcoholics – because of possible liver damage/diseaseIndividuals with reduced immune function due chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and those taking steroids or antibiotics to treat immune deficienciesIndividuals who are malnourishedIndividuals with virusesIndividuals in institutionalized settings like daycare centers and nursing homes
7Home Food Safety Risks You Can Control Improper refrigeration and storagePoor personal hygieneCross-contaminationContaminated food sourcesUndercookingOther time and temperature mistakesThough everyone has the potential to contract foodborne illness, there are environmental factors we can control that can reduce those risks significantly.This presentation will discuss how to store food properly at home, take proper hygiene precautions, prevent cross-contamination, cook food to proper temperatures and avoid mistakes in food preparation.It is also important to know and trust the source of your food. Selecting quality products is a first step in preventing foodborne illness.
8Ensuring Food Safety at Home Home Food SafetyEnsuring Food Safety at HomeWash hands oftenWash produce before cutting, cooking or eatingWash utensils and cutting boards after each useKeep kitchen surfaces cleanKeep raw meat and ready-to-eat foods separateCook food to proper temperatures and use a food thermometerRefrigerate food promptly to below 40°FPay close attention to use-by dates - when in doubt, throw it out!There are some critical but simple steps to ensure food safety at home:Wash hands oftenWash raw produce before cutting, cooking or eatingWash utensils and cutting boards after each useKeep kitchen surfaces cleanKeep raw meat and ready-to-eat foods separateCook food to proper temperaturesRefrigerate food promptly to below 40°FPay close attention to use-by dates
9Home Food Safety Wash Hands Often Effective handwashing may eliminate nearly half of all cases offoodborne illnessUse warm, soapy waterWash front and back of hands, up to yourwrists and under nailsHandwashing should last 20 seconds(or through two choruses of“Happy Birthday”)Rinse thoroughlyDry with a paper towel, clean cloth or air dryHandwashing is an extremely important part of the food safety process and may eliminate nearly half of all cases of foodborne illness.In addition, handwashing can significantly reduce the spread of colds and flu.Many people aren’t aware of proper handwashing techniques.Warm soapy water is necessary to kill the unseen germs that may be on your hands.The primary function of soap is to allow you to remove dirt and pathogens from your hands. You may kill some, but the point is that you scrub to release them from your hands, and then you rinse to send them down the drain.It is important to wash all surfaces of your hands, up to your wrists, between fingers and especially under fingernails.To estimate 20 seconds, clean your hands through two choruses of “Happy Birthday.”When rinsing, use the same agitation you used for washing.It is very important not to re-contaminate hands by using a dirty cloth to dry them…even cloths that seem to be clean may harbor harmful bacteria. Always use a paper towel or clean cloth towel to dry your hands – or let them air dry.
10Home Food Safety When to Wash Your Hands Before you: Prepare food Eat mealsFeed childrenAfter you:Handle raw foods (including meats, eggs, and fresh fruits and vegetables)Switch food-preparation tasksUse the restroomChange a diaperCough or sneezeHandle garbage or dirty dishesTouch a cigaretteUse the phonePlay with a petTouch a cut or soreNot only is important to wash your hands properly, but also to wash them frequently.Always wash your hands:Before you:Prepare foodEat mealsFeed childrenAfter you:Handle raw foods (including meats, eggs, and fresh fruits and vegetables)Switch food-preparation tasksUse the restroom or change a diaperCough or sneezeHandle garbage, dirty dishes or cigarettesUse the phonePlay with a petTouch a cut or sore
11Kitchen Surface Safety Home Food SafetyKitchen Surface SafetyClean kitchen surfaces, appliances and tools with hot, soapy waterWash dishcloths and towels in the washing machine hot cycleSanitize sponges in bleach solutionReplace sponges frequentlyDo not use dish towels for multiple jobsWash reusable grocery bagsNow that your hands are clean, don’t forget your kitchen surfaces…if surfaces and tools aren’t clean, they can spread germs just as easily as your hands.Keep kitchen surfaces such as appliances, countertops, cutting boards and utensils clean with hot, soapy water.A damp, smelly dishcloth, towel or sponge is a sure sign that unsafe bacteria is lurking nearby. Bacteria live and grow in damp conditions. Wash dishcloths and towels often in the hot cycle of your washing machine.Sanitize sponges in a chlorine bleach solution (one teaspoon of bleach added to one quart of water) and replace worn sponges frequently. Although, pay close attention to what the sponge was used to wipe up. If it was a drip from raw meat, it’s necessary to clean the sponge and sanitize it in a diluted bleach solution before using a second time. Also, please note that bleach solutions need to be made fresh daily. Once diluted, bleach breaks down quickly.Use different towels for different tasks: one for drying hands, one for dishes, one for wiping the counter, etc.Also, if you use reusable grocery totes makes sure to wash them often.
12Keep Raw Meat and Ready-to-Eat Foods Separate Home Food SafetyKeep Raw Meat and Ready-to-Eat Foods SeparateWhat is cross-contamination?Keep raw and ready-to-eat foods separate to prevent the spread of bacteriaCross-Contamination is the transfer of harmful substances or disease-causing micro-organisms to food by hands, food-contact surfaces, sponges, cloth towels and utensils that touch raw food and then touch ready-to-eat foods. Cross-contamination can also occur when raw food touches or drips onto cooked or ready-to-eat foods.Keeping raw and ready-to-eat foods separate helps reduce the risk of cross-contamination.Ready-to-eat foods do not require additional preparation or cooking. They include:All food that has already been cookedRaw, washed, cut fruits and vegetables
13Prevent Cross-Contamination Home Food SafetyPrevent Cross-ContaminationStore raw meat on bottom shelf of refrigeratorWash all produce, even pre-packaged/pre-washedStore washed produce in clean containerWash plates between uses or use separate platesUse one utensil to taste and another to stir foodUse clean scissors to open bagsWear disposable gloves if you have a cut or soreKeep Raw Meat and Ready-to-Eat Foods SeparateHow to prevent cross-contamination:Store raw meat, poultry, and seafood on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator so juices will not drip onto other foods.Wash all produce in cold running water just before preparing or eating, except for bagged produce labled “triple washed” or “ready-to-eat.”Use a clean scrub brush on firm produce with rough surfaces.Place washed produce in clean storage containers, not back in original ones.Wash plates between uses or use separate plates: one for raw meat, poultry, and seafood; another for cooked foods.Use one utensil to taste and another to stir or mix food.Use clean blades or scissors to open bags of food.Wear disposable gloves if you have a sore or cut on your hand.
14Use Cutting Boards Safely Home Food SafetyUse Cutting Boards SafelyUse two cutting boards – one for raw meat , poultry, and seafood and one for ready-to-eat foodsWash boards thoroughly in hot, soapy water or place in dishwasherRinseAfter cutting raw meat, poultry and seafood, wash, rinse and sanitize boardsDiscard boards with cracks, crevices or scarsAcrylic, glass, marble, plastic or wood cutting boards can be safe if you follow some basic food safety guidelines:Use two cutting boards – one for raw meat, poultry and seafood, the other for ready-to-eat foods like bread and vegetables.After cutting raw meats on your board, wash in the dishwasher. To clean by hand, scrub thoroughly with hot, soapy water, rinse thoroughly, then sanitize with a bleach solution (1 teaspoon bleach in a quart of water). Air dry or dry with a clean cloth. If using a dual purpose product, such as a commercial cleaner/sanitizer combination, follow manufacturer's instructions for application.Discard old cutting boards that have cracks, crevices or excessive knife scars.
15Cook to Proper Temperatures Home Food SafetyCook to Proper TemperaturesHarmful bacteria are destroyed when food is cooked to proper temperaturesThe only reliable way to determine “doneness” is with a food thermometerWash the thermometer in hot, soapy water after each useHarmful bacteria are destroyed when food is cooked to proper temperatures.A food thermometer is the only reliable way to determine the “doneness” of cooked food and to ensure safety – do not rely on the color of the meat.Remember to wash the thermometer stem in hot, soapy water after each use.
16Taking Food Temperatures Home Food SafetyTaking Food TemperaturesHow to Use a Thermometer**Remember to wash thermometer thoroughly after each reading.Red meat, roast, steak, chops, poultry piecesInsert into thickest part of meat, away from bone, fat, gristleWhole-bird poultryInsert into inner thigh area, near breast, not touching boneGround meat, poultryInsert into thickest area of meatloaf or thick patty, reaching the very center with stem; for thin patties, insert sideways to centerEgg dishes, casserolesInsert to center of thickest area of dishFishFish is done when it is opaque and flakes easily with a forkTo get an accurate reading with a meat thermometer, it is important to insert the thermometer properly. Following the instructions in this chart will help you get an accurate reading on meat, poultry and other dishes.Always cook fish until it is opaque and flakes easily with a fork.And always remember to wash the thermometer in hot, soapy water after each use…if the food is not quite done at your first reading, you must wash the thermometer thoroughly before taking the next reading.
17Safe Minimum Internal Temperatures Home Food SafetySafe Minimum Internal TemperaturesBeef, Lamb and VealGround meat products(patties, meatballs, meatloaf)160°FRoasts, Steaks, ChopsMedium-rareMediumWell-done145°F170°FHere are some safe cooking temperatures for beef, lamb and veal. Note that ground meat (hamburger, meatloaf, meatballs, etc.) should always be cooked to at least 160°F – the same as “medium” under roasts and steaks.*Remember to wash thermometer thoroughly after each reading.
18Safe Minimum Internal Temperatures Home Food SafetySafe Minimum Internal TemperaturesPoultryGround chicken/turkey165°FWhole chicken/turkeyBoneless turkey roasts, poultry breasts, white meat roastsPoultry thighs, wings, drumsticksDuck/gooseStuffing (alone or in-bird)Here are safe temperatures for cooking poultry.You’ll notice that these are considerably higher than for red meat and that dark meat needs to be cooked to a higher temperature than white meat.Also note: Whether you cook your stuffing alone or inside your bird, you need to check it with a thermometer to make sure it is at least 165°F. Insert the thermometer into the center of the dish to get an accurate reading.*Remember to wash thermometer thoroughly after each reading.
19Safe Cooking Temperatures Home Food SafetySafe Cooking TemperaturesPorkAll cuts and ground productsMediumWell-done160°F170°FRaw ham145°FPre-cooked ham, reheated*Remember to wash thermometer thoroughly after each reading.This chart gives safe cooking temperatures for pork products.Remember, it’s just as important to use your thermometer when reheating ham as it is when you are cooking raw ham.
20Safe Cooking Temperatures Home Food SafetySafe Cooking TemperaturesMiscellaneousEggs and egg dishes160°FLeftovers, reheated165°F*Remember to wash thermometer thoroughly after each reading.Cooking eggs thoroughly is just as important as cooking meat properly.Remember that any kind of leftovers – whether reheated in the oven or a microwave – should always be checked with your meat thermometer to make sure they reach a safe internal temperature of 165°F.
21Refrigerate Food Promptly to Below 40°F Home Food SafetyRefrigerate Food Promptly to Below 40°FBetween 40°F and 140°F is food “danger zone” where bacteria multiply rapidlyRefrigerate within two hours – one hour in hot weather (90°F and above)Store food in shallow containers to ensure even coolingAdd ice to thick items (e.g., soup, chili, sauces) to speed up cooling processSet refrigerator to below 40°F and freezer below 0°F – use a refrigerator thermometerShorter storing times and storing foods away from light will improve nutrition quality and palatability. Storing food at appropriate temperatures will also improve quality.Food is in a “danger zone” when it is between 40°F and 140°F. This “danger zone” provides the optimal environment for harmful bacteria to multiply.It is important not to leave food, even fully cooked food, out of refrigeration for extended periods of time…no more than 2 hours – or one hour if the temperature is 90°F or above.When storing food, use shallow containers (two inches in depth or less) to ensure even cooling. For thick items such as soup, chili or sauces, add ice to speed up the cooling process.Once food is in the refrigerator, make sure the refrigerator is set to the proper temperature. Use a refrigerator thermometer to ensure that the temperature in your refrigerator is below 40°F.Also, if food has been out longer than the times mentioned above…throw it out!
22Recommended Storage Time for Leftovers Home Food SafetyRecommended Storage Time for LeftoversCooked beef, pork, poultry3-5 daysFried chicken3-4 daysEgg dishesFresh eggs in shells3-5 weeksSliced deli meatsMilk7 daysPizzaSalsa3 days after openCheesecakeMost refrigerated foods, especially leftovers, have short shelf-lives, and most consumers don’t realize opened packages have shorter shelf-lives than unopened packages.Here is a list of some leftovers and their recommended storage time.For a more complete food storage guide, download the Is My Food Safe? App.
23Home Food Safety Every Meal, Every Day Wash hands often Keep raw meats and ready-to-eat foods separateCook food to proper temperaturesRefrigerate food promptly to below 40°FThe last line of defense against foodborne illness is what you do in your home.Always remember to:Wash hands oftenKeep raw meats and ready-to-eat foods separateCook to proper temperatures – use a meat thermometerRefrigerate promptly to below 40°F – use a refrigerator thermometerYou can reduce your risk of foodborne illness by being diligent at every meal, every day – Home Food Safety…It’s in Your Hands®.
24Additional Resources and Training Home Food SafetyAdditional Resources and TrainingThe Academy’s Home Food SafetyIs My Food Safe? App“Home Food Safety…It’s in Your Hands® 2002 Survey: Comparisons to the 1999 Benchmark JADA,” September 2003.The Academy’s Center for Professional DevelopmentPartnership for Food Safety Education, FightBAC!Safe Food for You and Your Family (The American Dietetic Association Nutrition Now Series) by Mildred McInnis Cody, American Dietetic AssociationFood Safety for Professionals (Second Edition) by Mildred McInnis Cody, M. Elizabeth KunkelFor more information, visit – the site includes fact sheets about food safety while traveling, safe outdoor cooking, lunchbox safety, what to throw out when there’s a power outage, safe eating at the office, doggy-bag dining, holiday food safety and more.Also, download the Is My Food Safe? App for a guide to safe cooking temperatures, a food storage guide and food safety quizzes.For an in-depth look at food safety behaviors, read the JADA article on the results of the 2002 Home Food Safety Benchmark Survey, available on the JADA website, In addition, you can find information on continuing education on the ADA Center for Professional Development web site,The Partnership for Food Safety Education's Fight BAC!® is committed to being a key resource for consumers on important issues related to food safety in the home.For a great guide on food safety read, Safe Food for You and Your Family, written by one of the expert panelists for Home Food Safety…It’s in Your Hands® program, Mildred Cody. This book explains how to detect hidden dangers at home or away, which foods are potentially unsafe, and how they become contaminated. Valuable tips include preventing the spread of bacteria in your kitchen, how to tell if food has gone "bad," storing and serving safe foods, and how to pack bag lunches safely and order at restaurants, markets, and delis.For more technical food safety information you can also pick up Food Safety for Professionals (Second Edition) which is targeted toward dietetics professionals in particular but is also useful for food safety professionals.